Georgia: Health System Review.
Authors: Richardson E, Berdzuli N Abstract This analysis of the Georgian health system reviews developments in its organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. Since 2012, political commitment to improving access to health care, to protecting the population from the financial risks of health care costs and to reducing inequalities has led to the introduction of reforms to provide universal health coverage. Considerable progress has been made. Over 90% of the resident population became entitled to a tightly defined package of state-funded benefit...
Source: Health systems in transition - July 5, 2018 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

Greece: Health System Review.
Authors: Economou C, Kaitelidou D, Karanikolos M, Maresso A Abstract This analysis of the Greek health system reviews developments in its organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The economic crisis has had a major impact on Greek society and the health system. Health status indicators such as life expectancy at birth and at age sixtyfive are above the average in the European Union but health inequalities and particular risk factors such as high smoking rates and child obesity persist. The highly centralized health system is a mixed model in...
Source: Health systems in transition - July 5, 2018 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

Portugal: Health System Review.
Authors: de Almeida Simoes J, Figueiredo Augusto G, Fronteira I, Hernandez-Quevedo C Abstract This analysis of the Portuguese health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. Overall health indicators such as life expectancy at birth and at age 65 years have shown a notable improvement over the last decades. However, these improvements have not been followed at the same pace by other important dimensions of health: child poverty and its consequences, mental health and quality of life after 65. Health ineq...
Source: Health systems in transition - May 10, 2017 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

Malta: Health System Review.
Authors: Azzopardi-Muscat N, Buttigieg S, Calleja N, Merkur S Abstract Maltese life expectancy is high, and Maltese people spend on average close to 90% of their lifespan in good health, longer than in any other EU country. Malta has recently increased the proportion of GDP spent on health to above the EU average, though the private part of that remains higher than in many EU countries. The total number of doctors and GPs per capita is at the EU average, but the number of specialists remains relatively low; education and training are being further strengthened in order to retain more specialist skills in Malta. The...
Source: Health systems in transition - May 10, 2017 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia: Health System Review.
Authors: Milevska Kostova N, Chichevalieva S, Ponce NA, van Ginneken E, Winkelmann J Abstract This analysis of the health system of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The country has made important progress during its transition from a socialist system to a market-based system, particularly in reforming the organization, financing and delivery of health care and establishing a mix of private and public providers. Though total health care expenditure has risen in a...
Source: Health systems in transition - May 10, 2017 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

Slovakia: Health System Review.
Authors: Smatana M, Pazitny P, Kandilaki D, Laktisova M, Sedlakova D, Paluskova M, van Ginneken E, Spranger A Abstract This analysis of the Slovak health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The health care system in Slovakia is based on universal coverage, compulsory health insurance, a basic benefit package and a competitive insurance model with selective contracting of health care providers. Containment of health spending became a major policy goal after the 2008 financial crisis. Health spending ...
Source: Health systems in transition - February 2, 2017 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

Pharmaceutical regulation in 15 European countries review.
Authors: Panteli D, Arickx F, Cleemput I, Dedet G, Eckhardt H, Fogarty E, Gerkens S, Henschke C, Hislop J, Jommi C, Kaitelidou D, Kawalec P, Keskimaki I, Kroneman M, Lopez Bastida J, Pita Barros P, Ramsberg J, Schneider P, Spillane S, Vogler S, Vuorenkoski L, Wallach Kildemoes H, Wouters O, Busse R Abstract In the context of pharmaceutical care, policy-makers repeatedly face the challenge of balancing patient access to effective medicines with affordability and rising costs. With the aim of guiding the health policy discourse towards questions that are important to actual and potential patients, this study investig...
Source: Health systems in transition - December 10, 2016 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

Romania: Health System Review.
Authors: Vladescu C, Scintee SG, Olsavszky V, Hernandez-Quevedo C, Sagan A Abstract This analysis of the Romanian health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The Romanian health care system is a social health insurance system that has remained highly centralized despite recent efforts to decentralize some regulatory functions. It provides a comprehensive benefits package to the 85% of the population that is covered, with the remaining population having access to a minimum package of benefits. While e...
Source: Health systems in transition - September 10, 2016 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

