An unlikely marriage among oxides
(Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (EMPA)) Sebastian Siol is looking for new materials with unusual properties that were so far not accessible in experiments. To do this, he connects partners who don't really fit together: One partner forces the other into a state that would not be possible without the unlikely pairing. Siol also makes sure that the crystal bonds last in everyday life. Only then are they interesting for industrial applications. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - June 19, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news
UNF, Mayo experiment with rare 3-D microscope
Researchers at the University of North Florida's Materials Science and Engineering Research Facility watched as dozens of dots scattered across their computer screen. Some dots balled up, others exploded. The dots were cancerous cells from a brain tumor recently removed by a Mayo Clinic neurosurgeon. The visual was made possible by an advanced microscope, the only one of its kind in North America, which can zoom into individual cells without staining and killing cells, as microscopes typically do. "It… (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Physician Practices headlines)
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Physician Practices headlines - June 18, 2018 Category: American Health Authors: Will Robinson Source Type: news
Giant tunneling magnetoresistance in spin-filter van der Waals heterostructures
Magnetic multilayer devices that exploit magnetoresistance are the backbone of magnetic sensing and data storage technologies. Here, we report multiple-spin-filter magnetic tunnel junctions (sf-MTJs) based on van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures in which atomically thin chromium triiodide (CrI3) acts as a spin-filter tunnel barrier sandwiched between graphene contacts. We demonstrate tunneling magnetoresistance that is drastically enhanced with increasing CrI3 layer thickness, reaching a record 19,000% for magnetic multilayer structures using four-layer sf-MTJs at low temperatures. Using magnetic circular dichroism measure...
Source: ScienceNOW - June 14, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Song, T., Cai, X., Tu, M. W.-Y., Zhang, X., Huang, B., Wilson, N. P., Seyler, K. L., Zhu, L., Taniguchi, T., Watanabe, K., McGuire, M. A., Cobden, D. H., Xiao, D., Yao, W., Xu, X. Tags: Materials Science reports Source Type: news
Keep Your Medtech Game On Point at MD & amp;M East
It is time once again for medical device engineers, R&D managers, product design professionals, and medtech executives to convene at the Javits Center in New York for Medical Design & Manufacturing (MD&M) East, June 12-14. This guide is just a sample of how this must-attend industry event will help you keep your medtech game on point. Not registered? No problem, you can register right here. Meet a Medtech Rock Star The opportunity to meet an industry pioneer isn't one to take for granted. This year, during the 20th annual Medical Design Excellence Awards (MDEA) ceremony, Robert Jarvik will be a...
Source: MDDI - June 7, 2018 Category: Medical Devices Authors: Amanda Pedersen Tags: MD & M East (New York) Business Source Type: news
Neuromorphic circuits impart a sense of touch
Source: ScienceNOW - May 31, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Bartolozzi, C. Tags: Engineering, Materials Science perspective Source Type: news
A bioinspired flexible organic artificial afferent nerve
The distributed network of receptors, neurons, and synapses in the somatosensory system efficiently processes complex tactile information. We used flexible organic electronics to mimic the functions of a sensory nerve. Our artificial afferent nerve collects pressure information (1 to 80 kilopascals) from clusters of pressure sensors, converts the pressure information into action potentials (0 to 100 hertz) by using ring oscillators, and integrates the action potentials from multiple ring oscillators with a synaptic transistor. Biomimetic hierarchical structures can detect movement of an object, combine simultaneous pressur...
Source: ScienceNOW - May 31, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Kim, Y., Chortos, A., Xu, W., Liu, Y., Oh, J. Y., Son, D., Kang, J., Foudeh, A. M., Zhu, C., Lee, Y., Niu, S., Liu, J., Pfattner, R., Bao, Z., Lee, T.-W. Tags: Engineering, Materials Science reports Source Type: news
Long-range exciton transport in conjugated polymer nanofibers prepared by seeded growth
We describe the preparation of organic semiconducting nanofibers comprising a crystalline poly(di-n-hexylfluorene) core and a solvated, segmented corona consisting of polyethylene glycol in the center and polythiophene at the ends. These nanofibers exhibit exciton transfer from the core to the lower-energy polythiophene coronas in the end blocks, which occurs in the direction of the interchain - stacking with very long diffusion lengths (>200 nanometers) and a large diffusion coefficient (0.5 square centimeters per second). This is made possible by the uniform exciton energetic landscape created by the well-ordered, cry...
