Epitope-Based Peptide Vaccine against Glycoprotein G of Nipah Henipavirus Using Immunoinformatics Approaches.
Conclusions. The two peptides TVYHCSAVY and FLIDRINWI have showed a very strong binding affinity to MHC class I and MHC class II alleles. Furthermore, considering the conservancy, the affinity, and the population coverage, the peptide FLIDRINWIT is highly suitable to be utilized to formulate a new vaccine against glycoprotein G of Nipah henipavirus. An in vivo study for the proposed peptides is also highly recommended. PMID: 32377531 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Immunology Research)
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - May 8, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

T-cell Epitope-based Vaccine design for Nipah Virus by Reverse Vaccinology approach.
Abstract Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic virus of the paramyxovirus family that sporadically breaks out from livestock and spread in human through breathing resulting in indication of encephalitis syndrome. In the current study, T cell epitopes with the NiV W protein antigens were predicted. Modelling of unavailable 3D structure of W protein followed by docking studies of respective Human MHC - class I and MHC - class II alleles predicted was carried out for the highest binding rates. In the computational analysis, epitopes were assessed for immunogenicity, conservation, and toxicity analysis. T - cell based vacci...
Source: Combinatorial Chemistry and High Throughput Screening - April 27, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Krishnamoorthy PKP, Subasree S, Arthi U, Imam M, Gowda C, Prasanna Dr Tags: Comb Chem High Throughput Screen Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 480: Fc-Based Recombinant Henipavirus Vaccines Elicit Broad Neutralizing Antibody Responses in Mice
unjie Xu Wei Chen The genus Henipavirus (HNVs) includes two fatal viruses, namely Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV). Since 1994, NiV and HeV have been endemic to the Asia–Pacific region and responsible for more than 600 cases of infections. Two emerging HNVs, Ghana virus (GhV) and Mojiang virus (MojV), are speculated to be associated with unrecognized human diseases in Africa and China, respectively. Despite many efforts to develop vaccines against henipaviral diseases, there is presently no licensed human vaccine. As HNVs are highly pathogenic and diverse, it is necessary to develop universal va...
Source: Viruses - April 23, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Yaohui Li Ruihua Li Meirong Wang Yujiao Liu Ying Yin Xiaodong Zai Xiaohong Song Yi Chen Junjie Xu Wei Chen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 465: Nipah Virus: Past Outbreaks and Future Containment
ettil Viral outbreaks of varying frequencies and severities have caused panic and havoc across the globe throughout history. Influenza, small pox, measles, and yellow fever reverberated for centuries, causing huge burden for economies. The twenty-first century witnessed the most pathogenic and contagious virus outbreaks of zoonotic origin including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Ebola virus, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and Nipah virus. Nipah is considered one of the world’s deadliest viruses with the heaviest mortality rates in some instances. It is k...
Source: Viruses - April 20, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Vinod Soman Pillai Gayathri Krishna Mohanan Valiya Veettil Tags: Review Source Type: research

Detection of coronaviruses in Pteropus & Rousettus species of bats from different States of India.
This study was a step towards understanding the CoV circulation in Indian bats. Detection of potentially pathogenic CoVs in Indian bats stresses the need for enhanced screening for novel viruses in them. One Health approach with collaborative activities by the animal health and human health sectors in these surveillance activities shall be of use to public health. This would help in the development of diagnostic assays for novel viruses with outbreak potential and be useful in disease interventions. Proactive surveillance remains crucial for identifying the emerging novel viruses with epidemic potential and measures for ri...
Source: Indian J Med Res - April 13, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Yadav PD, Shete-Aich A, Nyayanit DA, Pardeshi P, Majumdar T, Balasubramanian R, Ullas PT, Mohandas S, Dighe H, Sawant P, Patil S, Patil D, Gokhale MD, Mathapati B, Sudeep AB, Baradkar S, Kumar A, Kharde R, Salve M, Joshi Y, Gupta N, Mourya DT Tags: Indian J Med Res Source Type: research