Netherlands: Health System Review.
Authors: Kroneman M, Boerma W, van den Berg M, Groenewegen P, de Jong J, van Ginneken E Abstract This analysis of the Dutch health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, healthcare provision, health reforms and health system performance. Without doubt, two major reforms implemented since the mid-2000s are among the main issues today. The newly implemented long-term care reform will have to realize a transition from publicly provided care to more self-reliance on the part of the citizens and a larger role for municipalities in its organization. A particular point of atte...
Source: Health systems in transition - July 30, 2016 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

Slovenia: Health System Review.
Authors: Albreht T, Pribakovic Brinovec R, Josar D, Poldrugovac M, Kostnapfel T, Zaletel M, Panteli D, Maresso A Abstract This analysis of the Slovene health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The health of the population has improved over the last few decades. While life expectancy for both men and women is similar to EU averages, morbidity and mortality data show persistent disparities between regions, and mortality from external causes is particularly high. Satisfaction with health care delivery...
Source: Health systems in transition - July 30, 2016 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

Tajikistan: Health System Review.
Authors: Khodjamurodov G, Sodiqova D, Akkazieva B, Rechel B Abstract The pace of health reforms in Tajikistan has been slow and in many aspects the health system is still shaped by the countrys Soviet legacy. The country has the lowest total health expenditure per capita in the WHO European Region, much of it financed privately through out-of-pocket payments. Public financing depends principally on regional and local authorities, thus compounding regional inequalities across the country. The high share of private out-of-pocket payments undermines a range of health system goals, including financial protection, equit...
Source: Health systems in transition - May 16, 2016 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

United Kingdom: Health System Review.
Authors: Cylus J, Richardson E, Findlay L, Longley M, O'Neill C, Steel D Abstract This analysis of the United Kingdom health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. It provides an overview of how the national health services operate in the four nations that make up the United Kingdom, as responsibility for organizing health financing and services was devolved from 1997. With devolution, the health systems in the United Kingdom have diverged in the details of how services are organized and paid for, but ...
Source: Health systems in transition - April 7, 2016 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

Israel: Health System Review.
Authors: Rosen B, Waitzberg R, Merkur S Abstract Israel is a small country, with just over 8 million citizens and a modern market-based economy with a comparable level of gross domestic product per capita to the average in the European Union. It has had universal health coverage since the introduction of a progressively financed statutory health insurance system in 1995. All citizens can choose from among four competing, non-profit-making health plans, which are charged with providing a broad package of benefits stipulated by the government. Overall, the Israeli health care system is quite efficient. Health status ...
Source: Health systems in transition - April 7, 2016 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

France: Health System Review.
Authors: Chevreul K, Berg Brigham K, Durand-Zaleski I, Hernandez-Quevedo C Abstract This analysis of the French health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The French population has a good level of health, with the second highest life expectancy in the world for women. It has a high level of choice of providers, and a high level of satisfaction with the health system. However, unhealthy habits such as smoking and harmful alcohol consumption remain significant causes of avoidable mortality. Combined w...
Source: Health systems in transition - January 16, 2016 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

Switzerland: Health System Review.
Authors: De Pietro C, Camenzind P, Sturny I, Crivelli L, Edwards-Garavoglia S, Spranger A, Wittenbecher F, Quentin W Abstract This analysis of the Swiss health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The Swiss health system is highly complex, combining aspects of managed competition and corporatism (the integration of interest groups in the policy process) in a decentralized regulatory framework shaped by the influences of direct democracy. The health system performs very well with regard to a broad ran...
Source: Health systems in transition - January 16, 2016 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

