New study pinpoints ways to improve quality of food & nutrition research
(FoodMinds LLC) In a study published today in PLOS ONE, experts analyzed reams of past food and nutrition research to help identify and spur action in areas where meaningful improvements can be made in the design and execution of future food and nutrition studies. This is one of the first studies to use 'Risk of Bias (ROB) domains,' as defined by Cochrane, in this way. Researchers typically use ROB domains to evaluate the relative strengths of individual studies when conducting systematic reviews. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - July 5, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

An aggressor is not necessarily a bully -- and the distinction matters
(University at Buffalo) There is a difference between general aggressive behavior and bullying. They are not the same thing and the distinction matters, according to the findings of a new paper by a University at Buffalo psychologist who is among the country's leading authorities on aggression, bullying and peer victimization. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - July 5, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Our human ancestors walked on two feet but their children still had a backup plan
(Dartmouth College) More than 3 million years ago, our ancient human ancestors, including their toddler-aged children, were standing on two feet and walking upright, according to a new study published in Science Advances. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - July 4, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Engineering cooperation
(Institute of Science and Technology Austria) Social dilemmas occur when individual desires clash with group needs. How can people be encouraged to cooperate when they have reason not to? In a new Nature paper, scientists show that if the social dilemma that individuals face are dependent on if they work together, cooperation can triumph. This finding resulted from a new framework that they introduced, which extends the entire theory of repeated games. Moreover, their work provides tools to systematically build cooperation. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - July 4, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

A diet rich in nuts improves sperm count and motility
(European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology) The inclusion of nuts in a regular diet significantly improves the quality and function of human sperm, according to results of a randomised trial which measured conventional semen parameters and molecular changes over a 14-week study period. The findings, say the investigators, 'support a beneficial role for chronic nut consumption in sperm quality' and reflect a research need for further male-specific dietary recommendations. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - July 4, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Only 7 percent of social egg freezers have returned for fertility treatment at a large European center
(European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology) Despite dramatic uptake in the numbers of women electing to freeze their eggs as insurance against an anticipated age-related fertility decline, there is still little that clinics can predict about outcome based on real-life experience. Indeed, at one of Europe's biggest fertility centers -- the Brussels Centre for Reproductive Medicine in Belgium -- only 7.6 percent of women have returned to thaw their eggs and try for a pregnancy. And only one-third of those have been successful. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - July 3, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Consciousness is partly preserved during general anesthesia
(University of Turku) Finnish researchers have gained new information on brain activity during general anesthesia by recording changes in the electrical activity of the brain. They discovered that changes in electroencephalogram correlated with the loss of consciousness itself and also by the non-specific effects of the drugs. Nearly all participants recalled dreaming during unresponsiveness and, somewhat surprisingly, words presented during anesthesia were still processed in the brain even though the participants were unable to recall them later. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - July 3, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Commonly used preventive therapy for recurrent miscarriage proved ineffective in large trial
(European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology) An immune response to pregnancy (in which the uterus rejects the embryo or foetus) is said to explain a large number of otherwise 'unexplained' miscarriages. Thus, preventive treatment designed to suppress this immunological rejection during implantation and pregnancy has become a commonly accepted -- albeit innovative - approach to preventing recurrent pregnancy loss. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - July 3, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

More than 8 million babies born from IVF since the world's first in 1978
(European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology) Forty years after the birth of Louise Brown, the world's first test-tube baby, an international committee monitoring progress in assisted reproduction reports today that the global total of babies born as a result of IVF and other advanced fertility treatments is 'more than 8 million.' (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - July 3, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Energizing eggs with a patient's own mitochondria offers no benefit in assisted reproduction
(European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology) A controversial technique of energizing eggs to improve their quality in assisted reproduction has been shown in an experimental randomized trial to offer no benefit in terms of pregnancy or live birth rate. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - July 3, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Testosterone increases men's preference for status goods
(INSEAD) Testosterone, the male sex hormone, increased men's preference for status goods compared to goods of similar perceived quality but seen as lower in status. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - July 3, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

