Responding to extremist attacks: For Muslim leaders, 'It's damned if you do, damned if you don't'
(University of Michigan) Muslim leaders face a perilous task when asked to publicly respond to violent attacks carried out by Muslim extremists. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 30, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Sleep and exercise affect new moms differently than new dads
(Penn State) In a study looking at the daily lives of new parents, researchers found that getting more physical activity and sleep was linked with more personal well-being. However, fathers who slept more on average than other fathers reported lower overall well-being and less closeness with their partner and child. Additionally, on days when mothers exercised more than usual, there was a higher chance of an argument. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 30, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Television programming for children reveals systematic gender inequality
(Rutgers University) Programming children watch on American TV shows systematic gender inequality, according to new research. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 30, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder prevalence is very high in susceptible groups worldwide
(Society for the Study of Addiction) A major new review of the world literature has found that fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is 10 to 40 times higher in certain susceptible groups than the general population. These groups include children in care, people in correctional services or special education services, Aboriginal populations, and people using specialized clinical services. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 30, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Expert: Justin Trudeau's French isn't bad; Quebecers just don't think he belongs
(Binghamton University) Quebec's criticism of Justin Trudeau's French serves to position him as an 'outsider' to Quebecois identity, according to a professor at Binghamton University, State University of New York. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 30, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Suicide rates spike nationally among youth after '13 Reasons Why' release
(Nationwide Children's Hospital) A recent study revealed approximately 195 more youth suicide deaths than expected were associated with the television series '13 Reasons Why' in the nine months immediately following the series release. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 29, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Your present self is your best future self, according to new research
(Society for Personality and Social Psychology) Predicting similarity over time is strongly related to happiness later on in life according to new study appearing Social Psychological and Personality Science. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 29, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

FSU researcher finds hate crimes committed by groups hurt the most
(Florida State University) Brendan Lantz, an assistant professor in the FSU College of Criminology and Criminal Justice, found that co-offending, or committing a crime with others, was significantly related to increased chances of serious injury regardless of the motivation behind the crime. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 29, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

House hunting is a struggle for mixed-race families
(Brigham Young University) Couples with a black partner were significantly more likely to move to a neighborhood that was racially diverse but less affluent. And because schools are generally funded through local property taxes, that means their children get fewer resources for their education. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 29, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Ohio State researchers among first to study Facebook data
(Ohio State University) Researchers at The Ohio State University will be among the first to have access to privacy-protected Facebook data to study social media's impact on democracy in the United States. The Ohio State-led project was among 12 inaugural recipients of the Social Media and Democracy Research grants from the Social Science Research Council and its partner, Social Science One. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 29, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Five things to know about loneliness in older adults
(Joule Inc.) Loneliness, an emotional state rather than a mental disorder, can substantially affect the health of older adults, as well as use of health care services. A 'Five things to know about ...' practice article in CMAJ summarizes key points to help clinicians understand the effect of loneliness on older patients. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 29, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