Czech Republic: Health System Review.
Authors: Alexa J, Recka L, Votapkova J, van Ginneken E, Spranger A, Wittenbecher F Abstract This analysis of the Czech health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The Czech health-care system is based on compulsory statutory health insurance providing virtually universal coverage and a broad range of benefits, and doing so at 7.7 % of GDP in 2012 - well below the EU average - of which a comparatively high 85 % was publicly funded. Some important health indicators are better than the EU averages (such...
Source: Health systems in transition - June 27, 2015 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

Ukraine: Health System Review.
Authors: Lekhan V, Rudiy V, Shevchenko M, Nitzan Kaluski D, Richardson E Abstract This analysis of the Ukrainian health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. Since the country gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, successive governments have sought to overcome funding shortfalls and modernize the health care system to meet the needs of the population's health. However, no fundamental reform of the system has yet been implemented and consequently it has preserved the main features characte...
Source: Health systems in transition - June 27, 2015 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

Iceland: health system review.
Authors: Sigurgeirsdottir S, Waagfjoro J, Maresso A Abstract This analysis of the Icelandic health system reviews the developments in its organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. Life expectancy at birth is high and Icelandic men and women enjoy longer life in good health than the average European. However, Icelanders are putting on weight, more than half of adult Icelanders were overweight or obese in 2004, and total consumption of alcohol has increased considerably since 1970. The health care system is a small, state centred, publicly fund...
Source: Health systems in transition - February 28, 2015 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

Uzbekistan: health system review.
Authors: Ahmedov M, Azimov R, Mutalova Z, Huseynov S, Tsoyi E, Rechel B Abstract Uzbekistan is a central Asian country that became independent in 1991 with the break-up of the Soviet Union. Since then, it has embarked on several major health reforms covering health care provision, governance and financing, with the aim of improving efficiency while ensuring equitable access. Primary care in rural areas has been changed to a two-tiered system, while specialized polyclinics in urban areas are being transformed into general polyclinics covering all groups of the urban population. Secondary care is financed on the basi...
Source: Health systems in transition - February 20, 2015 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

Italy: health system review.
Authors: Ferre F, de Belvis AG, Valerio L, Longhi S, Lazzari A, Fattore G, Ricciardi W, Maresso A Abstract Italy is the sixth largest country in Europe and has the second highest average life expectancy, reaching 79.4 years for men and 84.5 years for women in 2011. There are marked regional differences for both men and women in most health indicators, reflecting the economic and social imbalance between the north and south of the country. The main diseases affecting the population are circulatory diseases, malignant tumours and respiratory diseases. Italys health care system is a regionally based national health se...
Source: Health systems in transition - December 5, 2014 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

Tajikistan: health system review.
Authors: Khodjamurodov G, Rechel B Abstract The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. Tajikistan is undergoing a complex transition from a health...
Source: Health systems in transition - November 11, 2014 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

Azerbaijan: health system review.
Authors: Ibrahimov F, Ibrahimova A, Kehler J, Richardson E Abstract The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. Azerbaijan gained independence from...
Source: Health systems in transition - November 11, 2014 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

The Netherlands: health system review.
Authors: Schäfer W, Kroneman M, Boerma W, van den Berg M, Westert G, Devillé W, van Ginneken E Abstract The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of health systems and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems. They also describe the institutional framework, process, content, and implementation of health and health care policies, highlighting challenges and areas that require mo...
Source: Health systems in transition - November 11, 2014 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

Spain: Health system review.
Authors: García-Armesto S, Begoña Abadía-Taira M, Durán A, Hernández-Quevedo C, Bernal-Delgado E Abstract The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas...
Source: Health systems in transition - November 11, 2014 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

Belgium: Health system review.
Authors: Gerkens S, Merkur S Abstract The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. The Belgian population continues to enjoy good health and long li...
Source: Health systems in transition - November 11, 2014 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

Greece: Health system review.
This report describes the development of the ESY at the structural level and generally, the process of implementing reforms. The strategic targets of health reform initiatives have been to structure a unified health care sector along the lines of the original ESY proposal and to cope with current inefficiencies. However, the three reforms attempted in the 1990s were never fully implemented, while the ambitious reform project of the period 2000–2004, which provided for the regionalization of the system, new management structures, prospective reimbursement, new employment conditions for hospital doctors, modernization ...
Source: Health systems in transition - November 11, 2014 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

