Insights in opiates toxicity: impairment of human vascular mesenchymal stromal cells
AbstractThe most common pulmonary findings in opiate-related fatalities are congestion and oedema, as well as acute and/or chronic alveolar haemorrhage, the cause of which is thought to be a damage to the capillary endothelium related to ischemia. Human vascular mesenchymal stromal cells (vMSCs) play a fundamental role in tissue regeneration and repair after endothelial cell injury, and they express opioid receptors. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of in vitro morphine exposure on the physiological activity and maintenance of human vMSCs. vMSCs were obtained from abdominal aorta fragments collected during su...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - June 8, 2023 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Optimization of InnoXtract ™ extraction and purification system for DNA extraction from skeletal samples
AbstractThe InnoXtract ™ extraction and purification system is a purification method designed for DNA extraction from low-template samples, specifically rootless hair shafts. Its ability to successfully capture highly fragmented DNA suggests its suitability for use with other challenging sample types, including skeletal remains. However, the lysis and digestion parameters required modifications to successfully optimize the method for this sample type. A two-part digestion was developed utilizing a homebrew digestion buffer (0.5 M EDTA, 0.05% Tween 20, and 100 mM NaCl) and a supplemental lysis with the Hair Diges tion B...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - June 8, 2023 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

“Spice”-related deaths in and around Munich, Germany: A retrospective look at the role of synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists in our post-mortem cases over a seven-year period (2014–2020)
Abstract Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs, “Spice”) are a diverse group of recreational drugs, with their structural and pharmacological variability still evolving. Forensic toxicologists often rely on previous reports to assess their role in intoxication cases. This work provides detailed information on the “Spice”-related fatalitie s around Munich, Germany, from 2014 to 2020. All cases underwent an autopsy. Pharmaceutical and illicit drugs were detected and quantified in post-mortem peripheral blood or liver by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). Based on circumstantial e...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - June 8, 2023 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Postmortem concentrations of ropivacaine, bupivacaine, and lidocaine in femoral venous blood after hip fracture surgery
AbstractPain relief in hip fracture patients may be sought by injecting local anesthetic such as ropivacaine, bupivacaine, and lidocaine to the femoral area. As femoral veins are a routine sampling site for postmortem blood, this short report aimed to describe the levels of local anesthetics in ipsilateral (i.e., side of surgery) and contralateral (i.e., opposite side) femoral blood in ten medico-legal autopsy cases that had undergone a hip fracture surgery within 7  days before death. Postmortem blood samples were systematically collected from the ipsilateral and contralateral femoral veins, and toxicological analysis wa...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - June 8, 2023 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Can the size of the contact area body-ground influence the presence of acute pulmonary emphysema in cases of incomplete hanging?
AbstractIn a recently published study, we showed that acute pulmonary emphysema (APE) was present in cases of death by incomplete hanging and absent in cases of complete hanging. This result suggested a possible role of the hanging position on the respiratory distress of these victims. To further investigate this hypothesis, in the present study, we compared cases of incomplete hanging with a small contact area between body and ground (group A) to cases of incomplete hanging with a large contact area (group B). As positive and negative control group, we investigated cases of freshwater drowning (group C) and acute external...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - June 8, 2023 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Water-related atmospheric agents and solubility: two parameters of validation in toxicological screening on clothing worn by skeletal remains
In conclusion, when toxicological analyses are carried out on unconventional matrices as textiles worn by corpses exposed to different environmental conditions, it is of great importance, in using such substrates as evidence for the presence of molecules o f toxicological interest, to evaluate chemical-physical characteristics of each analyte under investigation in order to correctly interpret the toxicological data obtained. (Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - June 8, 2023 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Letter to the Editor regarding the article “Mummification in a forensic context: an observational study of taphonomic changes and the post‑mortem interval in an indoor setting”
(Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - June 8, 2023 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Comparing Committed Forensic Inpatients to Nonpatients Instructed to Feign Insanity or Not Using Scores from the Rorschach Task and Self-Report
AbstractWe investigated how scores from the Rorschach task and self-reports of psychotic-like disturbance distinguish individuals attempting to appear insane (i.e., feigning) from patients with psychotic disturbances or nonpatient controls. We also evaluated whether Rorschach scores provide incremental validity over self-reported symptoms. The study used 50 nonpatients asked to feign (F; ageM = 19.5,SD = 1.5), 88 incarcerated forensic inpatients deemed not guilty by reason of insanity or incompetent to stand trial (P; ageM = 40.8,SD = 13.5), and 47 standard nonpatient controls (S; ageM = 19.8,SD = 2...
Source: Psychological Injury and Law - June 6, 2023 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Collection techniques of touch DNA deposited on human skin following a strangulation scenario
AbstractTrace DNA is a significant type of evidence for its ability to be collected from touched items or surfaces at crime scenes to link suspects to their crimes. In cases of violent crimes like assault, sexual offences, or even homicide, often touch DNA is collected from the victim ’s skin. However, the collection of touch DNA from the victim’s skin can be complex because of the mixture of DNA present, as there is likely to be a small quantity of the offender’s DNA compared to the victim’s DNA. Validating different collection methods or techniques can improve touch DNA sampling; therefore, this study investigate...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - June 6, 2023 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Financial Equity in Involuntary Treatment for Substance Use Disorders
This article reviews the history and current status of existing law on this subject and then argues that psychiatrists should advocate strongly against involuntary substance treatment laws that rely upon third-party pledges of payment.PMID:37277160 | DOI:10.29158/JAAPL.220098-22 (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law - June 5, 2023 Category: Medical Law Authors: Jacob M Appel Source Type: research