Genome-wide analysis reveals a regulatory role for G-quadruplexes during Adenovirus multiplication.
In this study, using a combination of whole genome sequence analysis, biochemical, biophysical and interaction assays, we revealed fifteen putative GQs that are conserved across the different species of HAdV. We further showed that the GQs are embedded in the sequences of essential viral genes, namely E1B, E2B, and L3 genes (among others), which are involved in the early and late stages of the viral life cycle. Notably, Braco-19 (a well-known GQ binding ligand) interacted specifically with the HAdV GQs and increased their stability and further blocked the HAdV multiplication in human cells. Taken together, our data strongl...
Source: Virus Research - April 11, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Majee P, Shankar U, Pasadi S, Muniyappa K, Nayak D, Kumar A Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 342: Structural Insight into Paramyxovirus and Pneumovirus Entry Inhibition
This article will summarize current mechanistic insight into F-mediated membrane fusion and examine the contribution of structural information to the development of small-molecule F inhibitors. Implications are outlined for future drug target selection and rational drug engineering strategies. (Source: Viruses)
Source: Viruses - March 20, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Megha Aggarwal Richard K Plemper Tags: Review Source Type: research

Guidance for building a dedicated health facility to contain the spread of the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak.
This article describes elements of design of such unit (e.g., space, infection control, waste disposal, safety of healthcare workers, partners to be involved in design and plan) which can be adapted to the context of either a new construction or makeshift construction on top of an existing structure. In view of a potential epidemic of COVID-19, specific requirements to handle it are also given. PMID: 32202258 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Indian J Med Res)
Source: Indian J Med Res - March 16, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Agarwal A, Nagi N, Chatterjee P, Sarkar S, Mourya D, Sahay RR, Bhatia R Tags: Indian J Med Res Source Type: research

Receptor-mediated cell entry of paramyxoviruses: Mechanisms, and consequences for tropism and pathogenesis [Microbiology]
Research in the last decade has uncovered many new paramyxoviruses, airborne agents that cause epidemic diseases in animals including humans. Most paramyxoviruses enter epithelial cells of the airway using sialic acid as a receptor and cause only mild disease. However, others cross the epithelial barrier and cause more severe disease. For some of these viruses, the host receptors have been identified, and the mechanisms of cell entry have been elucidated. The tetrameric attachment proteins of paramyxoviruses have vastly different binding affinities for their cognate receptors, which they contact through different binding s...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - February 28, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Chanakha K. Navaratnarajah, Alex R. Generous, Iris Yousaf, Roberto Cattaneo Tags: JBC Reviews Source Type: research

Mass Modelling and Effects of Fruit Position on Firmness and Adhesiveness of Banana Variety Nipah
Authors: Zainal A ’Bidin, Farahana Nabilah / Shamsudin, Rosnah / Mohd Basri, Mohd Salahuddin / Mohd Dom, Zanariah (Source: International Journal of Food Engineering)
Source: International Journal of Food Engineering - February 21, 2020 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

State of the globe: Human Nipah virus infection needs & #8220;One Health & #8221;
Sunil Kumar RainaJournal of Global Infectious Diseases 2020 12(1):1-2 (Source: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases)
Source: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases - February 19, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sunil Kumar Raina Source Type: research

Dissecting an outbreak: A clinico-epidemiological study of Nipah virus infection in Kerala, India, 2018
Conclusion: The rapid spread of infection uncovered the miserable state of health care system in implementing infection control measures. The case fatality and the socio-economic burden warrant developing appropriate treatments, vaccines and diagnostics. (Source: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases)
Source: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases - February 19, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bhargavan Pallivalappil Althaf Ali NK Thulaseedharan Ummer Karadan Jayakrishnan Chellenton KP Dipu AS Anoop Kumar KG Sajeeth Kumar TP Rajagopal KP Suraj GR Santosh Kumar RN Supreeth Mounika Yelisetti Prathap Reddy Muthyala KS Aryasree K S Apurva Rao Source Type: research

