Deadly Nipah outbreak in Kerala: Lessons learned for the future
AK Ajith Kumar, AS Anoop KumarIndian Journal of Critical Care Medicine 2018 22(7):475-476 (Source: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine - July 17, 2018 Category: Intensive Care Authors: AK Ajith Kumar AS Anoop Kumar Source Type: research

Emerging Infectious Diseases: a Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review highlights some of the recent concerning emerging infectious diseases, a number of them specifically that the World Health Organization has categorized as priorities for research.Recent FindingsEmerging and reemerging infectious diseases account for significant losses in not only human life, but also financially. There are a number of contributing factors, most commonly surrounding human behavior, that lead to disease emergence. Zoonoses are the most common type of infection, specifically from viral pathogens. The most recent emerging diseases in the USA areEmergomyces canadensis, the H...
Source: Current Emergency and Hospital Medicine Reports - June 22, 2018 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Kerala watches for deadly Nipah virus
Publication date: 9 June 2018 Source:New Scientist, Volume 238, Issue 3181 (Source: New Scientist)
Source: New Scientist - June 14, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Nipah virus control needs more than R & amp;D
Publication date: 9–15 June 2018 Source:The Lancet, Volume 391, Issue 10137 Author(s): The Lancet (Source: The Lancet)
Source: The Lancet - June 8, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Nipah: the unknown virus that could be the next pandemic threat
A virus most people have never heard of has killed 17 people in India, and disease experts are getting concerned (Source: New Scientist - Health)
Source: New Scientist - Health - June 7, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: research

Sixty seconds on . . . Nipah virus
(Source: BMJ News)
Source: BMJ News - June 5, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Enhancing Preparation for Large Nipah Outbreaks Beyond Bangladesh: Preventing a Tragedy like Ebola in West Africa
Nipah virus, within the paramyxoviridae family (Wang et al., 2001), was first identified in humans with encephalitis in the 1998-1999 outbreak in Malaysia and Singapore involving at least 276 cases and 106 deaths (Chua et al., 2000). The epidemiologic link was from fruit bats infecting pigs that then served as an amplifier host and infected humans through close contact. Person-to-person transmission was rarely documented, and no further human cases have been reported from either country. Detailed analyses of the environmental changes that triggered this outbreak connecting wildlife (bats), livestock (pigs) and humans was r...
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - June 4, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Halsie Donaldson, Daniel Lucey Tags: Perspective Source Type: research

Nipah virus outbreak in India
Publication date: 2–8 June 2018 Source:The Lancet, Volume 391, Issue 10136 Author(s): Patralekha Chatterjee (Source: The Lancet)
Source: The Lancet - June 1, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Nipah Virus Infection [Minireviews]
Nipah virus, a paramyxovirus related to Hendra virus, first emerged in Malaysia in 1998. Clinical presentation ranges from asymptomatic infection to fatal encephalitis. Malaysia has had no more cases since 1999, but outbreaks continue to occur in Bangladesh and India. In the Malaysia-Singapore outbreak, transmission occurred primarily through contact with pigs, whereas in Bangladesh and India, it is associated with ingestion of contaminated date palm sap and human-to-human transmission. Bats are the main reservoir for this virus, which can cause disease in humans and animals. There are currently no effective therapeutics, ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - May 25, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ang, B. S. P., Lim, T. C. C., Wang, L. Tags: Minireviews Source Type: research