The last chance for Madagascar's biodiversity
(Bangor University) A group of scientists from Madagascar, UK, Australia, USA and Finland have recommended actions the government of Madagascar's recently elected president, Andry Rajoelina should take to turn around the precipitous decline of biodiversity and help put Madagascar on a trajectory towards sustainable growth. Madagascar's protected areas, some of the most important for biodiversity in the world, have suffered terribly in recent years from illegal mining, logging, and collection of threatened species for the pet trade. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 29, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Estimates of illness, death among children, adolescents worldwide
This study analyzed data from around the world to estimate illness and death in children and adolescents (birth up to age 20) in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2017. Mortality decreased over the 27-year period and that meant children and adolescents were more likely to reach their 20th birthdays. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 29, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Study examines reliability of early diagnoses of ASD in toddlers
This study examined whether earlier diagnoses of ASD would remain stable and persist, potentially allowing for earlier treatment. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 29, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Use of cigarettes, e-cigarettes among women of reproductive age in US
(JAMA Network) Cigarette use was lower among pregnant women in the United States (8%) than among nonpregnant women (14.3%) but rates of e-cigarette use were almost identical (3.6% for pregnant women and 3.3% for nonpregnant women) in a study based on national health survey data. The study included data for 1,071 pregnant and 26,849 nonpregnant women (18 to 44 years old) from 2014 to 2017. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 29, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Attitudes toward physician-assisted death among adults with elevated level of biomarker associated with Alzheimer's disease
(JAMA Network) Cognitively normal adults with elevated levels of the biomarker amyloid-β, which is associated with increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, were interviewed as part of this study that examined attitudes toward physician-assisted death. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 29, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Details of the history of inner Eurasia revealed by new study
(Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History) An international team of researchers has combined archaeological, historical and linguistic data with genetic information from over 700 newly analyzed individuals to construct a more detailed picture of the history of inner Eurasia than ever before available. In a study published in Nature Ecology& Evolution, they found that the indigenous populations of inner Eurasia are very diverse in their genes, culture and languages, but divide into three groups that stretch across the area in east-west geographic bands. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 29, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Study: Millennials arrested more often than predecessors -- even when fewer crimes are committed
(Johns Hopkins University) Millennials are more likely to be arrested than their predecessor counterparts regardless of self-reported criminal activity, finds a new study by a Johns Hopkins University expert. Furthermore, black men who self-reported no offenses were 419% more likely to be arrested at the beginning of the 21st century than non-offending blacks of the previous generation, and 31.5% more likely to be arrested than whites of the same generation who did not self-report any crimes. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 29, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

UT faculty win grant to study Russian disinformation campaigns
(University of Tennessee at Knoxville) An interdisciplinary research team from communications, anthropology, and political science will study Russian disinformation campaigns in three former Soviet republics as part of a $1.6 million Minerva research grant awarded through the United States Department of Defense. UT researchers were one of only 12 academic groups nationwide selected for the prestigious Minerva Research Initiative awards this year. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 29, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Study highlights how little we know about women terrorists
(North Carolina State University) The first large-scale research project evaluating the characteristics of women involved in jihadism-inspired terrorism finds significant differences between men and women in both their backgrounds and their roles within terrorist groups. The study highlights potential flaws in existing models of radicalization, threat assessment tools and counter-terrorism strategies - all of which rely primarily on data regarding male terrorists. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 29, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Study: Loan-replacement grants boost low-income students' graduation rates
(University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, News Bureau) Receiving Illinois Promise loan-replacement grants influenced low-income students' decision to attend the University of Illinois and boosted their graduation rates, according to a new study led by the program's founding director, Susan Gershenfeld. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 29, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

S ã o Paulo to host school on advances in science and innovation diplomacy
(Funda ç ã o de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de S ã o Paulo) Renowned scientists will address topics as scientific diasporas, international networks of innovations, technology transfer agreements and the internationalization of tech firms. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 29, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

New studies examine teen vaping association with sexual risk behavior and drug usage
(Pediatric Academic Societies) Electronic vapor product usage and sexual risk behavior in the US. Adolescents; electronic vapor product usage and alcohol and drug-related risk behaviors in the US. Adolescents: data from the 2017 national youth risk behavior survey. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Biodegradable bags can hold a full load of shopping after 3 years in the environment
(University of Plymouth) Researchers from the University of Plymouth's International Marine Litter Research Unit examined the degradation of five plastic bag materials widely available from high street retailers in the UK. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Parents of older, healthier newborns with less social support less resilient
(Children's National Health System) Parents of older, healthier newborns with less social support were less resilient during their child's neonatal intensive care unit stay, a finding that correlates with more symptoms of depression and anxiety, according to Children's research presented during the Pediatric Academic Societies 2019 Annual Meeting. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 27, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

A personality test for ads
(Society for Consumer Psychology) People leave digital footprints online, and this information could helps marketers personalize ads based on individual personality types. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 26, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

