Prevalence of biocide resistance genes and chlorhexidine and mupirocin non-susceptibility in Portuguese hospitals during a 31-year period (1985–2016)
Publication date: March 2021Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance, Volume 24Author(s): Teresa Conceição, Hermínia de Lencastre, Marta Aires-de-Sousa (Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance)
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - January 19, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Inducible expression of (pp)pGpp synthetases in < i > Staphylococcus aureus < /i > is associated with activation of stress response genes
by Petra Horvatek, Andrea Salzer, Andrew Magdy Fekry Hanna, Fabio Lino Gratani, Daniela Keinh örster, Natalya Korn, Marina Borisova, Christoph Mayer, Dominik Rejman, Ulrike Mäder, Christiane Wolz The stringent response is characterized by the synthesis of the messenger molecules pppGpp, ppGpp or pGpp (here collectively designated (pp)pGpp). The phenotypic consequences resulting from (pp)pGpp accumulation vary among species and can be mediated by different underlying mechanisms. Most genome -wide analyses have been performed under stress conditions, which often mask the immediate effects of (pp)pGpp-mediated regu...
Source: PLoS Genetics - December 30, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Petra Horvatek Source Type: research

Prevalence of biocide resistance genes, chlorhexidine and mupirocin non-susceptibility in Portuguese hospitals during a 31-years period (1985-2016)
Publication date: Available online 26 December 2020Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial ResistanceAuthor(s): Teresa Conceição, Hermínia de Lencastre, Marta Aires-de-Sousa (Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance)
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - December 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Mupirocin and Chlorhexidine Genotypic Resistance Found in Staphylococcus aureus Isolated From Young Infants Below 90 Days Old: A Genetic Basis for Eradication Failure
Conclusions: Mupirocin, chlorhexidine, and QAC-resistant MRSAs harboring the PVL toxin gene were found in the nasal carriages of preterm infants. In this highly vulnerable patient population, one-fourth of the isolates harbored mupirocin-resistant genes, and all were resistant to QAC disinfectants. These strains are associated with persistence in both carriage and environmental reservoirs within the hospitals. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - December 14, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Antimicrobial Reports Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of invasive Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from patients with diabetes in Iran: USA300 emerges as the major type.
Abstract There have been few studies focused on the molecular characterization of invasive Staphylococcus aureus strains in patients with diabetes in Iran. In the present study, 20 invasive S. aureus strains recovered from the patients with diabetes characterized by the virulence and resistance analysis, biofilm formation, staphylocoagulase (SC) typing, S. aureus protein A locus (spa) typing staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Virulence gene detection indicated a high prevalence of strains encoding the pvl genes (50%), a low prevalence of the tst and seg g...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - December 13, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tayebi Z, Fazeli M, Hashemi A, Abdi S, Dadashi M, Nasiri MJ, Goudarzi M Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

The Use of Ozenoxacin in Pediatric Patients: Clinical Evidence, Efficacy and Safety
Impetigo is the most common childhood skin infection in the world. There are two patterns of impetigo: nonbullous (or impetigo contagiosa) and bullous. The nonbullous type is due to Staphylococcus aureus and group A beta-haemolytic Streptococcus and occurs in 70% of impetigo cases. Impetigo is often a self-limited disease, but complications can sometimes occur. Therapy depends on the extent and site of the lesions and on the presence of systemic symptoms. The increase in multidrug resistance pathogens, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, mupirocin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or quinolone-resistant Stap...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - November 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Impact of formulary interventions on the minimum inhibitory concentration of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to mupirocin, chlorhexidine, and octenidine in a Singapore tertiary institution
AbstractMethicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA) decolonization is an effective measure to prevent clinical infection but resistance is a concern. We aim to evaluate the impact of mupirocin (MUP) ointment formulary removal, plateauing use of chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG), and hospital-wide introduction of octenidine (OCT)-based products on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of MRSA to MUP, CHG, and OCT in our hospital. A prevalence study was conducted at three time points (TP) on consecutive MRSA screening isolates to evaluate for their MICs to MUP, CHG, and OCT using broth microdilution sensititre plates ...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - November 16, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Tolerability and effectiveness of povidone-iodine or mupirocin versus saline sinus irrigations for chronic rhinosinusitis” [Am J Otolaryngol 41 (2020) 1–6/102604]
Publication date: Available online 12 November 2020Source: American Journal of OtolaryngologyAuthor(s): Victoria S. Lee, Paul S. Pottinger, Greg E. Davis (Source: American Journal of Otolaryngology)
Source: American Journal of Otolaryngology - November 14, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Mycoplasma Pneumoniae-Induced Rash and Mucositis in a Young Adult
A 19-year-old previously healthy male presented to the emergency room with a painful blistering rash, conjunctival injection, odynophagia, and fever. Twelve days prior, the patient developed a fever of 102.5 °F with minimal response to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS). A few days later, he developed cough, malaise, and blisters on his lips and gums. He presented to an outside hospital where he was prescribed oral nystatin as well as miracle mouth wash and discharged home. The next day, he defervesced, but his lips began to bleed, so he visited another hospital and received an unknown intravenous antibioti...
Source: The American Journal of Medicine - October 19, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Emily K. Burns, Doris Lin Tags: Images in Dermatology Source Type: research

