Two Penn professors named Guggenheim Fellows
(University of Pennsylvania) University of Pennsylvania sociology professor Charles L. Bosk and Charles Yang, professor of linguistics and computer science, have been awarded 2018 John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation fellowships. They are among 173 scholars, artists, and scientists selected from nearly 3,000 applicants in the United States and Canada, chosen on the basis of prior achievement and exceptional promise. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 6, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Genetics of the modern heirs of the Incas shed new lights about their origins and lineages
(Universidad de San Martin de Porres) A study of the Inka origins and their lineages was performed in twelve contemporary families with presumed patrilineal lineage to Inka monarchs. A comparison of Y-chromosome and mtDNA markers of these descendants with a database of about 2400 South American native individuals of Peru, Bolivia, Brasil and Ecuador showed two distinct patrilineal clusters, and a very diverse matrilineal origin. In addition they show great affinity to areas South of Cusco including the Lake Titicaca. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 6, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Optimism remains in chickens in enriched environments despite exposure to stress
(Link ö ping University) Chickens that grow up in an environment that they perceive as more diverse and manageable, retain an optimistic view of life and cope with stress better than individuals that grow up in more sterile surroundings, according to a new study published in Scientific Reports. A team of researchers lead by researchers from Link ö ping University, Sweden, measured how optimism in chickens is affected by stress. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 6, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

New Pan-European electronic invoicing in the healthcare sector
(Universidad Carlos III de Madrid) A European group of scientists, technologists and providers of e-invoicing services, in which Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (UC3M) researchers participate, have developed a new electronic invoicing system among different European countries for the public and private healthcare sector that automates, enhances and expedites the relation with public and private suppliers from different European countries. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 6, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

School lunch decisions made by the child and not the parent
(Elsevier) While school lunches in the UK are subject to food standards, the contents of packed lunches are not as closely scrutinized, and studies have raised concern regarding the nutritional quality of packed lunches. A new study published in the Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior found that children, not their parents, are often the primary decision maker of whether they will eat a school lunch or what is packed for their lunch. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 6, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Genetics of the modern heirs of the Inkas shed new lights about their origins and lineages
(Universidad de San Martin de Porres) A study of the Inka origins and their lineages was performed in twelve contemporary families with presumed patrilineal lineage to Inka monarchs. A comparison of Y-chromosome and mtDNA markers of these descendants with a database of about 2400 South American native individuals of Peru, Bolivia, Brasil and Ecuador showed two distinct patrilineal clusters, and a very diverse matrilineal origin. In addition they show great affinity to areas South of Cusco including the Lake Titicaca. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 6, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

$3.2 million grant supports SF State University study of childhood obesity disparities
(San Francisco State University) SF State University's Department of Health Education has received a $3.2 million grant from the National Institutes of Health to study the effects of state and federal nutrition policies and community environments on childhood health and obesity disparities. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 5, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Legal barriers hindering ASEAN trade: Report
(Singapore Managment University) ASEAN's legal frameworks must keep pace with how businesses use technology today, say Singapore Management University researchers. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 5, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

When health care hurts: High-deductible plans raise financial risk
(University of Southern California) This marks the latest study in a series to show that consumers on high-deductible plans are not making wiser, cost-saving choices than are o ffered by traditional plans. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 5, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Animal study suggests common diabetes drug may also help with nicotine withdrawal
(Johns Hopkins Medicine) In a mouse study, a drug that has helped millions of people around the world manage their diabetes might also help people ready to kick their nicotine habits (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 5, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

A heavy working memory load may sink brainwave 'synch'
(Picower Institute at MIT) When working memory load exceeds capacity, a new study finds, feedback coupling of the prefrontal cortex with other involved regions shuts down. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 5, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

NTU Singapore and SERI invent new scope to diagnose glaucoma
(Nanyang Technological University) A new 'pen camera' has been developed jointly by scientists from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) and the Singapore Eye Research Institute (SERI) to diagnose the glaucoma type in a cheaper, more efficient manner. Currently, an eye specialist has to press a glass scope against a patient's eye to make a diagnosis. As this process is time-consuming and requires a skilled eye specialist, it is not done as often as required during eye checks. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 5, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

