Medical Tourism in Guatemala: Qualitatively Exploring How Existing Health System Inequities Facilitate Sector Development.
Authors: Cerón A, Crooks VA, Labonté R, Snyder J, Flores W PMID: 31349751 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Health Services)
Source: International Journal of Health Services - July 29, 2019 Category: Health Management Tags: Int J Health Serv Source Type: research

“Medical tourism will…obligate physicians to elevate their level so that they can compete”: a qualitative exploration of the anticipated impacts of inbound medical tourism on health human resources in Guatemala
Medical tourism, which involves cross-border travel to access private, non-emergency medical interventions, is growing in many Latin American Caribbean countries. The commodification and export of private heal... (Source: Human Resources for Health)
Source: Human Resources for Health - July 12, 2019 Category: Health Management Authors: Valorie A. Crooks, Ronald Labont é, Alejandro Ceron, Rory Johnston, Jeremy Snyder and Marcie Snyder Tags: Research Source Type: research

Medical Tourism –Linked Infections
Twelve US patients have been diagnosed with Verona integron-encoded metallo- β-lactamase–producing carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (VIM-CRPA), after undergoing invasive medical procedures in Mexico, according to a CDC report. (Source: JAMA)
Source: JAMA - July 9, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

International accreditation, linguistic proximity and trade in medical services
Publication date: Available online 5 July 2019Source: Social Science & MedicineAuthor(s): Chung-Ping Loh, Russell E. TriplettAbstractThe recent growth in the globalization of medical services has attracted broad attention from scholars and policymakers. The intimacy and risk associated with many medical services makes these markets especially sensitive to trade barriers, transaction costs and asymmetric information. This paper uses a gravity model to investigate the factors associated with the global pattern of bilateral trade in medical services. Using data from the United Nations International Trade in Services Datab...
Source: Social Science and Medicine - July 7, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Nonoperating room anesthesia education: preparing our residents for the future
We describe the most important topics to consider when educating anesthesiology residents, and highlight research that addresses upcoming challenges. (Source: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology)
Source: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology - June 28, 2019 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: NONOPERATING ROOM ANESTHESIA: Edited by Mark S. Weiss Source Type: research

Medical tourism in emerging markets: The role of trust, networks, and word-of-mouth
. (Source: Health Marketing Quarterly)
Source: Health Marketing Quarterly - June 18, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Akmal S. Hyder Michelle Rydback Erik Borg Aihie Osarenkhoe Source Type: research

Innovative Practice in Latin America: Medical Tourism and the Crowding Out of Research.
Authors: Holzer F, Mastroleo I PMID: 31135315 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Bioethics)
Source: American Journal of Bioethics - May 29, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Tags: Am J Bioeth Source Type: research

A case of lipotourism-associated multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium abscessus infection
We present a case of a 49-year-old woman who acquired a highly multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium abscessus skin and soft-tissue infection after cosmetic abdominoplasty that required radical surgical debridement and 6 months of intravenous therapy to eradicate. This case highlights the challenges in the management of M. abscessus infections including delay to diagnosis and resistance patterns that are likely to become more common despite antibiotic stewardship efforts. (Source: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases)
Source: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases - May 27, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rose Anne Lee Robin Wigmore Source Type: research

Exploring isolation, self-directed care and extensive follow-up: factors heightening the health and safety risks of bariatric surgery abroad among Canadian medical tourists.
CONCLUSIONS: While these challenges identified by participants may occur in other forms of medical tourism, it appears that these challenges are occurring simultaneously in cases of bariatric tourism by Canadians. These challenges appear to work in conjunction to heighten the health and safety risks potential Canadian bariatric tourists may be exposed to. Unless structural changes occur to increase domestic availability of bariatric surgery, Canadians are likely to continue seeking this care abroad. PMID: 31084487 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being)
Source: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being - May 17, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being Source Type: research

Plastic Surgery Medical Tourism in Colombia: A Review of 658 International Patients and 1,796 Cosmetic Surgery Procedures
Source: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Global Open - May 1, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Special Topic Source Type: research

Germline editing: could ban encourage medical tourism?
Germline editing: could ban encourage medical tourism?, Published online: 30 April 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-01365-6Germline editing: could ban encourage medical tourism? (Source: Nature AOP)
Source: Nature AOP - April 30, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Eli Y. Adashi I. Glenn Cohen Source Type: research