Literature-Based Phenotype Survey and In Silico Genotype Investigation of Antibiotic Resistance in the Genus Bifidobacterium.
This study was aimed to depict the general antibiotic resistance characteristics of the genus Bifidobacterium by combining the reported phenotype dataset and in silico genotype prediction. Bifidobacteria were mostly reported to be sensitive to beta-lactams, glycopeptides, chloramphenicol, and rifampicin, but resistant to aminoglycosides, polypeptides, quinolones, and mupirocin. Generally, the resistance phenotypes to erythromycin, tetracycline, fusidic acid, metronidazole, clindamycin, and trimethoprim were variable. Besides cmX and tetQ, characterized in bifidobacterial resident plasmids, 3520 putative ARGs were identifie...
Source: Current Microbiology - October 14, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cao L, Chen H, Wang Q, Li B, Hu Y, Zhao C, Hu Y, Yin Y Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research

Reduction of Postoperative Infections Through Routine Preoperative Universal Decolonization of Advanced Heart Failure Patients With Chlorhexidine and Mupirocin Before Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation: A Single-Center Observational Study
Conclusion A 5-day universal decolonization protocol before LVAD implantation was effective in reducing total infections as well as MRSA-specific infections. (Source: Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing)
Source: Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing - October 6, 2020 Category: Nursing Tags: Research DIMENSION Source Type: research

Reduction of Postoperative Infections Through Routine Preoperative Universal Decolonization of Advanced Heart Failure Patients With Chlorhexidine and Mupirocin Before Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation: A Single-Center Observational Study.
CONCLUSION: A 5-day universal decolonization protocol before LVAD implantation was effective in reducing total infections as well as MRSA-specific infections. PMID: 33009271 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Dimensions in Critical Care Nursing)
Source: Dimensions in Critical Care Nursing - October 4, 2020 Category: Nursing Tags: Dimens Crit Care Nurs Source Type: research

Interventions for preventing mastitis after childbirth.
CONCLUSIONS: There is some evidence that acupoint massage is probably better than routine care, probiotics may be better than placebo, and breast massage and low frequency pulse treatment may be better than routine care for preventing mastitis. However, it is important to note that we are aware of at least one large trial investigating probiotics whose results have not been made public, therefore, the evidence presented here is incomplete. The available evidence regarding other interventions, including breastfeeding education, pharmacological treatments and alternative therapies, suggests these may be little better than ro...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - September 28, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Crepinsek MA, Taylor EA, Michener K, Stewart F Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Evaluation of the reliability of MRSA screens in patients undergoing universal decolonization.
This study aimed to determine whether mupirocin administration affects the reliability of MRSA PCR nasal screens. METHODS: This retrospective study divided subjects based on timing of intranasal mupirocin administration-before and after MRSA screen. Subjects with confirmed pulmonary infection that received vancomycin, blood/respiratory cultures, and had MRSA PCR screen collected were included. Subjects with concurrent infection requiring vancomycin or MRSA infection in prior 30 days were excluded. Primary outcome of this non-inferiority study was the negative predictive value (NPV) of the screen. Secondary outcomes in...
Source: American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy : AJHP - September 21, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Chaudhry A, Allen B, Paylor M, Hayes S Tags: Am J Health Syst Pharm Source Type: research