Source: ScienceNOW - May 24, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Jin, X.-H., Price, M. B., Finnegan, J. R., Boott, C. E., Richter, J. M., Rao, A., Menke, S. M., Friend, R. H., Whittell, G. R., Manners, I. Tags: Materials Science reports Source Type: news
Imaging of pure spin-valley diffusion current in WS2-WSe2 heterostructures
In this study we demonstrate efficient generation of a pure and locked spin-valley diffusion current in tungsten disulfide (WS2)–tungsten diselenide (WSe2) heterostructures without any driving electric field. We imaged the propagation of valley current in real time and space by pump-probe spectroscopy. The valley current in the heterostructures can live for more than 20 microseconds and propagate over 20 micrometers; both the lifetime and the diffusion length can be controlled through electrostatic gating. The high-efficiency and electric-field–free generation of a locked spin-valley current in TMDC heterostruc...
Source: ScienceNOW - May 24, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Jin, C., Kim, J., Utama, M. I. B., Regan, E. C., Kleemann, H., Cai, H., Shen, Y., Shinner, M. J., Sengupta, A., Watanabe, K., Taniguchi, T., Tongay, S., Zettl, A., Wang, F. Tags: Materials Science, Physics reports Source Type: news
UTIA research continues to advance biofuels, bioenergy and biobased products
(University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture) David Harper, an associate professor of materials science in the UT Center for Renewable Carbon, will lead a $1.4M award from the US Department of Energy through the Biomass Research and Development Initiative (BRDI) -- a joint program organized through DOE and the US Department of Agriculture. The goal of BRDI is to develop economically and environmentally sustainable sources of biomass and increase the availability of competitively priced renewable fuels and biobased products. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 22, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news
Sir Roger Elliott obituary
Specialist in theoretical physics who investigated the structure of matterOn Roger Elliott ’s 60th birthday, a conference in his honour displayed beneath his photograph the title: “Disorder in Condensed Matter Physics”. This reference to his speciality in theoretical physics, where he made important contributions to theories of optical, magnetic and semiconductor properties of the s olid state, was ironic, for Elliott, who has died aged 89, was a man of the soundest judgment.His opinion was widely sought and highly regarded, as professor at Oxford University (1974-96), as chief executive of Oxford Univers...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - May 18, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Frank Close Tags: Physics Materials science Education University of Oxford Higher education Source Type: news
Hybrid molecular-colloidal liquid crystals
Order and fluidity often coexist, with examples ranging from biological membranes to liquid crystals, but the symmetry of these soft-matter systems is typically higher than that of the constituent building blocks. We dispersed micrometer-long inorganic colloidal rods in a nematic liquid crystalline fluid of molecular rods. Both types of uniaxial building blocks, while freely diffusing, interact to form an orthorhombic nematic fluid, in which like-sized rods are roughly parallel to each other and the molecular ordering direction is orthogonal to that of colloidal rods. A coarse-grained model explains the experimental temper...
Source: ScienceNOW - May 17, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Mundoor, H., Park, S., Senyuk, B., Wensink, H. H., Smalyukh, I. I. Tags: Materials Science, Physics reports Source Type: news
Extraordinary plasticity of an inorganic semiconductor in darkness
Inorganic semiconductors generally tend to fail in a brittle manner. Here, we report that extraordinary "plasticity" can take place in an inorganic semiconductor if the deformation is carried out "in complete darkness." Room-temperature deformation tests of zinc sulfide (ZnS) were performed under varying light conditions. ZnS crystals immediately fractured when they deformed under light irradiation. In contrast, it was found that ZnS crystals can be plastically deformed up to a deformation strain of t = 45% in complete darkness. In addition, the optical bandgap of the deformed ZnS crystals was distinctl...
Source: ScienceNOW - May 17, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Oshima, Y., Nakamura, A., Matsunaga, K. Tags: Materials Science reports Source Type: news
3D charge and 2D phonon transports leading to high out-of-plane ZT in n-type SnSe crystals
Thermoelectric technology enables the harvest of waste heat and its direct conversion into electricity. The conversion efficiency is determined by the materials figure of merit ZT. Here we show a maximum ZT of ~2.8 ± 0.5 at 773 kelvin in n-type tin selenide (SnSe) crystals out of plane. The thermal conductivity in layered SnSe crystals is the lowest in the out-of-plane direction [two-dimensional (2D) phonon transport]. We doped SnSe with bromine to make n-type SnSe crystals with the overlapping interlayer charge density (3D charge transport). A continuous phase transition increases the symmetry and diverges two conv...