The impact of the sugar tax in Chile: A bittersweet success?
(University of York) A new sugar tax introduced on soft drinks in Chile has been effective in reducing consumption of sugary drinks, new research carried out in the country has revealed.However, the international research team, led by academics from the University of York, say although consumption may have dropped, it may not be enough to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in diet-related health. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - July 3, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Testosterone causes men to desire luxury goods
(California Institute of Technology) Researchers examine testosterone's effect on men's desire for goods that are considered to have social cachet. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - July 3, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Feeling young could mean your brain is aging more slowly
(Frontiers) While some people are young at heart, others feel older than their age -- and a recent study finds that this 'subjective age' may reflect brain aging. Researchers found that elderly people who feel younger than their age had a younger estimated brain age, compared with those who felt their age, or older than their age. The study is the first to find a link between brain aging and subjective age. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - July 3, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Consciousness is partly preserved during general anaesthesia
(University of Turku) Finnish researchers have gained new information on brain activity during general anaesthesia by recording changes in the electrical activity of the brain. They discovered that changes in electroencephalogram correlated with the loss of consciousness itself and also by the non-specific effects of the drugs. Nearly all participants recalled dreaming during unresponsiveness and, somewhat surprisingly, words presented during anaesthesia were still processed in the brain even though the participants were unable to recall them later. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - July 3, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

'Find your passion' may not be the best advice after all
(Yale-NUS College) As the world becomes increasingly interdisciplinary, having diverse interests can help people make important connections across fields, such as between the Arts and Sciences. A new study by Yale-NUS College Assistant Professor of Psychology Paul A. O'Keefe and colleagues suggests that one's belief about the nature of interests might prevent those insights from happening. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - July 3, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Smarter, safer bridges with Sandia sensors
(DOE/Sandia National Laboratories) Sandia National Laboratories has worked for over 15 years to turn science-fiction smart bridges that can send out warnings when they're damaged into science fact. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - July 3, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

When there is no one around
(National Research University Higher School of Economics) According to the researchers of the Higher School of Economics, personality development is associated with positive acceptance of solitude. Their study 'Personality Development and the Quality of Solitude 'is based on a survey of 204 respondents (41 men and 163 women), mostly students, aged 16 to 25. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - July 3, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Can citizen science reverse the extinction of experience?
(North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences) Opportunities for people to interact with nature have declined over the past century, as many now live in urban areas and spend much of their time indoors. Conservation attitudes and behaviors largely depend on experiences with nature, and this 'extinction of experience' (EOE) is a threat to biodiversity conservation. In a study released today, researchers propose that citizen science, an increasingly popular way to integrate public outreach with data collection, can potentially mitigate EOE. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - July 3, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Can parents of juvenile offenders still dream?
(Michigan State University) A new study from Michigan State University published in the Journal of Research on Adolescence reveals that mothers don't lose hope for their sons' futures and potential -- even if they are arrested as a minor. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - July 3, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Illinois child care providers need resources to serve children with disabilities
(University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) Illinois child care providers often lack the resources to serve children with disabilities, study finds. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - July 3, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Caring for seniors with dementia and their caregivers: A guide for physicians
(Canadian Medical Association Journal) Community-based health care providers, such as physicians, nurse practitioners and others, should be aware of services and resources to help people living at home with dementia as well as their caregivers. A review in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal) aims to provide guidance to health care providers as well as government and health system planners, based on recent evidence. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - July 3, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Is drinking more coffee associated with lower risk of death?
(JAMA Network) Coffee is popular around the globe and studies have generally reported inverse associations (moving in opposite directions) between its consumption and the risk of chronic diseases and death. But what about heavy coffee drinking and people with genetic variations that can affect how they metabolize caffeine? (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - July 2, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Are hopes, plans for future associated with lower odds of perpetrating weapon-related violence?
(JAMA Network) Hopes and plans for the future were associated with lower odds of perpetrating weapon-related violence in a new study based on survey data from predominantly black/African-American male youths in low-resource neighborhoods in Pittsburgh who were enrolled in a violence prevention trial. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - July 2, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Brain stimulation decreases intent to commit physical, sexual assault
(University of Pennsylvania) Research from the University of Pennsylvania shows that using minimally invasive electrical currents on the brain's prefrontal cortex can reduce the intention to carry out physical and sexual assault. It's a new and promising approach to interventions around violence. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - July 2, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