Phylogeographical Analysis Reveals the Historic Origin, Emergence, and Evolutionary Dynamics of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST228
ConclusionOur results reveal the radiation of distinct lineages of MRSA ST228 from a German progenitor, as the clone spread into different European countries. In Switzerland, ST228 was introduced first in Geneva and was subsequently introduced into Lausanne. (Source: Frontiers in Microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - August 25, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Development of Emulgel Delivery of Mupirocin for Treatment of Skin Infection.
CONCLUSION: Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory study proved successful development of stable controlled release mupirocin emulgel. PMID: 32814540 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Recent Patents on Anti-Infective Drug Discovery)
Source: Recent Patents on Anti-Infective Drug Discovery - August 22, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Recent Pat Antiinfect Drug Discov Source Type: research

Effects of subinhibitory concentrations of chlorhexidine and mupirocin on biofilm formation in clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Publication date: Available online 15 July 2020Source: Journal of Hospital InfectionAuthor(s): Ki-Ho Park, Minji Jung, Dong Youn Kim, Yu-Mi Lee, Mi Suk Lee, Byung-Han Ryu, Sun In Hong, Kyung-Wook Hong, In-Gyu Bae, Oh-Hyun Cho (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - July 16, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Phenyltriazole-functionalized sulfamate inhibitors targeting tyrosyl- or isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase.
Abstract Antimicrobial resistance is considered as one of the major threats for the near future as the lack of effective treatments for various infections would cause more deaths than cancer by 2050. The development of new antibacterial drugs is considered as one of the cornerstones to tackle this problem. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are regarded as good targets to establish new therapies. Apart from being essential for cell viability, they are clinically validated. Indeed, mupirocin, an isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase (IleRS) inhibitor, is already commercially available as a topical treatment for MRSA infections...
Source: Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry - July 8, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: De Ruysscher D, Pang L, Mattelaer CA, Nautiyal M, De Graef S, Rozenski J, Strelkov SV, Lescrinier E, Weeks SD, Van Aerschot A Tags: Bioorg Med Chem Source Type: research

Distinct Skin Microbiota Imbalance and Responses to Clinical Treatment in Children With Atopic Dermatitis
Conclusions: AD patients with predominant S. aureus had higher disease severity and lower microbiota diversity compared to patients in the AD.ND group. Mometasone and mupirocin therapy had significant effects on skin microbiota in AD.S patients, but had a paradoxical response in the AD.ND patients. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Prevalence and molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with mupirocin, fusidic acid and/or retapamulin resistance
This study aimed to examine... (Source: BMC Microbiology)
Source: BMC Microbiology - June 29, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wenjing Chen, Chunyan He, Han Yang, Wen Shu, Zelin Cui, Rong Tang, Chuanling Zhang and Qingzhong Liu Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Povidone Iodine: Properties, Mechanisms of Action and Role in Infection Control and Staphylococcus aureus Decolonization.
This article discusses povidone iodine (PVP-I) as an alternative decolonization agent and is based on literature reviewed during an Expert's workshop on resistance and MRSA decolonization. When compared to chlorhexidine and mupirocin, respectively, PVP-I 10% and 7.5% solution had rapid and superior bactericidal activity against MRSA in in vitro and ex vivo studies. Notably, PVP-I 10% and 5% solutions were also active against both chlorhexidine-resistant and mupirocin-resistant strains, respectively. Unlike chlorhexidine and mupirocin, available reports have not observed a link between PVP-I and the induction of bacterial r...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - June 21, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lepelletier D, Maillard JY, Pozzetto B, Simon A Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Ozone pretreatment of wastewater containing aromatics reduces antibiotic resistance genes in bioreactors: The example of p-aminophenol.
Abstract Aromatic matters are widely present in wastewater, especially industrial wastewater, and may lead to a high abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in wastewater treatment bioreactors and stimulate horizontal transfers of ARGs. Here, we investigated a practical approach that applying ozone pretreatment to mitigate ARGs in bioreactors treating wastewater containing a typical aromatic pollutant, p-aminophenol (PAP). The results showed that ozone pretreatment could effectively reduce the aromaticity of wastewater, and the relative abundance of ARGs in the bioreactor fed with ozone treated wastewater ...
Source: Environment International - June 17, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Xia J, Sun H, Ma X, Huang K, Ye L Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Staphylococcus nepalensis, a commensal of the oral microbiota of domestic cats, is a reservoir of transferrable antimicrobial resistance.
Abstract Staphylococcus nepalensis is a commensal bacterium from the oral microbiota of domestic cats, with a still obscure clinical importance. In this work, we analysed the ability of feline strains of S. nepalensis to transfer antimicrobial resistance genes to Staphylococcus aureus isolated from humans through plasmids. To this end, we first analysed all publicly available genomes from cat staphylococci using computational methods to build a pan-resistome. Genes that encode resistance to erythromycin, gentamicin, mupirocin and tetracycline, common to human and cat staphylococci and previously described to be lo...
Source: Microbiology - June 9, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Andrade-Oliveira AL, Rossi CC, Souza-Silva T, Giambiagi-deMarval M Tags: Microbiology Source Type: research