The traits of fast typists discovered by analyzing 136 million keystrokes
(Aalto University) An online study with 168,000 people shows large variation in typing speeds and styles. The dataset is the largest ever on everyday typing and exposed several factors that differentiate fast vs. slow typists. In addition to making less errors, the researchers found that fastest typists rely on so-called 'rollover' where a letter key is typed already before the previous one is released. The data is published and free to use for research purposes. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 5, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Ten researchers to receive Germany's most important award for early career researchers
(Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) This year 10 researchers -- five women and five men -- will receive the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Prize, the most important award for early career researchers in Germany. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 5, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

270 million visits made to English coastlines each year
(University of Exeter) Research has revealed for the first time that around 271 million recreational visits are made to marine and coastal environments in England. Conducted by the University of Exeter Medical School and published in the journal Marine Policy, the research found that the most common activity on these visits is walking.The study also revealed that most people head to these 'blue' environments for relaxation and social reasons. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 5, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Dr. Patricia K. Coyle, multiple sclerosis clinician and researcher to lecture on DMTs
(Consortium of MS Centers) Optimal use of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) may be one of the single most important clinical decisions made in treating multiple sclerosis (MS). Currently, there are numerous DMT options and selection can be a complex issue for the clinician and patient. Patricia K. Coyle, M.D., FAAN, FANA, Director, MS Comprehensive Care Center, Stony Brook University Medical Center, will present the Donald Paty Memorial Lecture at the CMSC Annual Meeting on 'DMT-Debates - Stopping, Switching, Re-starting.' (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 5, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Class clowns: Playful boys viewed more negatively than playful girls, study finds
(Frontiers) New research finds that boys with a playful disposition in kindergarten are viewed as rebellious and disruptive by teachers, as opposed to playful girls who are not labeled this way. Teachers disregard for these 'class clowns' -- and their active discouragement of expressions of playful behavior -- is assimilated by the boys themselves as well as their peers, leading to more negative perceptions of the boys and decreasing their self-esteem. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 5, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

New in the Hastings Center Report, March-April 2018
(The Hastings Center) Daniel Callahan on Steven Pinker's new book, rethinking the right to know incidental findings, mental illness and gun control, and more in the March-April 2018 issue. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 5, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Nicotine-imbibing teenage rats show an increased risk for drinking alcohol as adults
(University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine) Rats who were dosed with nicotine during their adolescence grew up to drink alcohol more often than those who weren't exposed to nicotine or were only exposed to it during adulthood. Exposure to nicotine at a young age changed the neuronal circuitry in the rat brain's reward pathways (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 5, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Amid outcry over Facebook's privacy issues, new approaches are needed to protect consumers
(Indiana University) Facebook's current privacy crisis and questions about how Google gathers, uses and stores our personal information demonstrate an urgent need to review and replace inadequate and outdated ways to regulate data and information, according to research from Indiana University's Kelley School of Business. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 5, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Why do children tattle?
(Wiley) When young children see a peer cause harm, they often tattle to a caregiver. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 5, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Regular stretching shown to improve muscles in elderly
(The Physiological Society) Daily muscle stretching could bring health benefits to elderly people with reduced mobility, according to new research published today in the Journal of Physiology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 4, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Study shows how moms' brains are hard-wired to gather young
(NYU Langone Health / NYU School of Medicine) A mother's 'basic instinct' to grab her wandering offspring and return them to the nest depends on a specific set of brain cell signals, a new study in mice finds. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 4, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Pulling valuable metals from e-waste makes financial sense
(American Chemical Society) Electronic waste -- including discarded televisions, computers and mobile phones -- is one of the fastest-growing waste categories worldwide. For years, recyclers have gleaned usable parts, including metals, from this waste stream. That makes sense from a sustainability perspective, but it's been unclear whether it's reasonable from an economic viewpoint. Now researchers report in ACS' journal Environmental Science& Technology that recovering gold, copper and other metals from e-waste is cheaper than obtaining these metals from mines. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 4, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Are people with Parkinson's disease depressed or demoralized?
(American Academy of Neurology) People with Parkinson's disease who show signs of depression may actually have a condition called demoralization, according to a study published in the April 4, 2018, online issue of Neurology ® , the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology. That study found demoralization may be common in Parkinson's disease. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 4, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Diabetes awareness 'major concern' for UK Asians
(Anglia Ruskin University) South Asians living in the UK feel cut off and excluded from education or self-help programmes, preventing them from managing their diabetes properly, according to new research published in the journal Ethnicity and Health. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 4, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Mental disorder rates differ by immigration status and ethnicity of American adolescents
(Elsevier) Immigrant youth from specific racial-ethnic groups in the USA tend to have lower rates of certain mental disorders compared to their non-immigrant peers, reports a study published in the April 2018 issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (JAACAP). (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 4, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Tough situation after giving birth for women with type-1 diabetes
(University of Gothenburg) Holding a newborn baby -- and, at the same time, dealing with a blood sugar level that is fluctuating like never before. For some women with type-1 diabetes, the situation right after giving birth is overwhelming, and they need more support, according to research at Sahlgrenska Academy. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 4, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