France: Health system review.
Authors: Chevreul K, Durand-Zaleski I, Bahrami SB, Hernández-Quevedo C, Mladovsky P Abstract The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. The...
Source: Health systems in transition - November 11, 2014 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

Ukraine: Health system review.
Authors: Lekhan V, Rudiy V, Richardson E Abstract The HiT profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. The Ukrainian health system has preserved the fundamental features of the Soviet Sem...
Source: Health systems in transition - November 11, 2014 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

United Kingdom (England): Health system review.
Authors: Boyle S Abstract The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. Various indicators show that the health of the population has improved over t...
Source: Health systems in transition - November 11, 2014 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

Slovakia health system review.
Authors: Szalay T, Pazitný P, Szalayová A, Frisová S, Morvay K, Petrovic M, van Ginneken E Abstract The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services, and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more ...
Source: Health systems in transition - November 11, 2014 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

Kyrgyzstan: Health system review.
Authors: Ibraimova A, Akkazieva B, Ibraimov A, Manzhieva E, Rechel B Abstract Kyrgyzstan has undertaken wide-ranging reforms of its health system in a challenging socioeconomic and political context. The country has developed two major health reform programmes after becoming independent: Manas (1996 to 2006) and Manas Taalimi (2006 to 2010). These reforms introduced comprehensive structural changes to the health care delivery system with the aim of strengthening primary health care, developing family medicine and restructuring the hospital sector.Major service delivery improvements have included the introduction of...
Source: Health systems in transition - November 11, 2014 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

Portugal. Health system review.
Authors: Barros PP, Machado SR, Simões Jde A Abstract The Portuguese population enjoys good health and increasing life expectancy, though at lower levels than other western European countries. All residents in Portugal have access to health care provided by the National Health Service (NHS), financed mainly through taxation. Co-payments have been increasing over time, and the level of cost-sharing is highest for pharmaceutical products. Approximately one-fifth to a quarter of the population enjoys a second (or more) layer of health insurance coverage through health subsystems and voluntary health insurance (...
Source: Health systems in transition - November 11, 2014 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

Hungary health system review.
Authors: Gaal P, Szigeti S, Csere M, Gaskins M, Panteli D Abstract Hungary has achieved a successful transition from an overly centralized, integrated Semashko-style health care system to a purchaser provider split model with output-based payment methods. Although there have been substantial increases in life expectancy in recent years among both men and women, many health outcomes remain poor, placing Hungary among the countries with the worst health status and highest rate of avoidable mortality in the EU (life expectancy at birth trailed the EU27 average by 5.1 years in 2009). Lifestyle factors especially the tr...
Source: Health systems in transition - November 11, 2014 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

Turkey. Health system review.
Authors: Tatar M, Mollahalilo─člu S, Sahin B, Aydin S, Maresso A, Hernández-Quevedo C Abstract Turkey has accomplished remarkable improvements in terms of health status in the last three decades, particularly after the implementation of the Health Transformation Program (HTP (Saglikta Donus, um Programi)). Average life expectancy reached 71.8 for men and 76.8 for women in 2010. The infant mortality rate (IMR) decreased to 10.1 per 1000 live births in 2010, down from 117.5 in 1980. Despite these achievements, there are still discrepancies in terms of infant mortality between rural and urban areas and differen...
Source: Health systems in transition - November 11, 2014 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

Russian Federation. Health system review.
Authors: Popovich L, Potapchik E, Shishkin S, Richardson E, Vacroux A, Mathivet B Abstract The HiT reviews are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. At independence from the Soviet Union in 199...
Source: Health systems in transition - November 11, 2014 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