Tolerability and effectiveness of povidone-iodine or mupirocin versus saline sinus irrigations for chronic rhinosinusitis
Publication date: Available online 6 June 2020Source: American Journal of OtolaryngologyAuthor(s): Victoria S. Lee, Paul S. Pottinger, Greg E. Davis (Source: American Journal of Otolaryngology)
Source: American Journal of Otolaryngology - June 7, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Synergistic activity of melittin with mupirocin: a study against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates
Publication date: Available online 23 May 2020Source: Saudi Journal of Biological SciencesAuthor(s): Reza Hakimi Alni, Fatemeh Tavasoli, Amirhomayoon Barati, Shaghayegh Shahrokhi Badarbani, Zahra Salimi, Laleh Babaeekhou (Source: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences)
Source: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences - May 24, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Does nasal screening for Staphylococcus aureus before surgery compromise health care professional safety in the COVID-19 era?
Preoperative carriage of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) increases the risk for surgical-site infections.1 Preoperative SA screening is mainly based on nasal bilateral or oropharyngeal swabs and real-time polymerase chain reaction testing. Targeted decolonization in positive patients reduces postoperative infection before both elective and semiurgent cardiac surgeries.2 Decolonization is based on intranasal mupirocin twice daily and chlorhexidine baths daily for 5  days on the immediate preoperative course. (Source: The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery)
Source: The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery - May 20, 2020 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Nicolas Mayeur, Pierre Berthoumieu, H élène Charbonneau Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Topical co-administration of Teucrium polium hydroethanolic extract and Aloe vera gel triggered wound healing by accelerating cell proliferation in diabetic mouse model.
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of co-administration of ointments prepared from Teucrium polium hydroethanolic extract (TPEO) and Aloe vera gel (AVGO) on excisional wound healing in a diabetic mouse model. Following the induction of diabetes and circular excisional wound (7 mm), the mice were divided into six groups, namely (Ⅰ) control mice treated with mupirocin (as a standard drug), (Ⅱ and Ⅲ) the mice treated with 5 and 10 % TPEO, (Ⅳ and Ⅴ) the mice treated with 5 and 10 % AVGO, and (Ⅵ) the mice treated with a combination of 5% TPEO and 5% AVGO (TPEO+AVGO). To investigate the wound area, we ...
Source: Biomedicine and pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine and pharmacotherapie - May 5, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Gharaboghaz MNZ, Farahpour MR, Saghaie S Tags: Biomed Pharmacother Source Type: research

Prevalence, Genetic Diversity, and Temporary Shifts of Inducible Clindamycin Resistance Staphylococcus aureus Clones in Tehran, Iran: A Molecular –Epidemiological Analysis From 2013 to 2018
This study was conducted over a period of five years from August 2013 to July 2018 to investigate the prevalence and molecular epidemiology in Iran of inducible resistance in S. aureus. In the current study, 126 inducible methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (n = 106) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) (n = 20) isolates were characterized by in vitro susceptibility analysis, resistance and virulence encoding gene distribution, phenotypic and genotypic analysis of biofilm formation, prophage typing, S. aureus protein A locus (spa) typing, staphylocoagulase (SC) typing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCme...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 29, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Spa gene-based molecular typing of nasal methicillin-susceptible staphylococcus aureus from patients and health-care workers in a dialysis center in southeast Iran.
This study was conducted to determine the frequency of S. aureus nasal carriage in hemodialysis patients (HD) and health-care workers (HCW) at the main dialysis center of Bam city, located in southeast of Iran. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 52 nasal swabs were obtained from health-care workers and hemodialysis patients to detect methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) isolates. The resistance to different antibacterial agents was determined by disk diffusion method. Also, Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) - encoding gene as well as Staphylococcal protein A (spa) type were determined. The nasal carriage rate of S...
Source: Pathogens and Global Health - March 29, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Pathog Glob Health Source Type: research