Guidance for building a dedicated health facility to contain the spread of the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak.
This article describes elements of design of such unit (e.g., space, infection control, waste disposal, safety of healthcare workers, partners to be involved in design and plan) which can be adapted to the context of either a new construction or makeshift construction on top of an existing structure. In view of a potential epidemic of COVID-19, specific requirements to handle it are also given. PMID: 32362643 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Indian Journal of Medical Research)
Source: The Indian Journal of Medical Research - February 1, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Agarwal A, Nagi N, Chatterjee P, Sarkar S, Mourya D, Sahay RR, Bhatia R Tags: Indian J Med Res Source Type: research

Finding equipoise: CEPI revises its equitable access policy.
Abstract Launched at Davos in January 2017 with funding from sovereign investors and philanthropic institutions, the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) is an innovative partnership between public, private, philanthropic, and civil organisations whose mission is to stimulate, finance and co-ordinate vaccine development against diseases with epidemic potential in cases where market incentives fail. As of December 2019, CEPI has committed to investing up to $706 million in vaccine development. This includes 19 vaccine candidates against its priority pathogens (Lassa fever virus, Middle East respir...
Source: Vaccine - January 28, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Huneycutt B, Lurie N, Rotenberg S, Wilder R, Hatchett R Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Nipah shell disorder, modes of infection, and virulence
Publication date: Available online 12 January 2020Source: Microbial PathogenesisAuthor(s): Gerard Kian-Meng Goh, A. Keith Dunker, James A. Foster, Vladimir N. UverskyAbstractThe Nipah Virus (NiV) was first isolated during a 1998–9 outbreak in Malaysia. The outbreak initially infected farm pigs and then moved to humans from pigs with a case-fatality rate (CFR) of about 40%. After 2001, regular outbreaks occurred with higher CFRs (∼71%, 2001–5, ∼93%, 2008–12). The spread arose from drinking virus-laden palm date sap and human-to-human transmission. Intrinsic disorder analysis revealed strong correla...
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - January 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Potent in vitro activity of β-D-4ʹ-chloromethyl-2ʹ-deoxy-2ʹ-fluorocytidine against Nipah virus
In this study, we tested ALS-8112 against NiV and other major human respiratory pneumo- and paramyxoviruses in 2 human lung epithelial cell lines, and demonstrated the ability of ALS-8112 to reduce infectious wild-type NiV yield by over 6 orders of magnitude with no apparent cytotoxicity. However, further cytotoxicity testing in primary cells and bone marrow progenitor cells indicated cytotoxicity at higher concentrations of ALS-8112. Our results warrant the evaluation of lumicitabine against NiV infection in relevant animal models. (Source: Antiviral Therapy)
Source: Antiviral Therapy - January 13, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Potent in vitro activity of β-D-4'-chloromethyl-2'-deoxy-2'-fluorocytidine against Nipah virus.
In this study, we tested ALS-8112 against NiV and other major human respiratory pneumo- and paramyxoviruses in 2 human lung epithelial cell lines, and demonstrated the ability of ALS-8112 to reduce infectious wild-type NiV yield by over 6 orders of magnitude with no apparent cytotoxicity. However, further cytotoxicity testing in primary cells and bone marrow progenitor cells indicated cytotoxicity at higher concentrations of ALS-8112. Our results warrant the evaluation of lumicitabine against NiV infection in relevant animal models. PMID: 31935422 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Antiviral Research)
Source: Antiviral Research - January 11, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Lo MK, Amblard F, Flint M, Chatterjee P, Kasthuri M, Li C, Russell O, Verma K, Bassit L, Schinazi RF, Nichol ST, Spiropoulou CF Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 26: A Soluble Version of Nipah Virus Glycoprotein G Delivered by Vaccinia Virus MVA Activates Specific CD8 and CD4 T Cells in Mice
In this study, NiV-G protein served as the target immunogen to activate NiV-specific cellular immune responses. Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), a safety-tested strain of vaccinia virus for preclinical and clinical vaccine research, was used for the generation of MVA–NiV-G candidate vaccines expressing different versions of recombinant NiV-G. Overlapping peptides covering the entire NiV-G protein were used to identify major histocompatibility complex class I/II-restricted T cell responses in type I interferon receptor-deficient (IFNAR−/−) mice after vaccination with the MVA&am...
Source: Viruses - December 24, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Georgia Kalodimou Svenja Veit Sylvia Jany Ulrich Kalinke Christopher C. Broder Gerd Sutter Asisa Volz Tags: Article Source Type: research