New study examines prescribing antipsychotic medication for children with autism
(Swansea University) A new study by Swansea University has suggested that children with intellectual difficulty or autism are more likely to be given antipsychotic medication from a younger age than those without intellectual disability and have higher rates of hospitalisation for depression and for injury and also are at risk of other medical side effects. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 4, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Robotics takes mass spec to the third dimension for forensics, pharma applications
(American Chemical Society) Within the past decade, many advancements have been made in the 3-D market from printing to movies. Now scientists report in ACS' Analytical Chemistry that by combining a robotic arm and mass spectrometry, they can analyze the surface of irregularly shaped 3-D objects, potentially opening up new branches of forensics and pharmaceutics. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 4, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Frankfurt University Library joins the Biodiversity Heritage Library
(Goethe University Frankfurt) The University Library Johann Christian Senckenberg (UB JCS) in Frankfurt am Main just joined the Biodiversity Heritage Library (BHL) as an official Affiliate. BHL is an online library sustained by nearly 40 natural history libraries and museums from around the world. UB JCS is the first German library to join the consortium. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 4, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

In promoting vaccination, behavioral strategies more effective than persuasion
(Association for Psychological Science) Faced with outbreaks of influenza and other vaccine-preventable diseases, parents, educators, healthcare providers, and policymakers around the world often want to know how to persuade people to get their vaccinations. But a comprehensive review of the scientific findings from research on vaccination behavior shows that the most effective interventions focus directly on shaping patients' and parents' behavior instead of trying to change their minds. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 4, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Connecting hearing helper molecules to the ear bone
(American Chemical Society) Hearing loss is a common affliction associated with advancing age and exposure to very loud noises, affecting two-thirds of adults over age 70. But living with hearing loss may not be inevitable. Scientists report in the ACS journal Bioconjugate Chemistry a novel approach to the restoration of hearing that delivers stimulants of cell growth and connectivity directly to damaged ear cells. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 4, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Personal outreach to landowners is vital to conservation program success
(Virginia Tech) Research published in PLOS ONE shows that private landowners trust conservation agencies more and have better views of program outcomes when they accompany conservation biologists who are monitoring habitat management on their land. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 4, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