Henipavirus Infection: Natural History and the Virus-Host Interplay
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe review summarizes the history of the emergence of the Henipviruses, provides a general introduction of their molecular biology and the efforts to develop antiviral treatment strategies, including the successful development of a veterinary vaccine.Recent FindingsParamyxoviridae, genusHenipavirus comprises emerging pathogens detected in Southeast Asia, Australia and Africa. Henipaviruses are enveloped with non-segmented, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA molecules and are distinguished from other Paramyxoviruses by a substantially larger RNA genome. Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are ...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Infectious Diseases - April 30, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Formation of high-order oligomers is required for functional bioactivity of an African bat henipavirus surface glycoprotein
Publication date: Available online 3 April 2018 Source:Veterinary Microbiology Author(s): Laura Behner, Louisa Zimmermann, Marc Ringel, Michael Weis, Andrea Maisner Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are highly pathogenic henipaviruses originating from fruit bats in Australia and Asia that can cause severe infections in livestock and humans. In recent years, also African bat henipaviruses were identified at the nucleic acid level. To assess their potential to replicate in non-bat species, several studies were performed to characterize the two surface glycoproteins required for virus entry and spread by cell-cell fus...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - April 3, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Susceptibility of paramyxoviruses and filoviruses to inhibition by 2 ′-monofluoro- and 2′-difluoro-4′-azidocytidine analogs
In this study, we evaluated the antiviral activity of the nucleoside analog 4′-azidocytidine (4′N3-C, R1479) and its 2′-monofluoro- and 2′-difluoro-modified analogs (2′F-4′N3-C and 2′diF-4′N3-C) against representative paramyxoviruses (Nipah virus, Hendra virus, measles virus, and human parainfluenza virus 3) and filoviruses (Ebola virus, Sudan virus, and Ravn virus). We observed enhanced antiviral activity against paramyxoviruses with both 2′diF-4′N3-C and 2′F-4′N3-C compared to R1479. On the other hand, while R1479 and 2′diF-4′N3-C inhibit...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - March 28, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Susceptibility of paramyxoviruses and filoviruses to inhibition by 2'-monofluoro- and 2'-difluoro-4'-azidocytidine analogs.
In this study, we evaluated the antiviral activity of the nucleoside analog 4'-azidocytidine (4'N3-C, R1479) and its 2'-monofluoro- and 2'-difluoro-modified analogs (2'F-4'N3-C and 2'diF-4'N3-C) against representative paramyxoviruses (Nipah virus, Hendra virus, measles virus, and human parainfluenza virus 3) and filoviruses (Ebola virus, Sudan virus, and Ravn virus). We observed enhanced antiviral activity against paramyxoviruses with both 2'diF-4'N3-C and 2'F-4'N3-C compared to R1479. On the other hand, while R1479 and 2'diF-4'N3-C inhibited filoviruses similarly to paramyxoviruses, we observed 10-fold lower filovirus inh...
Source: Antiviral Research - March 27, 2018 Category: Virology Authors: Lo MK, Jordan PC, Stevens S, Tam Y, Deval J, Nichol ST, Spiropoulou CF Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research

Host gene expression profiles in ferrets infected with genetically distinct Henipavirus strains
by Alberto J. Leon, Viktoriya Borisevich, Nahal Boroumand, Robert Seymour, Rebecca Nusbaum, Olivier Escaffre, Luoling Xu, David J. Kelvin, Barry Rockx Henipavirus infection causes severe respiratory and neurological disease in humans that can be fatal. To characterize the pathogenic mechanisms of henipavirus infectionin vivo, we performed experimental infections in ferrets followed by genome-wide gene expression analysis of lung and brain tissues. The Hendra, Nipah-Bangladesh, and Nipah-Malaysia strains caused severe respiratory and neurological disease with animals succumbing around 7 days post infection. Despite the pre...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - March 14, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Alberto J. Leon Source Type: research

Disruption of the blood brain barrier is vital property of neurotropic viral infection of the central nervous system.
Abstract The blood brain barrier consisting of astrocytes, pericytes and brain microvascular endothelial cells plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of neurotropic viruses by controlling the access of circulating molecules, immune cells or viruses into the central nervous system (CNS). However, this barrier is not impenetrable and neuroviruses have evolved to disrupt and evade it. This review aims to describe the underlying entry mechanisms of several neuroviruses such as (Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), Zika virus (ZIKV), Nipah virus (NiV), Rabies virus (RABV), Herpes simplex virus (HSV...
Source: Acta Virologica - March 11, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Al-Obaidi MMJ, Bahadoran A, Wang SM, Manikam R, Raju CS, Sekaran SD Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

Development of a reverse genetics system for Sosuga virus allows rapid screening of antiviral compounds
by Stephen R. Welch, Ayan K. Chakrabarti, Lisa Wiggleton Guerrero, Harley M. Jenks, Michael K. Lo, Stuart T. Nichol, Christina F. Spiropoulou, C ésar G. Albariño Sosuga virus (SOSV) is a recently discovered zoonotic paramyxovirus isolated from a single human case in 2012; it has been ecologically and epidemiologically associated with transmission by the Egyptian rousette bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus). Bats have long been recognized as sources of novel zoonotic pathogens, including highly lethal paramyxoviruses like Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV). The ability of SOSV to cause severe human disease supp...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - March 9, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Stephen R. Welch Source Type: research