Predicting and designing therapeutics against the Nipah virus
In this study, we have considered all 9 Nipah proteins as potential therapeutic targets and computationally identified 4 putative peptide inhibitors (against G, F and M proteins) and 146 small molecule inhibitors (against F, G, M, N, and P proteins). The computations include extensive homology/ab initio modeling, peptide design and small molecule docking. An important contribution of this study is the increased structural characterization of Nipah proteins by approximately 90% of what is deposited in the PDB. In addition, we have carried out molecular dynamics simulations on all the designed protein-peptide complexes and o...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - December 12, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Neeladri Sen Source Type: research

Immune Responses in Mice and Pigs after Oral Vaccination with Rabies Virus Vectored Nipah Disease Vaccines
In this study, we generated two recombinant RABVs, rERAG333E/NiVG and rERAG333E/NiVF, expressing the NiV Malaysian strain attachment glycoprotein (NiV-G) or fusion glycoprotein (NiV-F) gene based on the rERAG333E vector platform. Both rERAG333E/NiVG and rERAG333E/NiVF displayed growth properties similar to those of rERAG333E and caused marked syncytia formation after co-infection in BSR cell culture. Adult and suckling mice intracerebrally inoculated with the recombinant RABVs showed NiV-G and NiV-F expression did not increase the virulence of rERAG333E. Oral vaccination with rERAG333E/NiVG either singularly or combined wi...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - December 11, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

High Pathogenicity of Nipah Virus from Pteropus lylei Fruit Bats, Cambodia
M. Gaudino et al. (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal - December 10, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

A structural basis for antibody-mediated neutralization of Nipah virus reveals a site of vulnerability at the fusion glycoprotein apex [Biochemistry]
Nipah virus (NiV) is a highly pathogenic paramyxovirus that causes frequent outbreaks of severe neurologic and respiratory disease in humans with high case fatality rates. The 2 glycoproteins displayed on the surface of the virus, NiV-G and NiV-F, mediate host-cell attachment and membrane fusion, respectively, and are targets of the... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - December 10, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Victoria A. Avanzato, Kasopefoluwa Y. Oguntuyo, Marina Escalera-Zamudio, Bernardo Gutierrez, Michael Golden, Sergei L. Kosakovsky Pond, Rhys Pryce, Thomas S. Walter, Jeffrey Seow, Katie J. Doores, Oliver G. Pybus, Vincent J. Munster, Benhur Lee, Thomas A. Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Developing vaccines against epidemic-prone emerging infectious diseases.
, Norheim G Abstract Today's world is characterized by increasing population density, human mobility, urbanization, and climate and ecological change. This global dynamic has various effects, including the increased appearance of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs), which pose a growing threat to global health security.Outbreaks of EIDs, like the 2013-2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa or the current Ebola outbreak in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), have not only put populations in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) at risk in terms of morbidity and mortality, but they also have had a significant impa...
Source: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz - November 27, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Bernasconi V, Kristiansen PA, Whelan M, Román RG, Bettis A, Yimer SA, Gurry C, Andersen SR, Yeskey D, Mandi H, Kumar A, Holst J, Clark C, Cramer JP, Røttingen JA, Hattchet R, Saville M, Norheim G Tags: Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz Source Type: research

Nipah virus infection in Kozhikode, Kerala, South India, in 2018: Epidemiology of an outbreak of an emerging disease
Conclusion: Early detection of the outbreak and prompt isolation of cases along with strengthening of infection control practices and barrier nursing helped in containing the outbreak. (Source: Indian Journal of Community Medicine)
Source: Indian Journal of Community Medicine - November 12, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Bina Thomas Priya Chandran MP Lilabi Biju George CP Sivakumar VK Jayadev V Bindu RS Rajasi Binsu Vijayan Anu Mohandas Nimin Hafeez Source Type: research

Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases: Global Overview
New emerging and reemerging infectious disease outbreaks have continued to cause much human suffering and loss of life worldwide. During the past 2 decades, several landmark events in the field of infectious diseases with epidemic potential have occurred. The SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) pandemic (2002 –2004), the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa (2013–2016), the cholera outbreak in Yemen (2015–2018), the Zika virus in the Americas and southeast Asia (2016–2018), Lassa fever (LF) in Nigeria (2018), diphtheria in Venezuela (2016-2017) and in Yemen (2017-2018), Yellow feve...
Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America - October 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Alimuddin Zumla, David S.C. Hui Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 940: Nosocomial Transmission of Emerging Viruses via Aerosol-Generating Medical Procedures
ter Recent nosocomial transmission events of emerging and re-emerging viruses, including Ebola virus, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Nipah virus, and Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever orthonairovirus, have highlighted the risk of nosocomial transmission of emerging viruses in health-care settings. In particular, concerns and precautions have increased regarding the use of aerosol-generating medical procedures when treating patients with such viral infections. In spite of increasing associations between aerosol-generating medical procedures and the nosocomial transmission of viruses, we still ...
Source: Viruses - October 12, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Seth D. Judson Vincent J. Munster Tags: Review Source Type: research

Structural and functional analyses reveal promiscuous and species specific use of ephrin receptors by Cedar virus [Microbiology]
Cedar virus (CedV) is a bat-borne henipavirus related to Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV), zoonotic agents of fatal human disease. CedV receptor-binding protein (G) shares only ∼30% sequence identity with those of NiV and HeV, although they can all use ephrin-B2 as an entry receptor. We demonstrate that... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 8, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Eric D. Laing, Chanakha K. Navaratnarajah, Sofia Cheliout Da Silva, Stephanie R. Petzing, Yan Xu, Spencer L. Sterling, Glenn A. Marsh, Lin-Fa Wang, Moushimi Amaya, Dimitar B. Nikolov, Roberto Cattaneo, Christopher C. Broder, Kai Xu Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Assessment of health facilities for airborne infection control practices and adherence to national airborne infection control guidelines: A study from Kerala, Southern India
Conclusion: There exist deficiencies in adherence to all components of NAIC guidelines including administrative, environmental, and use of personal protective equipment in both government and private hospitals in the state. (Source: Indian Journal of Community Medicine)
Source: Indian Journal of Community Medicine - September 25, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Arun Raj Devraj Ramakrishnan Carmel Regeela Mainu Thekkeveettil Thomas Amrita Das Mavila Midhun Rajiv Rakesh Purushothama Bhat Suseela Source Type: research

Nipah outbreak in North Kerala & #8211; What worked ? Insights for future response and recovery based on examination of various existing frameworks
This article provides the groundwork and insights as a value addition toward an India-specific framework of action for response and recovery for Nipah outbreaks in future. (Source: Indian Journal of Public Health)
Source: Indian Journal of Public Health - September 20, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Asma Ayesha Rahim Thomas V Chacko Source Type: research

Nipah virus encephalitis: MRI findings.
Authors: Anam AM, Ahmad J, Huq SMR, Rabbani R PMID: 31497792 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh)
Source: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh - September 11, 2019 Category: General Medicine Tags: J R Coll Physicians Edinb Source Type: research