No safe amount of alcohol during pregnancy, suggest researchers
(American Institute of Physics) An international group of researchers has taken one of the first major steps in finding the biological changes in the brain that drive fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. New work using chaos theory to analyze brain signals, discussed in the journal Chaos, shows the long-term effects. Researchers found that teenagers who were exposed to alcohol while in the womb showed altered brain connections that were consistent with impaired cognitive performance. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 26, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Intervention increases healthy behavior among South African adolescents
(University of Pennsylvania) Once plagued by malaria and tuberculosis, Sub-Saharan Africa now sees non-communicable diseases like diabetes and heart disease as some of the leading causes of death. To lower the risk of these, citizens must be educated on and motivated to engage in healthy behaviors. University of Pennsylvania researchers developed and tested an intervention with South African youth that increased healthy eating and physical activity among participants for at least 4.5 years. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 26, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Large genome-wide association study is first to focus on both child and adult asthma
(University of Chicago Medical Center) Asthma, a common respiratory disease that causes wheezing, coughing and shortness of breath, is the most prevalent chronic respiratory disease worldwide. A new study, published April 30, 2019 in Lancet Respiratory Medicine, is the first large investigation to examine the differences in genetic risk factors for childhood-onset and adult-onset asthma. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 26, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Creativity is not just for the young, study finds
(Ohio State University) If you believe that great scientists are most creative when they're young, you are missing part of the story. A new study of winners of the Nobel Prize in economics finds that there are two different life cycles of creativity, one that hits some people early in their career and another that more often strikes later in life. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 26, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Changes from head injuries associated with increases in youth offending
(Crime and Justice Research Alliance) A new longitudinal study looked at the impact on criminal persistence of head injuries, which have been linked to increased levels of offending, among adolescents and early adults. It found that changes in individuals with head injuries were associated with increases in self-reported offending, and with violent offending in particular. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 26, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Another victim of violence: Trust in those who mean no harm
(Yale University) Exposure to violence does not change the ability to learn who is likely to do harm, but it does damage the ability to place trust in 'good people,' psychologists at Yale and University of Oxford report April 26 in the journal Nature Communications (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 26, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

National Institutes of Health awards $2.7 million to Leadership Alliance
(Brown University) The National Institutes of Health has awarded a $2.7 million grant to the Leadership Alliance, a Brown University-based consortium of 35 leading research and teaching institutions that works to train, mentor and inspire students from diverse backgrounds to pursue research careers. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 26, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

City trees can offset neighborhood heat islands, Concordia researcher says
(Concordia University) Concordia University associate professor of biology Carly Ziter writes that dense neighborhood tree canopy coverage can lower local temperatures significantly even compared to uncovered neighborhoods nearby. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 26, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Being too harsh on yourself could lead to OCD and anxiety
(Hiroshima University) A new study has found that people who reported intense feelings of responsibility were susceptible to developing Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) or Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) was published in the International Journal of Cognitive Therapy. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 25, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

How cortisol affects exposure therapy for anxiety disorders
(Ruhr-University Bochum) Bochum-based psychologists have studied how the application of the stress hormone cortisol affects exposure therapy for anxiety disorders. The researchers knew from earlier studies that extinction learning, which constitutes the foundation of exposure therapy, can be reinforced by administering cortisol. However, the team has demonstrated with a group of arachnophobics that an application of cortisol after exposure is not beneficial for the patients. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 25, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Gestures and visual animations reveal cognitive origins of linguistic meaning
(New York University) Gestures and visual animations can help reveal the cognitive origins of meaning, indicating that our minds can assign a linguistic structure to new informational content 'on the fly' -- even if it is not linguistic in nature. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 25, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Dermcidin may play role in the pathogenesis of skin disease hidradenitis suppurativa
(George Washington University) A team from the GW School of Medicine and Health Sciences have identified the protein dermcidin as having a potential role in the pathogenesis of the chronic skin disease hidradenitis suppurativa. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 25, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