Circulation of Nipah virus in Pteropus giganteus bats in northeast region of India, 2015.
PMID: 29923524 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Indian J Med Res)
Source: Indian J Med Res - March 1, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Yadav P, Sudeep A, Gokhale M, Pawar S, Shete A, Patil D, Kumar V, Lakra R, Sarkale P, Nichol S, Mourya D Tags: Indian J Med Res Source Type: research

Circulation of Alphacoronavirus, Betacoronavirus and Paramyxovirus in Hipposideros bat species in Zimbabwe.
In this study, we screened bat faecal samples for the presence of Coronavirus and Paramyxovirus in two caves frequently visited by local people to collect manure and/or to hunt bats in Zimbabwe. We amplified partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes of Alpha and Betacoronavirus together with the partial polymerase gene of Paramyxovirus. Identified coronaviruses were related to pathogenic human strains and the paramyxovirus belonged to the recently described Jeilongvirus genus. Our results highlighted the importance of monitoring virus circulation in wildlife, especially bats, in the context of intense human-wildlife inter...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - January 10, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Bourgarel M, Pfukenyi DM, Boué V, Talignani L, Chiweshe N, Diop F, Caron A, Matope G, Missé D, Liégeois F Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

Domesticated animals as hosts of henipaviruses and filoviruses: A systematic review
Publication date: Available online 30 December 2017 Source:The Veterinary Journal Author(s): Emma E. Glennon, Olivier Restif, Silke Riesle Sbarbaro, Romain Garnier, Andrew A. Cunningham, Richard D. Suu-Ire, Richard Osei-Amponsah, James L.N. Wood, Alison J. Peel Bat-borne viruses carry undeniable risks to the health of human beings and animals, and there is growing recognition of the need for a ‘One Health’ approach to understand their frequently complex spill-over routes. While domesticated animals can play central roles in major spill-over events of zoonotic bat-borne viruses, for example during the pig-ampli...
Source: The Veterinary Journal - December 31, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

A narrative review of the impact of interventions in acute kidney injury.
Abstract Acute kidney injury (AKI) is independently associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and is thus an important challenge facing physicians in modern healthcare. This narrative review assesses the impact of strategies employed to tackle AKI following the 2009 NCEPOD report on acute kidney injury (Sterwart et al. Acute kidney injury: adding insult to injury, pp 1-22, 2009). There is scarce and heterogeneous research into hard end points such as mortality and AKI progression for AKI interventions. This review found that e-alerts have varying effects on mortality and AKI progression, but decrea...
Source: Journal of Nephrology - November 29, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Sykes L, Nipah R, Kalra P, Green D Tags: J Nephrol Source Type: research

Nipah Virus Contamination of Hospital Surfaces during Outbreaks, Bangladesh, 2013 –2014
M. Hassan et al. (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal - November 28, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Transmission of henipaviruses
Publication date: February 2018 Source:Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 28 Author(s): Sarah Weatherman, Heinz Feldmann, Emmie de Wit The genus Henipavirus has expanded rapidly in geographic range, number of species, and host range. Hendra and Nipah virus are two henipaviruses known to cause severe disease in humans with a high case-fatality rate. Pteropid spp. bats are the natural reservoir of Hendra and Nipah virus. From these bats, virus can be transmitted to an amplifying host, horses and pigs, and from these hosts to humans, or the virus can be transmitted directly to humans. Although the main route of shedding var...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - November 15, 2017 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Proteomic composition of Nipah virus-like particles.
tinez-Gil L Abstract Virions are often described as virus-only entities with no cellular components with the exception of the lipids in their membranes. However, advances in proteomics are revealing substantial amounts of host proteins in the viral particles. In the case of Nipah virus (NiV), the viral components in the virion have been known for some time. Nonetheless, no information has been obtained regarding the cellular proteins in the viral particles. To address this question, we produced Virus-Like Particles (VLPs) for NiV by expressing the F, G and M proteins in human-derived cells. Next, the proteomic con...
Source: Journal of Proteomics - October 29, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Vera-Velasco NM, García-Murria MJ, Sánchez Del Pino MM, Mingarro I, Martinez-Gil L Tags: J Proteomics Source Type: research