Optimization and Diagnostic Evaluation of Monoclonal Antibody-based Blocking ELISA Formats for Detection of Neutralizing Antibodies to Hendra Virus in Mammalian Sera.
Abstract Maintenance of Hendra virus (HeV) in pteropid bat populations has been associated with spillover events in horses, humans and dogs. Experimental studies have demonstrated infections for several other species including guinea pigs, cats and ferrets. The criteria of a sensitive and specific serological test that is effective for a range of species, but which does not require use of live virus, has not been satisfactorily addressed by currently available tests. We have evaluated the use of two HeV neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in a blocking format enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA) to det...
Source: Journal of Virological Methods - September 9, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Di Rubbo A, McNabb L, Klein R, White JR, Colling A, Dimitrov DS, Broder C, Middleton D, Lunt R Tags: J Virol Methods Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 800: Fusogenicity of the Ghana Virus (Henipavirus: Ghanaian bat henipavirus) Fusion Protein is Controlled by the Cytoplasmic Domain of the Attachment Glycoprotein
Nadine Krüger The Ghana virus (GhV) is phylogenetically related to the zoonotic henipaviruses Nipah (NiV) and Hendra virus. Although GhV uses the highly conserved receptor ephrin-B2, the fusogenicity is restricted to cell lines of bat origin. Furthermore, the surface expression of the GhV attachment glycoprotein (G) is reduced compared to NiV and most of this protein is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here, we generated truncated as well as chimeric GhV G proteins and investigated the influence of the structural domains (cytoplasmic tail, transmembrane domain, ectodomain) of this protein on the intrac...
Source: Viruses - August 29, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Kathleen Voigt Markus Hoffmann Jan Felix Drexler Marcel Alexander M üller Christian Drosten Georg Herrler Nadine Kr üger Tags: Article Source Type: research

Recombinant Nipah F Proteins and Their Use
Nipah virus is an emerging pathogenic paramyxovirus responsible for sporadic and isolated outbreaks of severe respiratory and neurologic disease in Southern Asia. As a zoonotic virus, disease can manifest in both animals and human with indigenous fruit bats acting as natural reservoirs of the virus. The effects of viral infection vary from acute respiratory distress to fatal encephalitis. There are currently no approved therapeutics or vaccines against the virus, and growing concerns that this highly pathogenic infection has the potential to cause larger epidemics capable of inflicting significant mortality burden.Like the...
Source: NIH OTT Licensing Opportunities - August 21, 2019 Category: Research Authors: ajoyprabhu3 Source Type: research

A Case Series on the Recent Nipah Epidemic in Kerala.
Authors: Thulaseedaran NK, Kumar KGS, Kumar J, Geetha P, Jayachandran NV, Kamalasanan CG, Mathew S, Pv S Abstract During May 2018 there occurred an outbreak in Kerala, which started in Soopikkada Village, Changarothu Grama Panchayath in Perambra Taluk, Kozhikode district, of a febrile illness with altered sensorium and ARDS. The diagnosis was made from the second case that it is the dreaded nipah infection. Following that 18 cases tested positive for nipah virus infection of which 2 survived. Also there were four deaths with similar clinical picture but which occurred before the virus was identified. They were cons...
Source: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India - July 20, 2019 Category: General Medicine Tags: J Assoc Physicians India Source Type: research

Nipah Virus Infection.
Authors: Av R, Sadanandan S, Thulaseedharan NK, Kg SK, Pallivalappil B, As AK Abstract Nipah Virus Infection is an emerging zoonotic infection which presents with acute encephalitis and respiratory distress syndrome. It is associated with high mortality and classified as Biosafety level 4 organisms in view of its features which make it a potential agent for Bioterrorism. Experience with broad spectrum antiviral agent Ribavirin is promising in reducing the mortality and morbidity. PMID: 31313551 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India)
Source: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India - July 18, 2019 Category: General Medicine Tags: J Assoc Physicians India Source Type: research

Containing Nipah Virus Infection
Isolating adults with respiratory symptoms resulting from Nipah virus infection may help stem the spread of the virus, a New England Journal of Medicinestudy suggests. (Source: JAMA)
Source: JAMA - July 16, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