New genetic test detects hundreds of harmful mutations among high-risk groups
(Nemours) Researchers at Nemours Children's Health System have developed a new low-cost genetic test that accurately identified more than 200 known disease-causing gene variations in two high-risk populations, the Old Order Amish and Old Order Mennonites of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. The findings, published today in the Journal of Molecular Diagnostics, could help reduce morbidity and mortality from these rare genetic disorders, and dramatically reduce costs of care through early diagnosis of newborns. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 25, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Urging party supporters to sign up for postal votes is ineffective
(University of Kent) Research carried out by the University of Kent and Kings College London (KCL) into a common postal vote recruitment tactic found it to be ineffective in persuading people to change from visiting polling stations to vote.Traditionally the tactic involves writing to party supporters to suggest that using a postal vote would be more convenient and aid their participation and to urge them to apply either online or via an enclosed application form. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 25, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Tech fixes can't protect us from disinformation campaigns
(Ohio State University) More than technological fixes are needed to stop countries from spreading disinformation on social media platforms like Facebook and Twitter, according to two experts. Policymakers and diplomats need to focus more on the psychology behind why citizens are so vulnerable to disinformation campaigns. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 25, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Inequality gap grew before the Great Recession and after, study finds
(Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs) The Great Recession hit Americans across the socioeconomic spectrum, but the drivers behind these socioeconomic divides were mounting before the decline even hit, according to a paper published in PLOS ONE. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 25, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Americans' beliefs about wildlife management are changing
(Colorado State University) A new 50-state study on America's Wildlife Values led by researchers at Colorado State University and The Ohio State University describes individuals' values toward wildlife. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 25, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Veterans suffer from 'culture shock' when returning to university
(Taylor& Francis Group) War veterans experience such extreme 'culture shock' at university, that they struggle to communicate their feelings and begin a destructive cycle of silence, according to a new study. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 25, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

One in 7 Washington State drivers with children in the car recently used marijuana
(Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs) According to a roadside survey conducted in Washington State, 14.1% of drivers with children in the car -- nearly one in seven -- tested positive for THC, the principal psychoactive compound in marijuana. The results are published in the latest issue of the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 25, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Drug overdoses in young people on the rise
(Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs) In American adolescents and young adults, death rates from drug poisoning, particularly from opioids, have sharply increased over the last 10 years, according to new research in the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 25, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

In France, people living by protected areas are more environmentally conscious
(CNRS) When compared with their fellow citizens, French people residing near a protected area (PA) exhibit more environmentally friendly behaviors. That is the conclusion of scientists from the CNRS and the University of Montpellier. The direct impact PAs have on the promotion of proenvironmental behavior among people living within their borders has thus been proven for the first time. The researchers suggest that PAs preserve the connection between humans and nature. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 24, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Who really hit the basketball out of bounds?
(Arizona State University) When a basketball is knocked out of bounds, it matters who touched it last. Determining which player touched last is often not so simple but can have consequences, especially during playoff basketball. Researchers from the ASU Department of Psychology have found people consistently experience their own actions as happening 50 milliseconds earlier than other people's actions. This self-centered bias in touch perception provides a new quantifiable example of how experience does not always match reality. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 24, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Human settlements in Amazonia much older than previously thought
(Penn State) Humans settled in southwestern Amazonia and even experimented with agriculture much earlier than previously thought, according to an international team of researchers. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 24, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Synthetic speech generated from brain recordings
(University of California - San Francisco) A state-of-the-art brain-machine interface created by UC San Francisco neuroscientists can generate natural-sounding synthetic speech by using brain activity to control a virtual vocal tract -- an anatomically detailed computer simulation including the lips, jaw, tongue, and larynx. The study was conducted in research participants with intact speech, but the technology could one day restore the voices of people who have lost the ability to speak due to paralysis or neurological damage. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 24, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news