Viral meningitis and encephalitis
occur at all stages of life. They can represent disease at its primary site of replication (e.g. rabies) or be part of an infection syndrome (e.g. HIV). A large proportion of cases go unconfirmed by laboratory diagnosis despite use of all available laboratory techniques. They can be sporadic or epidemic, but with changing environmental and societal conditions, infective agents can emerge for the first time (e.g. Nipah, Hendra and Zika viruses) or reappear after a period of good control through vaccination (e.g. (Source: Medicine)
Source: Medicine - October 8, 2017 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Philip Rice Tags: Nervous system infections Source Type: research

A Controlled Trial to Reduce the Risk of Human Nipah Virus Exposure in Bangladesh
AbstractHuman Nipah virus (NiV) infection, often fatal in Bangladesh, is primarily transmitted by drinking raw date palm sap contaminated byPteropus bats. We assessed the impact of a behavior change communication intervention on reducing consumption of potentially NiV-contaminated raw sap. During the 2012 –2014 sap harvesting seasons, we implemented interventions in two areas and compared results with a control area. In one area, we disseminated a “do not drink raw sap” message and, in the other area, encouraged only drinking sap if it had been protected from bat contamination by a barrier (“ only s...
Source: EcoHealth - September 13, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Convergence of Humans, Bats, Trees, and Culture in Nipah Virus Transmission, Bangladesh
E. S. Gurley et al. (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal - July 21, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 22, Pages 1190: Antiviral Lipopeptide-Cell Membrane Interaction Is Influenced by PEG Linker Length
A set of lipopeptides was recently reported for their broad-spectrum antiviral activity against viruses belonging to the Paramyxoviridae family, including human parainfluenza virus type 3 and Nipah virus. Among them, the peptide with a 24-unit PEG linker connecting it to a cholesterol moiety (VG-PEG24-Chol) was found to be the best membrane fusion inhibitory peptide. Here, we evaluated the interaction of the same set of peptides with biomembrane model systems and isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). VG-PEG24-Chol showed the highest insertion rate and it was among the peptides that induced a larger chan...
Source: Molecules - July 15, 2017 Category: Chemistry Authors: Marcelo Augusto Axel Hollmann Matteo Porotto Anne Moscona Nuno Santos Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Novel Alphacoronaviruses and Paramyxoviruses co-circulate with Type 1 and SARS-related Betacoronaviruses in synanthropic bats in Luxembourg.
In this study from Luxembourg, the genetic diversity and epidemiology of paramyxoviruses and coronaviruses shed by the bat species Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and Myotis emarginatus was evaluated. Faeces collection (n= 624) was performed longitudinally in a mixed-species colony in 2015 and 2016. In addition, faeces (n= 254) were collected cross-sectionally from six Myotis emarginatus colonies in 2016. Using degenerate primers in a nested format, an overall prevalence of 1.1% (10/878) and 4.9% (43/878) was determined for paramyxoviruses and coronaviruses. Sequences of the partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and spike glycopr...
Source: Applied and Environmental Microbiology - July 14, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Pauly M, Pir JB, Loesch C, Sausy A, Snoeck CJ, Hübschen JM, Muller CP Tags: Appl Environ Microbiol Source Type: research

A Functional Genomics Approach to Henipavirus Research: The Role of Nuclear Proteins, MicroRNAs and Immune Regulators in Infection and Disease.
Authors: Stewart CR, Deffrasnes C, Foo CH, Bean AGD, Wang LF Abstract Hendra and Nipah viruses (family Paramyxoviridae, genus Henipavirus) are zoonotic RNA viruses that cause lethal disease in humans and are designated as Biosafety Level 4 (BSL4) agents. Moreover, henipaviruses belong to the same group of viruses that cause disease more commonly in humans such as measles, mumps and respiratory syncytial virus. Due to the relatively recent emergence of the henipaviruses and the practical constraints of performing functional genomics studies at high levels of containment, our understanding of the henipavirus infectio...
Source: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology - July 6, 2017 Category: Microbiology Tags: Curr Top Microbiol Immunol Source Type: research