The vanishing nuclear industry
(College of Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University) Could nuclear power make a significant contribution to decarbonizing the US energy system over the next three or four decades? That is the question asked by four current and former researchers from Carnegie Mellon University. Their answer: probably not. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - July 2, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

More young people active in public affairs despite negative perceptions
(University of Huddersfield) Fears that democratic society could be undermined because young people are not participating enough in public affairs have been dispelled by researchers at the University of Huddersfield. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - July 2, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Better social support and access to exercise classes could help people with lung conditions
(University of Lincoln) Research has found that contact with healthcare professionals, support from peers and access to regular organized exercise sessions help people with chronic lung conditions to be physically active. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - July 2, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

SenseTime debuts in Singapore by signing MOU with local giants NTU, NSCC and Singtel
(Nanyang Technological University) SenseTime, an industry-leading artificial intelligence (AI) company, signed memoranda of understanding (MOU) with three leading Singaporean organizations, namely Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore), National Supercomputing Centre of Singapore (NSCC), and Singapore Telecommunications Limited (Singtel). The parties aim to collaborate broadly, leveraging strengths and customer base of each other, to advance AI research, accelerate digitalization for both established corporates and SMEs, and develop AI-based solutions catering to industrial and institutional needs, bot...
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - July 2, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Prospective teachers more likely to view black faces than white faces as angry
(North Carolina State University) A preliminary study of prospective teachers finds that they are more likely to view the face of black adults as angry compared to the faces of white adults. Similarly, the study participants viewed the behavior of black children as more hostile than the behavior of white children. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - July 2, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Deaths tied to viral videos inspire prevention research
(Clemson University) Clemson University researchers are launching a project aimed at better understanding social media challenges and what can be done to protect adolescents and young adults from harming themselves. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - July 2, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Neandertals practiced close-range hunting 120,000 years ago
(Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz) An international team of scientists reports the oldest unambiguous hunting lesions documented in the history of humankind. The lesions were found on skeletons of two large-sized extinct fallow deer killed by Neandertals about 120,000 years ago around the shores of a small lake (Neumark-Nord 1) near present-day Halle in the eastern part of Germany. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - July 2, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Joslin researchers report excessive fetal growth despite well-controlled type 1 diabetes
(Mary Ann Liebert, Inc./Genetic Engineering News) A new study has shown that despite excellent glycemic control and low glycemic variability throughout their pregnancies, women with type 1 diabetes tended to give birth to infants who were large for gestational age. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - July 2, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Three research-based ways to maximize the fun of leisure activities
(Ohio State University) Everyone's so busy these days that it is easy to think you need to schedule time to have fun. But be careful about how you do that, said Selin Malkoc, a time management expert at The Ohio State University's Fisher College of Business. Research shows that scheduling can undermine enjoyment if it is not done right, (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - July 2, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Utah soil's slippery grip on nutrients
(University of Utah) Lawns in the Salt Lake Valley up to 100 years old are not yet saturated in the nutrient nitrogen, which is added by fertilizer, according to a new study from University of Utah researchers. The result is surprising, since previous studies in the Eastern US suggested that fertilized soil would become saturated with nitrogen within a few decades. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - July 2, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

The gender bias of names: Surnames standing solo gives men advantage
(Cornell University) In new research, Cornell University psychologists find that study participants, on average, were more than twice as likely to call male professionals -- even fictional ones -- by their last name only, compared to equivalent female professionals. This example of gender bias, say researchers, may be contributing to gender inequality. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - July 2, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Athletic 'pull' increases campus diversity
(Penn State) The next time you see your favorite collegiate athlete on the field or court, think again about their road to getting there.That is something Clio Andris, assistant professor of geography at Penn State, has spent the past several years piecing together. Her findings were published in The Professional Geographer. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - July 2, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