Antibiotics Affect ROS Production and Fibroblast Migration in an In-vitro Model of Sinonasal Wound Healing
This study analyzed a broad array of antibiotics used after sinus surgery to assess their effect on wound healing and ROS production in vitro. It was hypothesized that ROS production would be affected by these antibiotics and there would be a negative relationship between ROS activity and cell migration speed.Methods: Monolayers of primary human nasal epithelial cells (HNEC) and primary fibroblasts were disrupted with a linear wound, treated with 10 different antibiotics or a ROS inhibitor and observed over 36 h in a controlled environment using confocal microscopy. ROS activity and migration speed of the wound edge were m...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - March 18, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Oxymetazoline, Mupirocin, Clotrimazole-Safe, Effective, Off-Label Agents for Tympanostomy Tube Care.
CONCLUSIONS: Oxymetazoline nasal spray, mupirocin ointment, and clotrimazole cream are safe and effective as off-label medications for tympanostomy tube care in children. PMID: 32182136 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ear, Nose and Throat Journal)
Source: Ear, Nose and Throat Journal - March 16, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Isaacson G Tags: Ear Nose Throat J Source Type: research

The prevalence and molecular mechanisms of mupirocin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from a Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa
This study aimed to describe the rates and molecular mechanisms of mupirocin resistance in clinicalStaphylococcus aureus isolates from Tygerberg Hospital, and to describe its association with strain types.MethodsWe retrospectively selected 212  S. aureus isolates which were identified from blood samples and pus swabs during the years 2009 –2011 and 2015–2017. The isolates were identified using conventional microbiological methods and genotyping was done usingspa typing. Cefoxitin (30  μg) disc diffusion and the two disc strategy (5 μg and 200 μg) were used to determine susce...
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - March 13, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Repositioning of Hypoglycemic Drug Linagliptin for Cancer Treatment
ConclusionThe combination of key targets based on the protein-protein interaction network that were built by the different gene expression of TCGA data to reposition the marketed drugs turned out to be a new approach to discover new antitumor drugs. Hypoglycemic drug linagliptin could potentially lead to novel therapeutics for the treatment of tumors, especially for colorectal cancer. Gene regulatory network is a valuable method for predicting and explaining the mechanism of drugs action. (Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology)
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - March 2, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The relationship between hand hygiene practices and nasal Staphylococcus aureus carriage in healthcare workers.
CONCLUSION: The knowledge of hand hygiene practices, high frequency of handwashing, and wearing different gloves during the procedure of each patient decrease S.aureus nasal carriage in HCWs. In addition mupirocin is still effective in nasal S.aureus carriers. PMID: 32096773 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medicina del Lavoro)
Source: Medicina del Lavoro - February 27, 2020 Category: Occupational Health Tags: Med Lav Source Type: research

[ASAP] A Priming Cassette Generates Hydroxylated Acyl Starter Units in Mupirocin and Thiomarinol Biosynthesis
ACS Chemical BiologyDOI: 10.1021/acschembio.9b00969 (Source: ACS Chemical Biology)
Source: ACS Chemical Biology - February 6, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Paul D. Walker †‡, Matthew T. Rowe†, Ashley J. Winter†, Angus N.M. Weir†, Nahida Akter†, Luoyi Wang†, Paul R. Race§, Christopher Williams†, Zhongshu Song†, Thomas J. Simpson†, Christine L. Willis*†, and Matthew P. Crump*† Source Type: research