What lies beneath: 'Cognitive' GPR could vastly speed urban construction
(University of Vermont) Technology being developed by the universities of Vermont and Tennessee uses ground-penetrating radar integrated with photogrammetry and augmented reality apps to provide a view of buried infrastructure six to 12 feet underground at construction sites, vastly speeding the site inspection process. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 4, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Hawaiian-language newspapers illuminate an 1871 hurricane
(University of Hawaii at Manoa) A major hurricane struck the islands of Hawai'i and Maui on Aug. 9, 1871, and wrought widespread destruction from Hilo to Lahaina. A recent study by two scientists, a Hawaiian language expert, and an educator from the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa (UH Mānoa) revealed how historical Hawaiian-language newspapers expand knowledge of this and other natural disasters of the past. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 3, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Sudden loss of wealth associated with increased risk of death
(JAMA Network) Loss of wealth over two years among middle-aged and older adults in the US was associated with an increased risk of death. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 3, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Use of solid fuels for heating, cooking in China associated with increased risk of death
(JAMA Network) Use of coal, wood or charcoal for cooking and heating in rural China was associated with a greater risk of death, with that risk decreased by having switched to gas, electricity or central heating, or using ventilation. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 3, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Losing your nest egg can kill you
(Northwestern University) A sudden loss of net worth in middle or older age is associated with a significantly higher risk of death, reports a new study. When people lose a big chunk of their total wealth during a two-year period, they are 50 percent more likely to die in the next 20 years. More than 25 percent of Americans had a wealth shock over the 20 years of the study. This is the first look at the long-term effects of a large financial loss. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 3, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Flare-responsive hydrogel developed to treat arthritis
(Brigham and Women's Hospital) BWH bioengineers and physicians team up to develop a better delivery system for getting anti-inflammatory therapies to the sites where they are needed most. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 3, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

What makes us truly happy and healthy?
(Harvard University) Researchers at Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and at Aetna are embarking on a collaborative, multi-year study of well-being intended both to advance scientific understanding of what it means to be truly healthy across numerous dimensions and to translate that knowledge into practice. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 3, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Study says meat protein is unhealthy, but protein from nuts and seeds is heart smart
(Loma Linda University Adventist Health Sciences Center) A study conducted by researchers in California and France has found that meat protein is associated with a sharp increased risk of heart disease while protein from nuts and seeds is beneficial for the human heart. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 3, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Human daily rhythms: Clocks vs. light/dark cycle
(University of Seville) From time use surveys in 17 European countries and two American countries (located from 35 º to 61 º latitude) this study characterizes laborer's primary activities and get them positioned along the daily and yearly cycle of light and dark. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 3, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Memory training needs to target specific difficulties to be effective, suggests study
(Baycrest Centre for Geriatric Care) A recently published Baycrest study suggests that training programs can help, but only if they are tailored towards an individual's specific memory difficulty, such as trouble remembering faces, voices or recent events. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 3, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

A New Metasurface Model Shows Potential to Control Acoustic Wave Reflection
(American Institute of Physics) Typically, when a soundwave strikes a surface, it reflects back at the same fundamental frequency with a different amplitude. A new model, reported in the Journal of Applied Physics, shows that when a sound wave hits a nonlinear elastic metasurface, the incident fundamental frequency does not bounce back. Instead, the metasurface converts that energy into the wave's second harmonic resonance. Developing this metasurface could help architects reduce noise from performance halls to cityscapes. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 3, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Paper: Surprise can be an agent of social change
(University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) Surprising someone -- whether it's by a joke or via a gasp-inducing plot twist -- can be a memorable experience, but a less heralded effect is that it can provide an avenue to influence people, said Jeffrey Loewenstein, a professor of business administration at the Gies College of Business at Illinois. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 3, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

A letter we've seen millions of times, yet can't write
(Johns Hopkins University) Despite seeing it millions of times in pretty much every picture book, every novel, every newspaper and every email message, people are essentially unaware of the more common version of the lowercase print letter 'g,' Johns Hopkins researchers have found. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 3, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Considering an employee for an overseas assignment?
(Florida Atlantic University) A new study from Florida Atlantic University shows that expatriates' personality characteristics have a lot to do with how well they adjust and whether they succeed and provide a return on a company's considerable investment in an individual. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 3, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Debt matters: Women use credit to bridge income gaps, while men are less cautious
(American University) A new study on attitudes about debt shows that men have greater tolerance for using debt to buy luxury items, while women are more accepting of debt used in appropriate ways, including to bridge income gaps. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 3, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Professor makes legal case for schools to challenge cyberbullies
(University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) Student bullying on the internet could be headed for a showdown with a 50-year-old U.S. Supreme Court case that granted expansive First Amendment rights to kids in public school. When it does, University of Illinois journalism professor Benjamin Holden, through a two-part legal study - part of which was published this week - is ready to make the case for challenging the offenders, arguing for new standards under which school officials can punish cyberbullying. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 3, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news