Issues associated with medical tourism for cancer care in Japan
ConclusionMedical tourism raises various issues. Institutional and medical staff should be adequately prepared by developing working systems. (Source: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology - April 26, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Practicing Pura Vida: Radiation Therapy in Costa Rica
Although perhaps better known for its beautiful beaches, temperate climate, volcanoes, tourist locations, and pura vida (translated as “pure” or “simple life”) lifestyle, Costa Rica continues its development of an internationally respected health care system. Radiation therapy is an integral and expanding part of oncologic services in Costa Rica. Similar to previous Around the Globe articles,1 this article will focus on the current state and future direction of radiation therapy services in Costa Rica, specifically addressing geographically unique features such as medical tourism and building a tech...
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - February 20, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Alejandro Blanco Sabor ío, Rolando Loría Ruíz, Steven W. Davis Tags: Feature Source Type: research

Caregiving Experience of Dementia among Korean American Family Caregivers.
Authors: Kim HJ, Kehoe P, Gibbs LM, Lee JA Abstract Dementia is a major public health problem affecting 5.5 million people in USA. This qualitative study explored the caregiving experience of Korean American (KA) families of persons with dementia (PWD). Adult KA caregivers of PWD (n = 18) were recruited for semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis yielded four themes: challenges in finding resources, struggling with mental health issues, traveling the path of acceptance, and finding ways to survive. Due to the language barrier, most KA caregivers reported using Korean Internet for information on ...
Source: Issues in Mental Health Nursing - January 9, 2019 Category: Nursing Tags: Issues Ment Health Nurs Source Type: research

Medical Tourism and Postoperative Infections: A Systematic Literature Review of Causative Organisms and Empiric Treatment
Conclusions: When encountering a patient with a history of medical tourism and treatment-refractory infection, rapidly growing mycobacteria must be considered. To increase the likelihood of yielding a diagnostic organism, multiple acid-fast bacilli cultures from fluid and débridement content should be performed. There has been reported success in treating rapidly growing mycobacterial infections with a combination of antibiotics including clarithromycin, amikacin, and moxifloxacin. (Source: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery)
Source: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery - November 29, 2018 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Plastic Surgery Focus: Special Topics Source Type: research

“Postoperative care of bariatric medical tourism: A public health concern”
Background: Despite considerable evidence supporting the efficacy of bariatric surgery, poor insurance coverage in the United States restricts access to the procedure, encouraging medical tourism. There is no long-term postoperative (PO) care from foreign health services for bariatric medical tourists (BMTs). Consequently, BMTs become the responsibility of US physicians after bariatric surgery abroad. We are using the experience of a patient who returned from Mexico with PO complications to illustrate public health consequences of medical tourism. (Source: Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases)
Source: Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases - November 1, 2018 Category: Surgery Authors: LaRae Seemann, Jaine L McKenzie, Karen R Draper, L. Renee Hilton Source Type: research

Breast Implant Mycobacterial Infections: An Epidemiologic Review and Outcome Analysis
Conclusions: The emergence of periprosthetic mycobacterial infections in relation to cosmetic medical tourism alerts clinicians to the importance of educating the public about the associated risks. In addition, this study identifies risk factors associated with recurrence of periprosthetic mycobacterial infections. (Source: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery)
Source: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery - October 26, 2018 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Breast: Original Articles Source Type: research

The Price of Medical Tourism: The Legal Implications of Surgery Abroad
Summary: Medical tourism, or traveling abroad to obtain medical services, has evolved into a global health care phenomenon, with over 15 million U.S. patients each year seeking medical care internationally, representing a $50 billion dollar industry in 2017. Speculation and media fascination about the growing industry, diverse destinations, and rationale behind the medical tourists is rampant; however, the legal implications of tourism medicine, particularly when it goes wrong, are often unclear. On the international stage, accreditation agencies are limited in scope and practice, legal jurisdiction is difficult to estab...
Source: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery - October 1, 2018 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Plastic Surgery Focus: Special Topics Source Type: research