Poland health system review.
Authors: Sagan A, Panteli D, Borkowski W, Dmowski M, Domanski F, Czyzewski M, Gorynski P, Karpacka D, Kiersztyn E, Kowalska I, Ksiezak M, Kuszewski K, Lesniewska A, Lipska I, Maciag R, Madowicz J, Madra A, Marek M, Mokrzycka A, Poznanski D, Sobczak A, Sowada C, Swiderek M, Terka A, Trzeciak P, Wiktorzak K, Wlodarczyk C, Wojtyniak B, Wrzesniewska-Wal I, Zelwianska D, Busse R Abstract Since the successful transition to a freely elected parliament and a market economy after 1989, Poland is now a stable democracy and is well represented within political and economic organizations in Europe and worldwide. The strongly c...
Source: Health systems in transition - November 11, 2014 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

Veneto Region, Italy. Health system review.
Authors: Toniolo F, Mantoan D, Maresso A Abstract The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. This HiT is one of the first to be written on a subnational level of government and focuses on the Veneto Region of northern Italy. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care pol...
Source: Health systems in transition - November 11, 2014 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

Denmark health system review.
Authors: Olejaz M, Juul Nielsen A, Rudkjøbing A, Okkels Birk H, Krasnik A, Hernández-Quevedo C Abstract Denmark has a tradition of a decentralized health system. However, during recent years, reforms and policy initiatives have gradually centralized the health system in different ways. The structural reform of 2007 merged the old counties into fewer bigger regions, and the old municipalities likewise. The hospital structure is undergoing similar reforms, with fewer, bigger and more specialized hospitals. Furthermore, a more centralized approach to planning and regulation has been taking place over rec...
Source: Health systems in transition - November 11, 2014 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

Bulgaria health system review.
Authors: Dimova A, Rohova M, Moutafova E, Atanasova E, Koeva S, Panteli D, van Ginneken E Abstract In the last 20 years, demographic development in Bulgaria has been characterized by population decline, a low crude birth rate, a low fertility rate, a high mortality rate and an ageing population. A stabilizing political situation since the early 2000s and an economic upsurge since the mid-2000s were important factors in the slight increase of the birth and fertility rates and the slight decrease in standardized death rates. In general, Bulgaria lags behind European Union (EU) averages in most mortality and morbidity...
Source: Health systems in transition - November 11, 2014 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

Kazakhkstan health system review.
Authors: Katsaga A, Kulzhanov M, Karanikolos M, Rechel B Abstract Since becoming independent, Kazakhstan has undertaken major efforts in reforming its post-Soviet health system. Two comprehensive reform programmes were developed in the 2000s: the National Programme for Health Care Reform and Development 2005-2010 and the State Health Care Development Programme for 2011-2015 Salamatty Kazakhstan. Changes in health service provision included a reduction of the hospital sector and an increased emphasis on primary health care. However, inpatient facilities continue to consume the bulk of health financing. Partly result...
Source: Health systems in transition - November 11, 2014 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

Sweden health system review.
Authors: Anell A, Glenngård AH, Merkur S Abstract Life expectancy in Sweden is high and the country performs well in comparisons related to disease-oriented indicators of health service outcomes and quality of care. The Swedish health system is committed to ensuring the health of all citizens and abides by the principles of human dignity, need and solidarity, and cost-effectiveness. The state is responsible for overall health policy, while the funding and provision of services lies largely with the county councils and regions. The municipalities are responsible for the care of older and disabled people. The m...
Source: Health systems in transition - November 11, 2014 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

Cyprus health system review.
Authors: Theodorou M, Charalambous C, Petrou C, Cylus J Abstract The health system in Cyprus comprises separate public and private systems of similar size. The public system, which is financed by the state budget, is highly centralized and tightly controlled by the Ministry of Health. Entitlement to receive free health services is based on residency and income level. The private system is almost completely separate from the public system and for the most part is unregulated and largely financed out of pocket. In many ways there is an imbalance between the public and private sectors. The public system suffers from l...
Source: Health systems in transition - November 11, 2014 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