RNA Synthesis and Capping by Non-segmented Negative Strand RNA Viral Polymerases: Lessons From a Prototypic Virus
This article reviews what has been learned from biochemical and structural studies on the VSV RNA biosynthesis machinery, and then focuses on recent advances in our understanding of regulatory and catalytic roles of the PRNTase domain in RNA synthesis and capping. (Source: Frontiers in Microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - July 10, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Model predicts bat species with potential to spread Nipah virus
Findings help guide surveillance to prevent disease outbreaks More at https://www.nsf.gov/discoveries/disc_summ.jsp?cntn_id=298814&WT.mc_id=USNSF_1 This is a Research News item. (Source: NSF Discoveries)
Source: NSF Discoveries - July 3, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Prioritizing surveillance of Nipah virus in India
by Raina K. Plowright, Daniel J. Becker, Daniel E. Crowley, Alex D. Washburne, Tao Huang, P. O. Nameer, Emily S. Gurley, Barbara A. Han The 2018 outbreak of Nipah virus in Kerala, India, highlights the need for global surveillance of henipaviruses in bats, which are the reservoir hosts for this and other viruses. Nipah virus, an emerging paramyxovirus in the genusHenipavirus, causes severe disease and stuttering chains of transmission in humans and is considered a potential pandemic threat. In May 2018, an outbreak of Nipah virus began in Kerala,> 1800 km from the sites of previous outbreaks in eastern India in 2001 an...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - June 27, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Raina K. Plowright Source Type: research

Nipah virus - the rising epidemic: a review.
Authors: Ochani RK, Batra S, Shaikh A, Asad A Abstract The Nipah virus was discovered twenty years ago, and there is considerable information available regarding the specificities surrounding this virus such as transmission, pathogenesis and genome. Belonging to the Henipavirus genus, this virus can cause fever, encephalitis and respiratory disorders. The first cases were reported in Malaysia and Singapore in 1998, when affected individuals presented with severe febrile encephalitis. Since then, much has been identified about this virus. These single-stranded RNA viruses gain entry into target cells via a process k...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 18, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Infez Med Source Type: research

A single-dose ChAdOx1-vectored vaccine provides complete protection against Nipah Bangladesh and Malaysia in Syrian golden hamsters
by Neeltje van Doremalen, Teresa Lambe, Sarah Sebastian, Trenton Bushmaker, Robert Fischer, Friederike Feldmann, Elaine Haddock, Michael Letko, Victoria A. Avanzato, Ilona Rissanen, Rachel LaCasse, Dana Scott, Thomas A. Bowden, Sarah Gilbert, Vincent Munster Nipah virus (NiV) is a highly pathogenic re-emerging virus that causes outbreaks in South East Asia. Currently, no approved and licensed vaccine or antivirals exist. Here, we investigated the efficacy of ChAdOx1 NiVB, a simian adenovirus-based vaccine encoding NiV glycoprotein (G) Bangladesh, in Syrian hamsters. Prime-only as well as prime-boost vaccination resulted i...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - June 6, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Neeltje van Doremalen Source Type: research

Peripheral immune response in the African green monkey model following Nipah-Malaysia virus exposure by intermediate-size particle aerosol
In this study, intermediate-size aerosol particles (~7 μm) of NiV-Malaysia were used to mimic potential routes of exposure by focusing viral deposition in the upper respiratory tract. Our previous report showed this route of exposure extended the disease course and a single animal survived the infection. Here, analysis of the peripheral immune response found minimal evidence of systemic inflammation and depletion of B cells during acute disease. However, the animal that survived infection developed an ear ly IgM response with rapid development of neutralizing antibodies that likely afforded protection. The increase in N...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - June 5, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Abigail Lara Source Type: research

Etiology of Central Nervous System Infections in a Rural Area of Nepal Using Molecular Approaches.
In conclusion, the etiology could not be found in 77% of the samples, indicating that the commercial PCR panels used are not suitable in this setting. Future studies on the etiology of CNS infections in Nepal could include metagenomic techniques. PMID: 31162021 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - June 3, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Säll O, Thulin Hedberg S, Neander M, Tiwari S, Dornon L, Bom R, Lagerqvist N, Sundqvist M, Mölling P Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

[Reports] Remdesivir (GS-5734) protects African green monkeys from Nipah virus challenge
Nipah virus is an emerging pathogen in the Paramyxoviridae family. Upon transmission of Nipah virus from its natural reservoir, Pteropus spp. fruit bats, to humans, it causes respiratory and neurological disease with a case-fatality rate about 70%. Human-to-human transmission has been observed during Nipah virus outbreaks in Bangladesh and India. A therapeutic treatment for Nipah virus disease is urgently needed. Here, we tested the efficacy of remdesivir (GS-5734), a broad-acting antiviral nucleotide prodrug, against Nipah virus Bangladesh genotype in African green monkeys. Animals were inoculated with a lethal dose of Ni...
Source: Science Translational Medicine - May 29, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Lo, M. K., Feldmann, F., Gary, J. M., Jordan, R., Bannister, R., Cronin, J., Patel, N. R., Klena, J. D., Nichol, S. T., Cihlar, T., Zaki, S. R., Feldmann, H., Spiropoulou, C. F., de Wit, E. Tags: Reports Source Type: research