When mentors do this one thing, it can help reduce teen delinquency
(University of Kansas) When educators and coaches make kids feel like they matter, it reduces delinquency and destructive behavior, according to a study led by a University of Kansas professor. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - July 2, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Downloading Chinese wisdom
(University of Konstanz) Konstanz online publication, written by Chinese early career researchers on the topic of intercultural understanding between Chinese doctoral students and German supervisors, reaches more than 100,000 readers. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - June 29, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Not all diversity is equally beneficial
(National Research University Higher School of Economics) Experts from the Higher School of Economics have determined that cultural diversity is beneficial for team performance in eSports, while language and experience diversity negatively affect performance. These results might be of interest to companies of similar industries aiming to maximize profits. The study, entitled 'Is Diversity Good or Bad? Evidence from eSports Teams Analysis,' was published in the journal Applied Economics. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - June 29, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

NUS and SMI set up S$18 million research center to enhance global competitiveness of Singapore's maritime and port industries
(National University of Singapore) With the support of the Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore, the National University of Singapore and the Singapore Maritime Institute today established a S$18 million research center to enable Singapore's maritime and port industries to develop innovative capabilities and enhance their global competitiveness. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - June 29, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Research shows benefit of giant panda conservation far exceeds cost
(Chinese Academy of Sciences Headquarters) To determine the value of panda conservation, a research team led by Prof. WEI Fuwen from the Institute of Zoology, together with colleagues from other research organizations, cooperated to assess the value of ecosystem services from giant panda reserves for the first time. They found that the value provided by the giant pandas and forested habitat within nature reserves is about 10-27 times the conservation cost of giant pandas. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - June 28, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

The problem with solving problems
(Harvard University) As demonstrated in a series of new studies, Harvard researchers show that as the prevalence of a problem is reduced, humans are naturally inclined to redefine the problem itself. The result is that as a problem becomes smaller, people's conceptualizations of that problem become larger, which can lead them to miss the fact that they've solved it. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - June 28, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Genetic ancestry test users 'cherry-pick' which races to identify with
(University of British Columbia) Genetic ancestry tests are often advertised as a tool to uncover new connections to diverse cultures and ancestries, but new research from the University of British Columbia has found people tend to pick and choose which races they identify with based on preconceived biases. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - June 28, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Perceived race of victims, location determine concern in terrorist attack
(University of Kansas) In response to an international terrorist attack, the public's level of concern has to do with the locations of the attacks and the perceived identities of the victims, according to a new study by two University of Kansas researchers. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - June 28, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

I am human, hear me roar: Judging formidability from human vocalizations
(Cell Press) Many animals use vocalizations to judge one another's size and physical formidability when in competition for mates or other resources. Now, researchers reporting in the journal iScience have found that humans can use nonverbal vocal cues, including aggressive roars, in a similar way. The new evidence shows from a vocalization alone, human listeners can estimate whether another person is stronger or weaker or taller or shorter than they are with a high degree of accuracy. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - June 28, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Microtransactions can move popular online games closer to online gambling
(Society for the Study of Addiction) An editorial published today by Addiction argues that some online games use in-game purchasing systems that disguise or withhold the long-term cost of microtransactions until the player is already financially and psychologically committed. Such purchasing systems push free-to-play online gaming closer to gambling and may present financial risks for vulnerable players. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - June 28, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Gaming or gambling? Online transactions blur boundaries
(University of Adelaide) In-game purchasing systems, such as 'loot boxes', in popular online games resemble gambling and may pose financial risks for vulnerable players, according to gambling psychology researchers at the University of Adelaide. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - June 28, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Empathetic police are less effective in the face of public criticism, study says
(University of Texas at Austin) Police officers who endorse an empathetic approach to criminal justice do not perform as well when they sense they are underappreciated, according to new research from The University of Texas at Austin. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - June 28, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Less than a quarter of American youths previously treated for anxiety disorders stay anxiety-free
(Elsevier) For the majority of affected youth, anxiety disorders are chronic, even after a successful course of evidence-based treatments, reports a study published in the July 2018 issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (JAACAP). (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - June 28, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news