Republic of Moldova health system review.
Authors: Turcanu G, Domente S, Buga M, Richardson E Abstract The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. The reform of health financing in the Repu...
Source: Health systems in transition - November 11, 2014 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

United Kingdom (Northern Ireland): Health system review.
Authors: O'Neill C, McGregor P, Merkur S Abstract The political context within which Northern Irelands integrated health and social care system operates has changed since the establishment of a devolved administration (the Northern Ireland Assembly, set up in 1998 but suspended between 2002 and 2007). A locally elected Health Minister now leads the publicly financed system and has considerable power to set policy and, in principle, to determine the operation of other health and social care bodies. The system underwent major reform following the passing of the Health and Social Care (Reform) Act (Northern Ireland) i...
Source: Health systems in transition - November 11, 2014 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

United Kingdom (Wales): Health system review.
Authors: Longley M, Riley N, Davies P, Hernandez-Quevedo C Abstract Wales is situated to the west of England, with a population of approximately 3 million (5% of the total for the United Kingdom), and a land mass of just over 20 000 km2. For several decades, Wales had a health system largely administered through the United Kingdom Governments Welsh Office, but responsibility for most aspects of health policy was devolved to Wales in a process beginning in 1999. Since then, differences between the policy approach and framework in England and Wales have widened. The internal market introduced in the United Kingdom Na...
Source: Health systems in transition - November 11, 2014 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

Latvia: Health system review.
Authors: Mitenbergs U, Taube M, Misins J, Mikitis E, Martinsons A, Rurane A, Quentin W Abstract This analysis of the Latvian health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health-system performance. Latvia has been constantly reforming its health system for over two decades. After independence in 1991, Latvia initially moved to create a social health insurance type system. However, problems with decentralized planning and fragmented and inefficient financing led to this being gradually reversed, and ultimately the establishment i...
Source: Health systems in transition - November 11, 2014 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

United Kingdom (Scotland): Health system review.
Authors: Steel D, Cylus J Abstract Over the last decade, Scotland's health system has increasingly diverged from the health system in England. Scotland has pursued an approach stressing integration and partnership among all parts of its NHS as opposed to an English approach in part driven by market forces. Comparatively fewer organizational and structural changes, in addition to consistent policy objectives, have provided a strong launching pad for achieving improvement. Substantial increases in funding have led to significant growth in the clinical workforce and numerous performance targets have been set to improv...
Source: Health systems in transition - November 11, 2014 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

Canada: Health system review.
Authors: Marchildon G Abstract Canada is a high-income country with a population of 33 million people. Its economic performance has been solid despite the recession that began in 2008. Life expectancy in Canada continues to rise and is high compared with most OECD countries; however, infant and maternal mortality rates tend to be worse than in countries such as Australia, France and Sweden. About 70% of total health expenditure comes from the general tax revenues of the federal, provincial and territorial governments. Most public revenues for health are used to provide universal medicare (medically necessary hospit...
Source: Health systems in transition - November 11, 2014 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

Lithuania: health system review.
Authors: Murauskiene L, Janoniene R, Veniute M, van Ginneken E, Karanikolos M Abstract This analysis of the Lithuanian health system reviews the developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance since 2000.The Lithuanian health system is a mixed system, predominantly funded from the National Health Insurance Fund through a compulsory health insurance scheme, supplemented by substantial state contributions on behalf of the economically inactive population amounting to about half of its budget. Public financing of the health sector has g...
Source: Health systems in transition - November 11, 2014 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news

United States of America: health system review.
Authors: Rice T, Rosenau P, Unruh LY, Barnes AJ, Saltman RB, van Ginneken E Abstract This analysis of the United States health system reviews the developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The US health system has both considerable strengths and notable weaknesses. It has a large and well-trained health workforce, a wide range of high-quality medical specialists as well as secondary and tertiary institutions, a robust health sector research program and, for selected services, among the best medical outcomes in the world. But it...
Source: Health systems in transition - November 11, 2014 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Syst Transit Source Type: news