In silico identification and characterization of common epitope-based peptide vaccine for Nipah and Hendra viruses
Conclusions Data in our present study revealed the notion that the epitopes from G and M proteins might be the target for peptide-based subunit vaccine design against HeV and NiV. However, the biochemical analysis is necessary to experimentally validate the interaction of epitopes individually with the MHC molecules through elucidation of immunity induction. (Source: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine - July 2, 2017 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Evaluation of a TaqMan Array Card for Detection of Central Nervous System Infections [Epidemiology]
Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are often acute, with significant morbidity and mortality. Routine diagnosis of such infections is limited in developing countries and requires modern equipment in advanced laboratories that may be unavailable to a number of patients in sub-Saharan Africa. We developed a TaqMan array card (TAC) that detects multiple pathogens simultaneously from cerebrospinal fluid. The 21-pathogen CNS multiple-pathogen TAC (CNS-TAC) assay includes two parasites (Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba), six bacterial pathogens (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meni...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - June 23, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Onyango, C. O., Loparev, V., Lidechi, S., Bhullar, V., Schmid, D. S., Radford, K., Lo, M. K., Rota, P., Johnson, B. W., Munoz, J., Oneko, M., Burton, D., Black, C. M., Neatherlin, J., Montgomery, J. M., Fields, B. Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

4 ′-Azidocytidine (R1479) inhibits henipaviruses and other paramyxoviruses with high potency
Publication date: Available online 17 June 2017 Source:Antiviral Research Author(s): Anne L. Hotard, Biao He, Stuart T. Nichol, Christina F. Spiropoulou, Michael K. Lo The henipaviruses Nipah virus and Hendra virus are highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxoviruses which have caused fatal outbreaks of encephalitis and respiratory disease in humans. Despite the availability of a licensed equine Hendra virus vaccine and a neutralizing monoclonal antibody shown to be efficacious against henipavirus infections in non-human primates, there remains no approved therapeutics or vaccines for human use. To explore the possibility of de...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - June 20, 2017 Category: Virology Source Type: research

4'-Azidocytidine (R1479) inhibits henipaviruses and other paramyxoviruses with high potency.
Abstract The henipaviruses Nipah virus and Hendra virus are highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxoviruses which have caused fatal outbreaks of encephalitis and respiratory disease in humans. Despite the availability of a licensed equine Hendra virus vaccine and a neutralizing monoclonal antibody shown to be efficacious against henipavirus infections in non-human primates, there remains no approved therapeutics or vaccines for human use. To explore the possibility of developing small-molecule nucleoside inhibitors against henipaviruses, we evaluated the antiviral activity of 4'-azidocytidine (R1479), a drug previously...
Source: Antiviral Research - June 16, 2017 Category: Virology Authors: Hotard AL, He B, Nichol ST, Spiropoulou CF, Lo MK Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research

Structure and organization of paramyxovirus particles
Publication date: June 2017 Source:Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 24 Author(s): Robert M Cox, Richard K Plemper The paramyxovirus family comprises major human and animal pathogens such as measles virus (MeV), mumps virus (MuV), the parainfluenzaviruses, Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and the highly pathogenic zoonotic hendra (HeV) and nipah (NiV) viruses. Paramyxovirus particles are pleomorphic, with a lipid envelope, nonsegmented RNA genomes of negative polarity, and densely packed glycoproteins on the virion surface. A number of crystal structures of different paramyxovirus proteins and protein fragments were solve...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - June 9, 2017 Category: Virology Source Type: research

How order and disorder within paramyxoviral nucleoproteins and phosphoproteins orchestrate the molecular interplay of transcription and replication.
Abstract In this review, we summarize computational and experimental data gathered so far showing that structural disorder is abundant within paramyxoviral nucleoproteins (N) and phosphoproteins (P). In particular, we focus on measles, Nipah, and Hendra viruses and highlight both commonalities and differences with respect to the closely related Sendai virus. The molecular mechanisms that control the disorder-to-order transition undergone by the intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain (NTAIL) of their N proteins upon binding to the C-terminal X domain (XD) of the homologous P proteins are described in detail. By...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - June 9, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Longhi S, Bloyet LM, Gianni S, Gerlier D Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Gene end-like sequences within the 3' non-coding region of the Nipah virus genome attenuate viral gene transcription.
Abstract The regulation of transcription during Nipah virus (NiV) replication is poorly understood. Using a bicistronic minigenome system, we investigated the involvement of non-coding regions (NCRs) in the transcriptional re-initiation efficiency of NiV RNA polymerase. Reporter assays revealed that attenuation of NiV gene expression was not constant at each gene junction, and that the attenuating property was controlled by the 3' NCR. However, this regulation was independent of the gene-end, gene-start and intergenic regions. Northern blot analysis indicated that regulation of viral gene expression by the phospho...
Source: Virology - May 8, 2017 Category: Virology Authors: Sugai A, Sato H, Yoneda M, Kai C Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Chapter One Zoonotic Potential of Emerging Paramyxoviruses
Publication date: 2017 Source:Advances in Virus Research, Volume 98 Author(s): Patricia A. Thibault, Ruth E. Watkinson, Andres Moreira-Soto, Jan F. Drexler, Benhur Lee The risk of spillover of enzootic paramyxoviruses and the susceptibility of recipient human and domestic animal populations are defined by a broad collection of ecological and molecular factors that interact in ways that are not yet fully understood. Nipah and Hendra viruses were the first highly lethal zoonotic paramyxoviruses discovered in modern times, but other paramyxoviruses from multiple genera are present in bats and other reservoirs that have unkno...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - April 23, 2017 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Loss in lung volume and changes in the immune response demonstrate disease progression in African green monkeys infected by small-particle aerosol and intratracheal exposure to Nipah virus
This study utilized computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to temporally assess disease progression. The host immune response and changes in immune cell populations over the course of disease were also evaluated. This study found that IT and small-particle administration of NiV caused similar disease progression, but that IT inoculation induced significant congestion in the lungs while disease following small-particle aerosol inoculation was largely confined to the lower respiratory tract. Quantitative assessment of changes in lung volume found up to a 45% loss in IT inoculated animals. None of the s...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 7, 2017 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Yu Cong Source Type: research

