Improving tuberculosis management in prisons: impact of a rapid molecular point-of-care test
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global public health problem. In 2018, TB was responsible for about 1.5 million deaths according to the World Health Organization (WHO) with notification of 10 million cases1. In Europe, the frequency of TB varies considerably from country to country, mainly in Eastern Europe, with countries reporting rates ranging from 2.6/100,000 in Liechtenstein to 66.2/100,000 in Romania2. France reports 5,092 new cases per year and Ile-de-France is the Metropolitan region with the highest incidence rate (16.1 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in 2018)3. (Source: Journal of Infection)
Source: Journal of Infection - December 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Evrevin Marine, Hermet Lo ïc, Guillet-Caruba Christelle, Nivose Pierre-Louis, Sordoillet Vallier, Mellon Guillaume, Dulioust Anne, Doucet-Populaire Florence Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

IJERPH, Vol. 17, Pages 9051: COVID-19 in Switzerland and Liechtenstein: A Cross-Sectional Survey among Dentists ’ Awareness, Protective Measures and Economic Effects
IJERPH, Vol. 17, Pages 9051: COVID-19 in Switzerland and Liechtenstein: A Cross-Sectional Survey among Dentists’ Awareness, Protective Measures and Economic Effects International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph17239051 Authors: Wolf Zeyer Campus The aim of this observational cross-sectional study was to gain information on the awareness; protective measures and economic effects of dentists in Switzerland during the global COVID-19 pandemic. All dentist were members of the Swiss Dental Association SSO from all over Switzerland—including all Swiss can...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - December 4, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Wolf Zeyer Campus Tags: Article Source Type: research

Flattening the curve in 52 days: characterisation of the COVID-19 pandemic in the Principality of Liechtenstein - an observational study.
CONCLUSION: The close collaboration of all relevant stakeholders allowed for the complete workup of all COVID-19 patients nationwide. A multitude of factors (e.g., young age of the patients, low-threshold access to testing, close monitoring of cases, high alertness and adherence to public health measures by the population) led to the early containment of the first wave of the pandemic, with a very low rate of serious outcomes. Antibody testing for SARS-CoV-2 revealed a substantial proportion of undiagnosed COVID-19 cases among close contacts of the patients. PMID: 33105020 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: ...
Source: Swiss Medical Weekly - October 5, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Thiel SL, Weber MC, Risch L, Wohlwend N, Lung T, Hillmann D, Ritzler M, Risch M, Kohler P, Vernazza P, Kahlert CR, Fleisch F, Cusini A, Karajan TV, Copeland S, Paprotny M Tags: Swiss Med Wkly Source Type: research

The effect of leachable components of resin cements and its resultant bond strength with lithium disilicate ceramics
Conclusion: The monomer eluded from all the groups are identified as Bis-GMA, The eluded monomer decreases the bond strength between the resin cement and the ceramic due to water sorption, The Variolink II (dual cure) resin cement shows improved bond strength than the Multilink (self-cure self-adhesive) resin cement. (Source: Indian Journal of Dental Research)
Source: Indian Journal of Dental Research - August 5, 2020 Category: Dentistry Authors: MV Mavishna Kondas Vijay Venkatesh Dhanasekaran Sihivahanan Source Type: research

Effect of Light Irradiation Condition on Gap Formation Under Polymeric Dental Restoration; OCT study.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of two light-curing systems; quartz tungsten-halogen (QTH) and light-emitting diode (LED), and irradiation time on interfacial gap formation of dental composite resin restorations bonded with an adhesive resin using optical coherence tomography (OCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty cavities were prepared in extracted human molar teeth and divided into four groups (n=10) based on the type of light curing system QTH (LITEX 680A) and LED (Demi Plus) and curing duration (10 s or 40 s). A single-step self-etching dental adhesive (Tetric® N-Bond; Ivoclar Vivadent AG, ...
Source: Zeitschrift fur Medizinische Physik - February 25, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Bakhsh TA, Tagami J, Sadr A, Luong MN, Turkistani A, Almhimeed Y, Alshouibi E Tags: Z Med Phys Source Type: research

Zoonotic Virus Linked to Severe Encephalitis in Southern Germany
A recent study suggested that Borna disease virus 1 (BoDV-1), which is carried by wild shrews in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and Liechtenstein, could be a more common cause of severe or fatal encephalitis among people in endemic areas than previously realized. (Source: JAMA)
Source: JAMA - February 18, 2020 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