Impact of Bariatric Medical Tourism on US Health Care Utilization: A University Hospital Experience
Americans are engaging in medical tourism, international travel for medical care, for bariatric procedures. Bariatric tourism patients with complications may have inadequate continuity of care. Additionally, many insurance companies deny coverage for treatment of complications of operations done abroad without preauthorization. This can be personally and financially devastating for patients and costly  for hospital systems. We evaluated the health care utilization of patients with complications of bariatric surgical tourism. (Source: Journal of the American College of Surgeons)
Source: Journal of the American College of Surgeons - October 1, 2018 Category: Surgery Authors: Tiffany Cheung, Paul Stetsyuk, Andrew B. Lederman Tags: Scientific poster presentations Source Type: research

Government roles in regulating medical tourism: evidence from Guatemala
Regulation of the medical tourism and public health sectors overlap in many instances, raising questions of how patient safety, economic growth, and health equity can be protected. The case of Guatemala is use... (Source: International Journal for Equity in Health)
Source: International Journal for Equity in Health - September 20, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Ronald Labont é, Valorie A. Crooks, Alejandro Cerón Valdés, Vivien Runnels and Jeremy Snyder Tags: Research Source Type: research

Introduction: Medical tourism or movement for healthcare? Reflections on (inter-)national cross-border mobility
. (Source: Global Public Health)
Source: Global Public Health - September 5, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Margret Frenz Source Type: research

Mycobacterium abscessus Complex Cutaneous Infection
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe worldwide increase in skin infections due toMycobacterium abscessus, especially in Latin America, and its difficult diagnosis and treatment, makes a review of literature crucial in reminding and updating physicians about its presentation, diagnosing techniques, and management.Recent FindingsOutbreaks are associated with cosmetic surgeries and medical tourism, but any kind of skin lesion can become infected presenting as negative typical cultures and unsuccessful empirical treatments; therefore, a high clinical suspicion is required. Molecular techniques are promising new diagnosing alternatives...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Nontuberculous mycobacteria infection risk in medical tourism
The increasing popularity of medical tourism among US citizens has led to the rising incidence of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections from cosmetic surgery performed in other countries. Clinicians must be aware of these infections and the potential difficulties in treating them. The most common NTM species isolated from cutaneous infections in medical tourists is Mycobacterium abscessus. Because many NTM species are antibiotic resistant, combination therapy is needed to combat skin and soft-tissue NTM infections in patients who had cosmetic procedures performed in foreign countries. (Source: Journal of the America...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants - July 27, 2018 Category: Primary Care Tags: Special Article Source Type: research

“I didn’t have to prove to anybody that I was a good candidate”: a case study framing international bariatric tourism by Canadians as circumvention tourism
Medical tourism is a practice where patients travel internationally to purchase medical services. Medical tourists travel abroad for reasons including costly care, long wait times for care, and limited availab... (Source: BMC Health Services Research)
Source: BMC Health Services Research - July 20, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Carly Jackson, Jeremy Snyder, Valorie A. Crooks and M. Ruth Lavergne Tags: Research article Source Type: research

A critical examination of empowerment discourse in medical tourism: the case of the dental tourism industry in Los Algodones, Mexico
Medical tourism is a term used to describe the phenomenon of individuals intentionally traveling across national borders to privately purchase medical care. The medical tourism industry has been portrayed in t... (Source: Globalization and Health)
Source: Globalization and Health - July 20, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Krystyna Adams, Jeremy Snyder, Valorie A. Crooks and Nicole S. Berry Tags: Research Source Type: research

Medical tourism and national health care systems: an institutionalist research agenda
Although a growing body of literature has emerged to study medical tourism and address the policy challenges it creates for national health care systems, the comparative scholarship on the topic remains too li... (Source: Globalization and Health)
Source: Globalization and Health - July 16, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Daniel B éland and Amy Zarzeczny Tags: Debate Source Type: research

The top 10 arthroplasty articles published in last 10 years by Indian authors
Publication date: January–March 2018Source: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma, Volume 9, Issue 1Author(s): Raju Vaishya, Mohit Kumar Patralekh, Anuj Raj Bijukchhe, Abhishek Vaish, Vipul Vijay, Amit Kumar AgarwalAbstractJoint replacement surgery is becoming increasingly popular globally and recently,​in India. The phenomenon of medical tourism has also contributed to increasing number of arthroplasty surgeries being done every year in our country. The surgeons who work in this highly specialized field of orthopedic surgery, have been publishing their research work in reputed journals. In this paper, we hav...
Source: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma - July 11, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Utilization Status and Satisfaction with Medical Services in Nonresidential Foreign Medical Tourists Visiting a Korean Medicine Hospital.
This study examined the characteristics, medical service use, and satisfaction of foreign patients who visited a spine-specialty Korean medicine hospital as musculoskeletal disorders are the highest frequency category of medical conditions treated using Korean medicine. The electronic medical records of 1,733 foreign patients who had first visited an integrative Korean medicine hospital in 2012-2015 were analyzed, and a satisfaction survey was conducted by e-mail along with phone calls and interviews. Female patients in their 40s with low back or neck pain comprised the most prevalent patient group. The most frequently use...
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - June 3, 2018 Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research