Adverse Childhood Experiences and Arrest Rates among Individuals with Serious Mental Illnesses
We examined the impact of ACEs on arrest among individuals with SMI while controlling for age, gender, race, and educational attainment. In a combined sample from two separate studies in different settings (N = 539), we hypothesized that ACE scores would be associated with prior arrest, as well as rate of arrests. The prevalence of prior arrest was very high (415, 77.3%) and was predicted by male gender, African American race, lower educational attainment, and mood disorder diagnosis. Arrest rate (number of arrests per decade, which thus accounted for age) was predicted by lower educational attainment and higher ACE score....
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law - June 5, 2023 Category: Medical Law Authors: Oluwatoyin Ashekun Adria Zern Stephanie Langlois Michael T Compton Source Type: research

Effects of population variations and temperature on Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) development: implications for estimating the postmortem interval
AbstractForensic entomology requires knowledge of the developmental rates of the species that colonize a body after death to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI). These developmental rates may vary depending not only on the species but also on the geographic location due to population differences. Therefore, the objectives of this work were to determine the developmental duration of the forensically important flyChrysomya megacephala under constant controlled and field condition temperatures and to compare these results, through a meta-analysis, with data reported by other authors on populations from different localities...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - June 5, 2023 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Post-mortem detection of neuronal and astroglial biochemical markers in serum and urine for diagnostics of traumatic brain injury
AbstractCurrently available epidemiological data shows that traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents one of the leading causes of death that is associated with medico-legal practice, including forensic autopsy, criminological investigation, and neuropathological examination. Attention focused on TBI research is needed to advance its diagnostics in ante- and post-mortem cases with regard to identification and validation of novel biomarkers. Recently, several markers of neuronal, astroglial, and axonal injury have been explored in various biofluids to assess the clinical origin, progression, severity, and prognosis of TBI. De...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - June 5, 2023 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Discrimination of monozygotic twins using mtDNA heteroplasmy through probe capture enrichment and massively parallel sequencing
In this study, a probe hybridization technique was used to obtain mtDNA and then MPS was performed with an average sequencing depth of above 4000. The results showed us that all ten pairs of MZ twins were clearly differentiated with the minor heteroplasmy threshold at 1.0%, 0.5%, and 0.1%, respectively. Finally, we used a probe that targeted mtDNA to boost sequencing depth without interfering with nuclear DNA and this technique can be used in forensic genetics to differentiate the MZ twins. (Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - June 4, 2023 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Demonstrating the empirical effect of population specificity of anthropological standards in a contemporary Australian population
AbstractThe ability to differentiate individuals based on their biological sex is essential for the creation of an accurate anthropological assessment; it is therefore crucial that the standards that facilitate this are likewise accurate. Given the relative paucity of population-specific anthropological standards formulated specifically for application in the contemporary Australian population, forensic anthropological assessments have historically relied on the application of established methods developed using population geographically and/or temporally disparate. The aim of the present paper is, therefore, to assess the...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - June 3, 2023 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research