3D Digital Image Correlation Analysis of the Shrinkage Strain in Four Dual Cure Composite Cements.
ić M Abstract The introduction of resin-based cements and an adhesive-bonding system in daily dental practice has given the opportunity to increase the retention of previously conventional cemented restorations and the optimal results in esthetic. This experimental study employed the 3D Digital Image Correlation Method (3D-DIC) for detecting shrinkage strain in four dual cured composite cements. The aim was to visualize measure, analyze, and compare strain fields in four resin-based cements using the 3D-DIC method. A total of 72 samples were divided into 4 groups considering variations in sample types, diameter, ...
Source: Biomed Res - December 14, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Mitrović A, Antonović D, Tanasić I, Mitrović N, Bakić G, Popović D, Milošević M Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research

The effect of crown fabrication process on the fatigue life of the tooth-crown structure
ConclusionTeeth restored with IPS e. max® crowns constructed by manually applied wax spacer and pressing have a more uniform interface and a greater structural integrity than wax CAD-printed patterns or CAD-CAM crowns. (Source: Materials Science and Engineering: C)
Source: Materials Science and Engineering: C - November 11, 2019 Category: Materials Science Source Type: research

Recent trends in money laundering
AbstractThis paper illustrates how criminals currently launder money in Germany, Liechtenstein, and Switzerland. Semi-structured expert interviews were conducted with 50 money launderers and 50 compliance and prevention experts, whose responses were subjected to qualitative content analysis. Based on the findings therefrom, a quantitative survey of 200 compliance officers was conducted. Together, these two methods revealed the concrete techniques currently used to launder money in Europe. Contrary to popular belief, money laundering is found not to be associated with high costs, and can even generate significant profits. A...
Source: Crime, Law and Social Change - August 30, 2019 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

Quantifying and comparing the radiopacity of five bulk fill composites in digital dental radiographs – a contribution to human identification
Publication date: Available online 6 May 2019Source: Journal of Forensic Radiology and ImagingAuthor(s): Daphne Azambuja Hatschbach de AQUINO, Ângela FERNANDES, Luiz Roberto Coutinho MANHÃES JUNIORAbstractObjectives: To compare the quantified radiopacity of five bulk fill composites in digital dental radiographs.Material and methods: An in-vitro observational study was performed with five dental restoration materials: I) Bulk Fill Surefil SDR+ flow® (Dentsply Sirona®, York, PA, USA), II) Bulk Fill Sonic Fill® (Kerr Corp.®, Orange, CA, USA); III) Filtek Bulk Fill flow® (3M Company®, Mapl...
Source: Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging - May 7, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Lung Transplantation
In conclusion, circulating MDSCs are measurable, functional and have a G-MDSC phenotype in lung transplant patients. Their frequency is increased in stable patients, decreased during post-transplant complications, and related to level of immunosuppression. This study may pave the way for further investigations of MDSC in the context of lung transplantation. Introduction From a transplant immunological point of view, graft acceptance is the fundamental element in allograft survival. Graft acceptance is realized by blocking the immune system with immunosuppression preventing host immune cells to recognized and attack...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - April 25, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Is It First the Egg or the Shrimp? – Diversity and Variation in Microbial Communities Colonizing Broods of the Vent Shrimp Rimicaris exoculata During Embryonic Development
In this study, we explored the proliferation of microbial communities on R. exoculata broods through embryonic development using a combination of NGS sequencing and microscopy approaches. Variations in abundance and diversity of egg microbial communities were analyzed in broods at different developmental stages and collected from mothers at two distinct vent fields on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (TAG and Snake Pit). We also assessed the specificity of the egg microbiome by comparing communities developing on egg surfaces with those developing on the cuticle of pleopods, which are thought to be exposed to similar environmental c...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 16, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Effect of different surface treatments and ceramic primers on shear bond strength of self-adhesive resin cement to zirconia ceramic
Conclusions: Sandblasting is a more effective method to increase bond strength on zirconia ceramics than hydrofluoric acid etching, and the application of Z-Prime Plus primer increases SBS better than Clearfil Ceramic Primer. (Source: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice)
Source: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice - March 5, 2019 Category: Rural Health Authors: NE Saleh MC Guven G Yildirim F Erol Source Type: research

Effect of alcoholic beverages on shear bond strength of composites to enamel
Conclusion: As the content of alcohol and time of exposure increased along with a decrease in the pH of alcoholic beverages, shear bond strength between composite and enamel decreased. (Source: Journal of Conservative Dentistry)
Source: Journal of Conservative Dentistry - September 17, 2018 Category: Dentistry Authors: Udaya Kumar Palani Swamy Ankita Reddy Amravai Sairam Reddy Mandadi Aisha Habeeb Source Type: research