Source: ScienceNOW - May 17, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Chang, C., Wu, M., He, D., Pei, Y., Wu, C.-F., Wu, X., Yu, H., Zhu, F., Wang, K., Chen, Y., Huang, L., Li, J.-F., He, J., Zhao, L.-D. Tags: Physics, Applied, Materials Science reports Source Type: news
Bringing MomTech to life: Pitt Engineering professor designs a gadget to help moms breastfeed
(University of Pittsburgh) Breast milk has many known health benefits, but breastfeeding is not always an option for moms, and many turn to pumping as an alternative. Katherine Hornbostel, assistant professor of mechanical engineering and materials science at the University of Pittsburgh Swanson School of Engineering, wanted to make this often cumbersome process easier. She decided to tackle the antiquated design of modern breast pumps and create a clever attachment that would make pumping more like nursing. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - May 15, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Handedness in shearing auxetics creates rigid and compliant structures
In nature, repeated base units produce handed structures that selectively bond to make rigid or compliant materials. Auxetic tilings are scale-independent frameworks made from repeated unit cells that expand under tension. We discovered how to produce handedness in auxetic unit cells that shear as they expand by changing the symmetries and alignments of auxetic tilings. Using the symmetry and alignment rules that we developed, we made handed shearing auxetics that tile planes, cylinders, and spheres. By compositing the handed shearing auxetics in a manner inspired by keratin and collagen, we produce both compliant structur...
Source: ScienceNOW - May 10, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Lipton, J. I., MacCurdy, R., Manchester, Z., Chin, L., Cellucci, D., Rus, D. Tags: Engineering, Materials Science reports Source Type: news
Fractal-like hierarchical organization of bone begins at the nanoscale
The components of bone assemble hierarchically to provide stiffness and toughness. However, the organization and relationship between bone’s principal components—mineral and collagen—has not been clearly elucidated. Using three-dimensional electron tomography imaging and high-resolution two-dimensional electron microscopy, we demonstrate that bone mineral is hierarchically assembled beginning at the nanoscale: Needle-shaped mineral units merge laterally to form platelets, and these are further organized into stacks of roughly parallel platelets. These stacks coalesce into aggregates that exceed the latera...
Source: ScienceNOW - May 3, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Reznikov, N., Bilton, M., Lari, L., Stevens, M. M., Kröger, R. Tags: Biochemistry, Materials Science, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news
Tunable intraparticle frameworks for creating complex heterostructured nanoparticle libraries
Complex heterostructured nanoparticles with precisely defined materials and interfaces are important for many applications. However, rationally incorporating such features into nanoparticles with rigorous morphology control remains a synthetic bottleneck. We define a modular divergent synthesis strategy that progressively transforms simple nanoparticle synthons into increasingly sophisticated products. We introduce a series of tunable interfaces into zero-, one-, and two-dimensional copper sulfide nanoparticles using cation exchange reactions. Subsequent manipulation of these intraparticle frameworks yielded a library of 4...
Source: ScienceNOW - May 3, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Fenton, J. L., Steimle, B. C., Schaak, R. E. Tags: Materials Science reports Source Type: news
Polyamide membranes with nanoscale Turing structures for water purification
The emergence of Turing structures is of fundamental importance, and designing these structures and developing their applications have practical effects in chemistry and biology. We use a facile route based on interfacial polymerization to generate Turing-type polyamide membranes for water purification. Manipulation of shapes by control of reaction conditions enabled the creation of membranes with bubble or tube structures. These membranes exhibit excellent water-salt separation performance that surpasses the upper-bound line of traditional desalination membranes. Furthermore, we show the existence of high water permeabili...
Source: ScienceNOW - May 3, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Tan, Z., Chen, S., Peng, X., Zhang, L., Gao, C. Tags: Chemistry, Materials Science reports Source Type: news
Enhanced thermal stability of nanograined metals below a critical grain size
The limitation of nanograined materials is their strong tendency to coarsen at elevated temperatures. As grain size decreases into the nanoscale, grain coarsening occurs at much lower temperatures, as low as ambient temperatures for some metals. We discovered that nanometer-sized grains in pure copper and nickel produced from plastic deformation at low temperatures exhibit notable thermal stability below a critical grain size. The instability temperature rises substantially at smaller grain sizes, and the nanograins remain stable even above the recrystallization temperatures of coarse grains. The inherent thermal stability...