Analysis of Nipah Virus Codon Usage and Adaptation to Hosts
A recent outbreak of Nipah virus (NiV) in India has caused 17 deaths among people living in districts of Kerala state. Its zoonotic nature as well as high rate of human-to-human transmission has led researchers worldwide to work high for understanding the different aspects of the NiV. We performed a codon usage analysis based on publicly available nucleotide sequences of NiV and its host adaptation along with other members of genus Henipavirus in ten hosts. NiV genome encodes nine open reading frames; and overall, no significant bias in codon usage was observed. Aromaticity of proteins had no impact on codon usage. An anal...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - May 8, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Transmission of Nipah Virus — 14 Years of Investigations in Bangladesh
New England Journal of Medicine,Volume 380, Issue 19, Page 1804-1814, May 2019. (Source: New England Journal of Medicine)
Source: New England Journal of Medicine - May 8, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Birgit Nikolay Henrik Salje M. Jahangir Hossain A.K.M. Dawlat Khan Hossain M.S. Sazzad Mahmudur Rahman Peter Daszak Ute Str öher Juliet R.C. Pulliam A. Marm Kilpatrick Stuart T. Nichol John D. Klena Sharmin Sultana Sayma Afroj Stephen P. Luby Simon Cauch Source Type: research

Use of Single-Injection Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Vaccine to Protect Nonhuman Primates Against Lethal Nipah Virus Disease
C. E. Mire et al. (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal)
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal - May 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Absence of Nipah virus antibodies in pigs in Mizoram State, North East India.
PMID: 31417037 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Indian Journal of Medical Research)
Source: The Indian Journal of Medical Research - May 1, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Mourya D, Yadav P, Rout M, Pattnaik B, Shete A, Patil D Tags: Indian J Med Res Source Type: research

Nipah virus: epidemiology, pathology, immunobiology and advances in diagnosis, vaccine designing and control strategies - a comprehensive review.
Authors: Singh RK, Dhama K, Chakraborty S, Tiwari R, Natesan S, Khandia R, Munjal A, Vora KS, Latheef SK, Karthik K, Singh Malik Y, Singh R, Chaicumpa W, Mourya DT Abstract Nipah (Nee-pa) viral disease is a zoonotic infection caused by Nipah virus (NiV), a paramyxovirus belonging to the genus Henipavirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. It is a biosafety level-4 pathogen, which is transmitted by specific types of fruit bats, mainly Pteropus spp. which are natural reservoir host. The disease was reported for the first time from the Kampung Sungai Nipah village of Malaysia in 1998. Human-to-human transmission also occu...
Source: Veterinary Quarterly - April 23, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Vet Q Source Type: research

Construction of the safe neutralizing assay system using pseudotyped Nipah virus and G protein-specific monoclonal antibody.
Abstract Nipah virus (NiV) is a recently emerged paramyxovirus that causes acute respiratory illness and fatal encephalitis in a broad spectrum of vertebrates, including humans. Due to its high pathogenicity and mortality rates, NiV requires handling in biosafety level-4 (BSL-4) containment facilities and no effective vaccines or therapeutic agents are currently available. Since current diagnostic tests for detecting serum neutralizing antibodies against NiV mainly employ live viruses, establishment of more safe and robust alternative diagnostic methods is an essential medical requirement. Here, we have developed ...
Source: Biochemical and Biophysical Research communications - April 14, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Bae SE, Kim SS, Moon ST, Cho YD, Lee H, Lee JY, Shin HY, Lee HJ, Kim YB Tags: Biochem Biophys Res Commun Source Type: research