Nanosecond electric pulses rapidly enhance the inactivation of Gram-negative bacteria using Gram-positive antibiotics.
Abstract Physically disrupting microorganism membranes to enable antibiotics to overcome resistance mechanisms that inhibit or excrete antibiotics has great potential for reducing antibiotic doses and rendering resistance mechanisms inert. We demonstrate the synergistic inactivation of a Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria by combining 222 30 kV/cm electric pulses (EPs) or 500 20 kV/cm EPs with 300-ns EP duration with various antibiotics with different mechanisms of action is demonstrated. Doses of antibiotics that produced no...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - January 21, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Vadlamani RA, Dhanabal A, Detwiler DA, Pal R, McCarthy J, Seleem MN, Garner AL Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Cutaneous paraneoplastic pemphigus syndrome associated with undifferentiated uterine sarcoma
Publication date: Available online 18 January 2020Source: Gynecologic Oncology ReportsAuthor(s): Bijan Morshedi, Kari RingAbstractPemphigus is a group of autoimmune intraepidermal blistering diseases caused by immunoglobulins directed against keratinocyte cell surface components. In this case report, we identify a non-classical paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP) foliaceous related to an undifferentiated uterine sarcoma.The patient is a 54-year-old female with a past medical history of arthritis who presented with worsening fatigue in November 2017 and an itchy, blistering, erythematous annular plaque that first appeared on her...
Source: Gynecologic Oncology Reports - January 19, 2020 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations of Mupirocin Stimulate Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation by Up-regulating cidA.
Abstract Previous studies have shown that the administration of antibiotics at sub-inhibitory concentrations stimulates biofilm formation by the majority of MRSA strains. Here, we investigated the effect of sub-inhibitory mupirocin concentrations on biofilm formation by the community-associated (CA) mupirocin-sensitive MRSA strain USA300 and highly mupirocin-resistant clinical S. aureus SA01-SA05 isolates. We found that mupirocin increased the ability of MRSA cells to attach to surfaces and form biofilms. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) demonstrated that mupirocin treatment promoted thicker biofilm forma...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - January 12, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jin Y, Guo Y, Zhan Q, Shang Y, Qu D, Yu F Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Peritoneal Dialysis–Related Infection Rates and Outcomes: Results From the Peritoneal Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (PDOPPS)
We describe peritonitis rates and the associations of selected facility practices with peritonitis risk among countries participating in the Peritoneal Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (PDOPPS).Study DesignObservational prospective cohort study.Setting & Participants7,051 adult PD patients in 209 facilities across 7 countries (Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Japan, Thailand, United Kingdom, United States).ExposuresFacility characteristics (census count, facility age, nurse to patient ratio) and selected facility practices (use of automated PD, use of icodextrin or biocompatible PD solutions, antibiotic pro...
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - January 11, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Iron sequestrant DIBI, potential alternative for nares decolonization of MRSA Staphylococcus aureus, is anti-infective and inhibitory for mupirocin resistant isolates.
Abstract MRSA opportunistic infections are a major health burden. Decolonization of hospitalized patients with mupirocin (MUP) has reduced infection incidence but has led to MUP resistance. DIBI is a developmental-stage anti-infective that sequesters bacterial iron and bolsters innate host iron withdrawal defences. Clinical isolates possessing low, high or no MUP-resistance all had similarly high susceptibilities to DIBI. Intranasal DIBI reduced nares bacterial burdens in mice to the same extent as MUP. No resistance was found following exposure to DIBI. PMID: 31907189 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Sou...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - January 5, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Allan DS, Del Carmen Parquet M, Savage KA, Holbein BE Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Experimental and Computational Studies on Regiodivergent Chiral Phosphoric Acid Catalyzed Cycloisomerization of Mupirocin Methyl Ester.
This article presents a new strategy for achieving regiocontrol over the endo- vs. exo- modes of cycloisomerizations of epoxide-containing alcohols that lead to the formation of 5- or 6-membered cyclic ethers. Unlike traditional methods relying on achiral reagents or enzymes, our approach utilizes chiral phosphoric acids to catalyze the regiodivergent selective formations of either tetrahydrofuran- or tetrahydropyran-containing products. Using methyl ester of epoxide-containing antibiotic mupirocin as the substrate, we demonstrate that catalytic chiral phosphoric acids ( R )-TCYP and ( S )-TIPSY could be used to achieve th...
Source: Chemistry - January 5, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Wang S, Arguelles AJ, Tay JH, Hotta M, Zimmerman PM, Nagorny P Tags: Chemistry Source Type: research

Effect of S aureus Prophylaxis in Parents on S aureus Colonization in ICU Neonates
This randomized clinical trial evaluates whether use of intranasal mupirocin and topical chlorhexidine to treat or prevent Staphylococcus aureus colonization in parents was effective compared with petrolatum ointment and soap cloths at reducing new colonization of concordant-strain S aureus in infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). (Source: JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association)
Source: JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association - December 30, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