Zoonotic Potential of Emerging Paramyxoviruses: Knowns and Unknowns
Publication date: Available online 2 February 2017 Source:Advances in Virus Research Author(s): P.A. Thibault, R.E. Watkinson, A. Moreira-Soto, J.F. Drexler, B. Lee The risk of spillover of enzootic paramyxoviruses and the susceptibility of recipient human and domestic animal populations are defined by a broad collection of ecological and molecular factors that interact in ways that are not yet fully understood. Nipah and Hendra viruses were the first highly lethal zoonotic paramyxoviruses discovered in modern times, but other paramyxoviruses from multiple genera are present in bats and other reservoirs that have unknown ...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - February 3, 2017 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Billion-Dollar Project Aims to Prep Vaccines before Epidemics Hit
Early targets include Nipah virus and Middle East respiratory syndrome -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American)
Source: Scientific American - January 19, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Declan Butler Nature magazine Tags: Health Medicine Public Health Source Type: research

Nipah virus: transmission of a zoonotic paramyxovirus
Publication date: February 2017 Source:Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 22 Author(s): Bronwyn Anne Clayton Nipah virus is a recently-recognised, zoonotic paramyxovirus that causes severe disease and high fatality rates in people. Outbreaks have occurred in Malaysia, Singapore, India and Bangladesh, and a putative Nipah virus was also recently associated with human disease in the Philippines. Worryingly, human-to-human transmission is common in Bangladesh, where outbreaks occur with near-annual frequency. Onward human transmission of Nipah virus in Bangladesh is associated with close contact with clinically-unwell patie...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - January 12, 2017 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Understanding the interaction between henipaviruses and their natural host, fruit bats: Paving the way toward control of highly lethal infection in humans.
Authors: Enchéry F, Horvat B Abstract Hendra virus and Nipah virus (NiV) are highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxoviruses, from henipavirus genus, that have emerged in late 1990s in Australia and South-East Asia, respectively. Since their initial identification, numerous outbreaks have been reported, affecting both domestic animals and humans, and multiple rounds of person-to-person NiV transmission were observed. Widely distributed fruit bats from Pteropodidae family were found to be henipavirus natural reservoir. Numerous studies have reported henipavirus seropositivity in pteropid bats, including bats in Af...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - January 8, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of new bat astroviruses detected in Gabon, Central Africa.
In this study, we report the molecular identification of 44 new astroviruses (with a detection rate of 4.5%) in 962 apparently healthy bats that belong to five different species and that were captured in different caves in North-East Gabon, Central Africa. Our results show that bat astroviruses form a group that is genetically distinct from astroviruses infecting other mammals. Moreover, these astroviruses showed an important genetic diversity and low host restriction in bat species. PMID: 27928918 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Acta Virologica)
Source: Acta Virologica - December 9, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rougeron V, Suquet E, Maganga GD, Jiolle D, Mombo IM, Bourgarel M, Motsch P, Arnathau C, Durand P, Drexler F, Drosten C, Renaud F, Prugnolle F, Leroy EM Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research