Infections and Outbreaks of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Hospital Settings
AbstractPurpose of ReviewNontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections in the hospital setting are a complex and often challenging entity. The goal of this review is to discuss diagnostic and treatment strategies for established as well as emerging nosocomial NTM infections.Recent FindingsNTM outbreaks have been documented in a variety of hospital settings. Contamination of medical devices or aqueous solutions is often implicated in the spread of infection. More recently, the slow growerM. chimaera has been reported in the setting of contaminated heater-cooler devices used for cardiopulmonary bypass and extracorporeal memb...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Infectious Diseases - June 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Colorectal Cancer Screening among Korean Americans in Chicago: Does It Matter Whether They had the Screening in Korea or the US?
Conclusion: Access to health care in the US is important for KAs to have CRC screening in the US. As medical tourism has been increasing globally, the location of CRC screening utilization must be considered in research on cancer screening to determine correlates of CRC screening. PMID: 29802705 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention)
Source: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention - May 31, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Asian Pac J Cancer Prev Source Type: research

Mycobacterium abscessus Complex Cutaneous Infection
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe worldwide increase in skin infections due toMycobacterium abscessus, especially in Latin America, and its difficult diagnosis and treatment, makes a review of literature crucial in reminding and updating physicians about its presentation, diagnosing techniques, and management.Recent FindingsOutbreaks are associated with cosmetic surgeries and medical tourism, but any kind of skin lesion can become infected presenting as negative typical cultures and unsuccessful empirical treatments; therefore, a high clinical suspicion is required. Molecular techniques are promising new diagnosing alternatives...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - May 31, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Cytomegalovirus reactivation and disease amongst patients with allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in Eastern India: Epidemiology, outcome and healthcare cost
Conclusion: In an increasingly globalised world, where medical tourism is common, data from developing countries regarding cost and outcome of CMV infections in AHSCT patients are of relevance. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 2, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Meet Kumar Mita Roychowdhury Jeevan Kumar Anusha Harishankar Subir Sinha Saurabh Jayant Bhave Anupam Chakrapani Vivek Radhakrishnan Reena Nair Sanjay Bhattacharya Mammen Chandy Source Type: research

Infections and Outbreaks of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Hospital Settings
AbstractPurpose of ReviewNontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections in the hospital setting are a complex and often challenging entity. The goal of this review is to discuss diagnostic and treatment strategies for established as well as emerging nosocomial NTM infections.Recent FindingsNTM outbreaks have been documented in a variety of hospital settings. Contamination of medical devices or aqueous solutions is often implicated in the spread of infection. More recently, the slow growerM. chimaera has been reported in the setting of contaminated heater-cooler devices used for cardiopulmonary bypass and extracorporeal memb...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Infectious Diseases - April 25, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Plastic Surgery Complications from Medical Tourism Treated in a U.S. Academic Medical Center
Conclusions: Cosmetic surgery performed in developing countries can carry substantial risks of complications that can be challenging to patients, primary care providers, insurers, and plastic surgical teams not associated with the original surgery. These complications pose significant burdens on our public health systems. (Source: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery)
Source: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery - March 30, 2018 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Cosmetic: Original Articles Source Type: research

Discussion: Plastic Surgery Complications from Medical Tourism Treated in a U.S. Academic Medical Center
No abstract available (Source: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery)
Source: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery - March 30, 2018 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Cosmetic: Original Articles Source Type: research

Population Health Implications of Medical Tourism
No abstract available (Source: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery)
Source: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery - February 28, 2018 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Letters Source Type: research

Reply: Population Health Implications of Medical Tourism
No abstract available (Source: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery)
Source: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery - February 28, 2018 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Letters Source Type: research