The small quinolone derived compound HT61 enhances the effect of tobramycin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro and in vivo
In this study, we investigated the individual antimicrobial activity of HT61 alongside its capability to increase the efficacy of tobramycin against both a tobramycin sensitive laboratory reference strain (PAO1) and tobramycin resistant clinical isolates (RP73, NN2) of the gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). Using broth microdilution methods, the MICs of HT61 against all strains were assessed, as well as the effect of HT61 in combination with tobramycin using both the chequerboard method and bacterial time-kill assays. A murine model of pulmonary infection was also used to evaluate the combinatio...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - December 28, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) microparticles embedded in κ-carrageenan/locust bean gum hydrogel as a dual drug delivery carrier.
Poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) microparticles embedded in κ-carrageenan/locust bean gum hydrogel as a dual drug delivery carrier. Int J Biol Macromol. 2019 Dec 24;: Authors: Pettinelli N, Rodríguez-Llamazares S, Farrag Y, Bouza R, Barral L, Feijoo-Bandín S, Lago F Abstract A novel composite hydrogel was prepared as a dual drug delivery carrier. Poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) microparticles were prepared to encapsulate simultaneously ketoprofen and mupirocin, as hydrophobic drug models. These microparticles were embedded in a physically crosslinked hydroge...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - December 23, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Pettinelli N, Rodríguez-Llamazares S, Farrag Y, Bouza R, Barral L, Feijoo-Bandín S, Lago F Tags: Int J Biol Macromol Source Type: research

Nasal decolonization of Staphylococcus aureus in orthopedic surgeons using mupirocin and chlorhexidine
This study examined the effectiveness of a decolonization strategy on orthopedic surgeons in a teaching hospital. S aureus colonization was detected in 43.2% of the surgeons, 25% of which were methicillin-resistant S aureus strains. Eradication was documented in 61.53% of the subjects who completed the decolonization strategy. Among orthopedic surgeons, mupirocin with or without chlorhexidine decolonization strategies was effective in eradicating S aureus colonization. (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - December 7, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Effects of nasal lavage with and without mupirocin after endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery: a randomised, controlled study.
CONCLUSION: Nasal lavage with mupirocin seems to yield better outcomes regarding patients' symptoms and endoscopic findings. PMID: 31774052 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Laryngology and Otology)
Source: Journal of Laryngology and Otology - November 28, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: J Laryngol Otol Source Type: research

Screening of FDA approved drugs for finding potential inhibitors against Granzyme B as a potent drug-repurposing target
Publication date: Available online 11 October 2019Source: Journal of Molecular Graphics and ModellingAuthor(s): Saima Ikram, Jamshaid Ahmad, Serdar DurdagiAbstractGranzyme B is one of the best-characterized and extensively studied member of cytotoxic lymphocytes (CL) proteases. Initially, it is thought to be involved in eliminating virally infected or cancerous cells by using a specialized mechanism through which they are internalized into target cells. In the last decade, however this dimension has changed as there are several reports show that not only CL but also other immune cells can also synthesize Granzyme B. This l...
Source: Journal of Molecular Graphics and Modelling - November 28, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Physiology and Transcriptional Analysis of (p)ppGpp-Related Regulatory Effects in Corynebacterium glutamicum
In this study, (p)ppGpp physiology in the actinobacterial model organism Corynebacterium glutamicum was analyzed by phenotypic characterization and RNAseq-based transcriptome analysis. Total nutrient starvation was identified as the most effective method to induce alarmone production, whereas traditional induction methods such as the addition of serine hydroxamate (SHX) or mupirocin did not show a strong accumulation of (p)ppGpp. The predominant alarmone in C. glutamicum represents guanosine tetraphosphate, whose stress-associated production depends on the presence of the bifunctional RSH enzyme Rel. Interestingly, in addi...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - November 27, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Randomized controlled trial of topical mupirocin versus mupirocin with sucralfate combination in chronic skin ulcers
CONCLUSIONS: The wound healing effect of topical sucralfate adds to the antimicrobial effect of mupirocin toward the overall improvement of chronic skin ulcers. The effect of combined topical treatment needs comparison with other topical medications and wound healing strategies. (Source: Indian Journal of Pharmacology)
Source: Indian Journal of Pharmacology - November 25, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Subhrangsu Chatterjee Sumit Sen Avijit Hazra Amal Kanti Das Source Type: research

Elimination of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in intensive care patients lowers infection rates
This study surveys the clinical relevance of the nasalStaphylococcus aureus colonization status on intensive care unit (ICU) –acquiredS.aureus infections and compares molecular characteristics of isolates from the nose and infectious sites. The 390 patients included comprised 278 non-carriers and 112 carriers. Among the carriers, 56 were decolonized with mupirocin. Decolonization was verified through a second (negative) culture. Spa typing and virulence gene profiling were performed for all isolates. Twenty sixS.aureus infections were detected in the carriage group and 20 in the non-carriage group. Eighteen of these ...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - November 11, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research