Source: ScienceNOW - May 3, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Zhou, X., Li, X. Y., Lu, K. Tags: Materials Science reports Source Type: news
NuVasive misses EPS estimates, posts red ink in Q1
NuVasive (NSDQ:NUVA) today posted first quarter earnings that missed the Street on non-GAAP earnings per share and saw profits turn to losses. The San Diego, Calif.-based company posted losses of $27.1 million, or 53¢ per share, on sales of $260.5 million for the three months ended March 31, seeing an over 300% shift into the red on the bottom-line while sales grew 4.6% compared with the same period last year. Adjusted to exclude one-time items, earnings per share were 39¢, below the 45¢ consensus on Wall Street, where analysts expected too see sales of $259.4 million. “In the first quarter 2018, ...
Source: Mass Device - May 1, 2018 Category: Medical Devices Authors: Fink Densford Tags: Business/Financial News MassDevice Earnings Roundup Wall Street Beat Nuvasive Source Type: news
A synthetic polymer system with repeatable chemical recyclability
The development of chemically recyclable polymers offers a solution to the end-of-use issue of polymeric materials and provides a closed-loop approach toward a circular materials economy. However, polymers that can be easily and selectively depolymerized back to monomers typically require low-temperature polymerization methods and also lack physical properties and mechanical strengths required for practical uses. We introduce a polymer system based on -butyrolactone (GBL) with a trans-ring fusion at the α and β positions. Such trans-ring fusion renders the commonly considered as nonpolymerizable GBL ring readily...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 26, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Zhu, J.-B., Watson, E. M., Tang, J., Chen, E. Y.- X. Tags: Chemistry, Materials Science r-articles Source Type: news
The April Edition of The Bridge, the Materials Science Newsletter from...
Issue 58 of The Bridge newsletter from Rigaku concentrates on materials science and is available from the company’s global website(PRWeb April 23, 2018)Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2018/04/prweb15433269.htm (Source: PRWeb: Medical Pharmaceuticals)
Source: PRWeb: Medical Pharmaceuticals - April 23, 2018 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: news
Entering a Golden Age of Medical Materials
Materials science is a field that is constantly evolving as technologies advance around us at lightning pace. New trends and developments continue to drive device innovation, but they also push new materials to the forefront as well. Device makers and engineers have made great strides in using these new materials to create exciting new technologies, with recent discoveries made from advances in medical electronics, biomaterials, plastics, and soft materials. Jacqueline Anim is the principal material engineer for Ethicon, a subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson that manufactures surgical systems and instruments. She currently...
Source: MDDI - April 19, 2018 Category: Medical Devices Authors: Kristopher Sturgis Tags: MD & M East (New York) Materials Source Type: news
Capillarity-induced folds fuel extreme shape changes in thin wicked membranes
Soft deformable materials are needed for applications such as stretchable electronics, smart textiles, or soft biomedical devices. However, the design of a durable, cost-effective, or biologically compatible version of such a material remains challenging. Living animal cells routinely cope with extreme deformations by unfolding preformed membrane reservoirs available in the form of microvilli or membrane folds. We synthetically mimicked this behavior by creating nanofibrous liquid-infused tissues that spontaneously form similar reservoirs through capillarity-induced folding. By understanding the physics of membrane bucklin...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 19, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Grandgeorge, P., Krins, N., Hourlier-Fargette, A., Laberty-Robert, C., Neukirch, S., Antkowiak, A. Tags: Engineering, Materials Science reports Source Type: news
Ultralarge elastic deformation of nanoscale diamond
Diamonds have substantial hardness and durability, but attempting to deform diamonds usually results in brittle fracture. We demonstrate ultralarge, fully reversible elastic deformation of nanoscale (~300 nanometers) single-crystalline and polycrystalline diamond needles. For single-crystalline diamond, the maximum tensile strains (up to 9%) approached the theoretical elastic limit, and the corresponding maximum tensile stress reached ~89 to 98 gigapascals. After combining systematic computational simulations and characterization of pre- and postdeformation structural features, we ascribe the concurrent high strength and l...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 19, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Banerjee, A., Bernoulli, D., Zhang, H., Yuen, M.-F., Liu, J., Dong, J., Ding, F., Lu, J., Dao, M., Zhang, W., Lu, Y., Suresh, S. Tags: Engineering, Materials Science reports Source Type: news