[Media Watch] History and epidemics in modern Asia
Suddenly the corner of the world map occupied by Asia, formerly painted monochrome, is transformed into a multidimensional colour display with society, culture, economy, and politics as its axes. This display vividly shows how epidemics of infectious diseases, such as plague, malaria, and cholera, as well as the more recent severe acute respiratory syndrome, Nipah virus, and Zika virus outbreaks, contributed —or continue to contribute—to shaping the process of modernisation in Asia, especially east Asia. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - November 15, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Patou Masika Musumari, Teeranee Techasrivichien, S Pilar Suguimoto, Masako Ono-Kihara, Masahiro Kihara Tags: Media Watch Source Type: research

Identifying Early Target Cells of Nipah Virus Infection in Syrian Hamsters
Conclusions/SignificanceNipah virus initially targets the respiratory system. Virus replication in the brain and infection of blood vessels in non-respiratory tissues does not occur during the early phase of infection. However, virus replicates early in olfactory epithelium and may serve as the first step towards nervous system dissemination, suggesting that development of vaccines that block virus dissemination or treatments that can access the brain and spinal cord and directly inhibit virus replication may be necessary for preventing central nervous system pathology. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - November 3, 2016 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Laura Baseler Source Type: research

Nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of Nipah virus W protein involves multiple discrete interactions with the nuclear import and export machinery.
Abstract Paramyxoviruses replicate in the cytoplasm with no obvious requirement to interact with the nucleus. Nevertheless, the W protein of the highly lethal bat-borne paramyxovirus Nipah virus (NiV) is known to undergo specific targeting to the nucleus, mediated by a single nuclear localisation signal (NLS) within the C-terminal domain. Here, we report for the first time that additional sites modulate nucleocytoplasmic localisation of W. We show that the N-terminal domain interacts with importin α1 and contributes to nuclear accumulation of W, indicative of a novel N-terminal NLS. We also find that W under...
Source: Biochemical and Biophysical Research communications - September 10, 2016 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Audsley MD, Jans DA, Moseley GW Tags: Biochem Biophys Res Commun Source Type: research

Isolation of Tioman virus from Pteropus giganteus bat in north-east region of India.
This report demonstrates the first isolation of Tioman virus from a region where Nipah virus activity has been noticed in the past and recent years. Bat-borne viruses have become serious concern world-wide. A Survey of bats for novel viruses in this region would help in recognizing emerging viruses and combating diseases caused by them. PMID: 27619056 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution)
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - September 9, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Yadav P, Sarkale P, Patil D, Shete A, Kokate P, Kumar V, Jain R, Jadhav S, Basu A, Pawar S, Sudeep A, Gokhale M, Lakra R, Mourya D Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

Eukaryotic elongation factor 1-beta interacts with the 5 ′ untranslated region of the M gene of Nipah virus to promote mRNA translation
In this study, we investigated the functions of the 5 ′ UTRs and found that the 5′ UTR of the M gene upregulated the translation of a reporter gene. Using an RNA pull-down assay, we showed that eukaryotic elongation factor 1-beta (EEF1B2) interacts with nucleotides 81–100 of the M 5′ UTR and specifically enhances its translation efficiency. Our results suggest that the M 5′ UTR promotes the production of M protein and viral budding by recruiting EEF1B2. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - August 17, 2016 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Protection against henipaviruses in swine requires both, cell-mediated and humoral immune response.
In conclusion, both humoral and cellular immune responses were required for protection of swine against henipaviruses. PMID: 27544586 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vaccine)
Source: Vaccine - August 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Pickering BS, Hardham JM, Smith G, Weingartl ET, Dominowski PJ, Foss DL, Mwangi D, Broder CC, Roth JA, Weingartl HM Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Region of Nipah virus C protein responsible for shuttling between the cytoplasm and nucleus.
In this study, we focused on NiV-C trafficking in cells and found that it localizes predominantly in the cytoplasm but partly in the nucleus. An analysis of NiV-C mutants showed that amino acids 2, 21-24 and 110-139 of NiV-C are important for its localization in the cytoplasm. Inhibitor treatment indicates that the nuclear export determinant is not a classical CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal. We also determined that amino acids 60-75 and 72-75 were important for nuclear localization of NiV-C. Furthermore, NiV-C mutants that had lost their capacity for nuclear localization inhibited the interferon (IFN) response more s...
Source: Virology - August 5, 2016 Category: Virology Authors: Horie R, Yoneda M, Uchida S, Sato H, Kai C Tags: Virology Source Type: research