The choice of facilitators in medical tourism
Volume 35, Issue 1, January-March 2018, Page 65-83 . (Source: Health Marketing Quarterly)
Source: Health Marketing Quarterly - February 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Lydia L. Gan James R. Frederick Source Type: research

Pregnancy and subsequent uterine rupture in a 72-year-old gravida: medical tourism versus procreative freedom.
Authors: Afshar Y, Tabsh K PMID: 29390892 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - February 4, 2018 Category: OBGYN Tags: J Obstet Gynaecol Source Type: research

Comment on: an update on bariatric tourism: time for a national registry?
Surgeons covering emergency room calls in the United States are increasingly aware of the burgeoning phenomenon of medical tourism. Medical tourism is loosely defined as medical care being sought by patients in other locales, most commonly due to financial concerns. Our current healthcare system relies heavily on third-party coverage for medical care provided to patients, and the many variations of this coverage lead to gaps in access to care. Despite mandates instituted by the Affordable Care Act in 2014, approximately 27.1 million Americans remain uninsured, representing 12.1% of the population, a number down dramaticall...
Source: Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases - January 21, 2018 Category: Surgery Authors: Christopher G. Yheulon, S. Scott Davis Tags: Editorial comment Source Type: research

An update on bariatric tourism: time for a national registry?
Baratric surgery is currently the most effective intervention for weight loss in obesity, as well as management of glycated hemoglobin and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in those obesity patients co-morbid with diabetes [1]. Given the effectiveness of such procedures, there is little question as to why we see an astounding increase in bariatric surgeries performed worldwide each year, from just over 146,000 in 2003, to over 468,000 in 2013 [2]. Increases in the performance of bariatric surgery have been met with large numbers of patients traveling abroad to seek treatment, a practice familiarly known as bariatric tou...
Source: Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases - December 29, 2017 Category: Surgery Authors: Xane Peters, Antonio Gangemi Tags: Controversies in bariatric surgery Source Type: research

Air travel and thromboembolic events after orthopedic surgery: Where are we and where do we need to go?
Conclusion Due to the small sample and heterogeneity of the studies available, a meta-analysis could not be performed. Acute post-operative air travel appears safe following joint arthroplasties and upper extremity fractures, but is unclear for spine and trauma patients. Further research should be directed towards the growing trend of air travel following surgical procedures. (Source: Journal of Transport and Health)
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - December 13, 2017 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Cosmetic tourism for breast augmentation: a systematic review
ConclusionDetermining the extent of cosmetic tourism for breast augmentation, including outcomes and complications, will help to inform Australian patients who this seek procedure abroad. Furthermore, it will aid in better understanding the health system implications and may help to guide future research and public health interventions both locally and internationally. (Source: ANZ Journal of Surgery)
Source: ANZ Journal of Surgery - December 3, 2017 Category: Surgery Authors: Louise Brightman, Sze Ng, Susannah Ahern, Rodney Cooter, Ingrid Hopper Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Orthopaedic medical tourism
Musculoskeletal Care,Volume 16, Issue 1, Page 173-177, March 2018. (Source: Musculoskeletal Care)
Source: Musculoskeletal Care - November 29, 2017 Category: Physiotherapy Source Type: research

Rapidly growing mycobacteria infections among “cosmetic tourists” returning to the netherlands
Medical tourism for cosmetic surgery is becoming increasingly popular1. Most cosmetic tourists travel to developing parts of the world, such as Latin America and South Asia.2 Cosmetic surgery abroad has advantages such as shorter waiting lists, anonymity and lower costs, combined with a vacation.1-2 Although this seems appealing, it also carries risks. (Source: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery)
Source: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery - November 2, 2017 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Zachri Ovadja, Heleen Sluijmer, Esther Moerman, Marc van Ogtrop, Oren Lapid Tags: Correspondence and Communications Source Type: research

Know thy neighbors: The status of cardiac surgery in the South Asian countries around India.
CONCLUSION: When the number of operations per million populations is considered, Bangladesh and Nepal are lagging behind India where as Pakistan has a comparable figure. Sri Lanka with 265 cardiac operations/million populations has the best figures in the region. However when compared with the Western countries even the Lankan figures also look quite inadequate. PMID: 29174261 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Indian Heart J)
Source: Indian Heart J - November 1, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: Hosain N, Amin F, Rehman S, Koirala B Tags: Indian Heart J Source Type: research