Five-dimensional imaging of freezing emulsions with solute effects
The interaction of objects with a moving solidification front is a common feature of many industrial and natural processes such as metal processing, the growth of single crystals, the cryopreservation of cells, or the formation of sea ice. Interaction of solidification fronts with objects leads to different outcomes, from total rejection of the objects to their complete engulfment. We imaged the freezing of emulsions in five dimensions (space, time, and solute concentration) with confocal microscopy. We showed that the solute induces long-range interactions that determine the solidification microstructure. The local increa...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 19, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Dedovets, D., Monteux, C., Deville, S. Tags: Materials Science, Physics reports Source Type: news
The fight for clean emissions continues
(Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (EMPA)) It is exactly 20 years since experts from Empa and VERT published the first test results on diesel particle filters. Today, more than 300 million vehicles worldwide are fitted with such filters. However, a VERT conference held at the Empa Academy revealed why the emission problem is by no means over. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - April 12, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Bottom-up synthesis of multifunctional nanoporous graphene
Nanosize pores can turn semimetallic graphene into a semiconductor and, from being impermeable, into the most efficient molecular-sieve membrane. However, scaling the pores down to the nanometer, while fulfilling the tight structural constraints imposed by applications, represents an enormous challenge for present top-down strategies. Here we report a bottom-up method to synthesize nanoporous graphene comprising an ordered array of pores separated by ribbons, which can be tuned down to the 1-nanometer range. The size, density, morphology, and chemical composition of the pores are defined with atomic precision by the design...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 12, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Moreno, C., Vilas-Varela, M., Kretz, B., Garcia-Lekue, A., Costache, M. V., Paradinas, M., Panighel, M., Ceballos, G., Valenzuela, S. O., Pena, D., Mugarza, A. Tags: Chemistry, Materials Science reports Source Type: news
Light-induced lattice expansion leads to high-efficiency perovskite solar cells
We report that continuous light illumination leads to a uniform lattice expansion in hybrid perovskite thin films, which is critical for obtaining high-efficiency photovoltaic devices. Correlated, in situ structural and device characterizations reveal that light-induced lattice expansion benefits the performances of a mixed-cation pure-halide planar device, boosting the power conversion efficiency from 18.5 to 20.5%. The lattice expansion leads to the relaxation of local lattice strain, which lowers the energetic barriers at the perovskite-contact interfaces, thus improving the open circuit voltage and fill factor. The lig...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 5, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Tsai, H., Asadpour, R., Blancon, J.-C., Stoumpos, C. C., Durand, O., Strzalka, J. W., Chen, B., Verduzco, R., Ajayan, P. M., Tretiak, S., Even, J., Alam, M. A., Kanatzidis, M. G., Nie, W., Mohite, A. D. Tags: Physics, Applied, Materials Science reports Source Type: news
NuVasive touts Porous PEEK interbody implant study
NuVasive (NSDQ:NUVA) yesterday released results from a study of the company’s Porous PEEK material compared against titanium-coated PEEK and smooth PEEK material used in interbody fusion devices, touting advantages of its proprietary materials. Results from the study were published in The Spine Journal. In the study, researchers compared interbody implants composed of titanium-coated PEEK, smooth PEEK and NuVasive’s Porous PEEK, which were all subjected to impaction loading conditions. Results indicated that the Porous PEEK implants maintained a greater than 65% porosity with minimal changes to pore size a...
Source: Mass Device - March 30, 2018 Category: Medical Devices Authors: Fink Densford Tags: Clinical Trials Implants Spinal Nuvasive Source Type: news
Response to Comment on "Enhanced water permeability and tunable ion selectivity in subnanometer carbon nanotube porins"
Horner and Pohl argue that high water transport rates reported for carbon nanotube porins (CNTPs) originate from leakage at the nanotube-bilayer interface. Our results and new experimental evidence are consistent with transport through the nanotube pores and rule out a defect-mediated transport mechanism. Mechanistic origins of the high Arrhenius factor that we reported for narrow CNTPs at pH 8 require further investigation. (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 29, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Tunuguntla, R. H., Zhang, Y., Henley, R. Y., Yao, Y.-C., Pham, T. A., Wanunu, M., Noy, A. Tags: Biochemistry, Materials Science, Physics t-comment Source Type: news