Adoption Patterns of Bronchoscopic Lung Volume Reduction Procedures in Germany and Predicted Procedure Volumes for Other European Countries
Conclusions: Analysis of ­German procedure data show pronounced BLVR therapy uptake in the early years of adoption, with the more recently introduced coil therapy used in about one-third of patients. Estimated patient volumes to date constitute only a small fraction of the severe emphysema population.Respiration (Source: Respiration)
Source: Respiration - August 17, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effect of self-etch adhesives on the internal adaptation of composite restoration: a CP-OCT Study
AbstractDespite improvements in dental adhesive materials, internal adaptation remains a challenge in bonded restorations. The aim of this study was to compare microgaps and internal floor adaptation between two different self-etch adhesives in class-V cavities using cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT). In this in vitro study, standardized round class-V cavities were prepared in 20 non-carious human upper central incisor teeth. They were randomly divided into two groups, TN and SE, with each group receiving a different dental adhesive. In TN group, the adhesive used was all-in-one Tetric N-Bond Self-Et...
Source: Odontology - August 9, 2018 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Laboratory Study of Micro-shear Bond Strength of Two Resin Cements to Leucite Ceramics using Different Ceramic Primers.
CONCLUSION: Monobond Etch & Prime has shown comparable results to the most popular combination of HF acid and silane. The combination of HF acid and Monobond N and self-adhesive resin cement has shown the best MSBS results, though not statistically significant. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The clinicians can use simplified ceramic primer technique (Monobond Etch & Prime) which has comparable MSBS to the most popular combination of HF acid and silane. PMID: 30150489 [PubMed - in process] (Source: J Contemp Dent Pract)
Source: J Contemp Dent Pract - August 1, 2018 Category: Dentistry Authors: Al-Harthi AA, Aljoudi MH, Almaliki MN, El-Banna KA Tags: J Contemp Dent Pract Source Type: research

Fracture resistance and failure modes of lithium disilicate or composite endocrowns
Conclusions: The lithium disilicate ceramic endocrowns exhibited higher fracture resistance than indirect composite groups. Both of the composite endocrowns showed more favorable failure than the lithium disilicate ceramic endocrowns. (Source: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice)
Source: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice - July 9, 2018 Category: Rural Health Authors: M Altier F Erol G Yildirim EE Dalkilic Source Type: research

Application of water-soluble polyvinyl alcohol-based film patches on laser microporated skin facilitates intradermal macromolecule and nanoparticle delivery.
This study presents a new concept for the delivery of macromolecules and nanoparticles to viable skin layers with a high density of professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Stable polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer films as well as PVA blends with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) or cross-linked carbomer were prepared using an easily-scalable film casting technique. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and rhodamine B-labeled dextrane 70 kDa (RD70), used as small and macromolecular model substances, or polystyrene (PS)-nano- and microparticles with diameters of 0.5 µm and 5 µm were directly incorporated into the po...
Source: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics - April 13, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Engelke L, Winter G, Engert J Tags: Eur J Pharm Biopharm Source Type: research

Effect of resin infiltration and microabrasion on the microhardness, surface roughness and morphology of incipient carious lesions.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: The effects of resin infiltration and microabrasion on incipient carious lesions by surface microhardness, roughness and morphological assessments, and resistance to further acid attack of treated lesions were evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty artificially-induced incipient lesions were randomly divided into five groups (n = 16): resin infiltration with an adhesive resin (Excite F, Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein), resin infiltration with a resin infiltrant (Icon, DMG, Hamburg, Germany), microabrasion without polishing (Opalustre, Ultradent, South Jordan, UT, US...
Source: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica - February 15, 2018 Category: Dentistry Authors: Yazkan B, Ermis RB Tags: Acta Odontol Scand Source Type: research

Microbiological Changes and Caries-Preventive Effect of an Innovative Varnish Containing Chlorhexidine in Orthodontic Patients
Conclusion: Monthly use of Cervitec Plus ® could result in a significant improvement in oral health of orthodontic patients.Caries Res 2018;52:272 –278 (Source: Caries Research)
Source: Caries Research - January 31, 2018 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Evaluation of vertical marginal adaptation of provisional crowns by digital microscope
Conclusion: Marginal discrepancy of the group C (Success CD) was the lowest among the provisionals tested. The mean vertical marginal gap values for the materials tested were found to be with in the clinically acceptable range (<130 μm). (Source: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice)
Source: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice - January 29, 2018 Category: Rural Health Authors: MQ Al Rifaiy Source Type: research

Malaria cases in Switzerland from 2005 to 2015 and recent rise of imported Plasmodium vivax malaria.
Abstract Reporting cases of malaria to the Federal Office of Public Health has been mandatory in Switzerland since 1974. We analysed notifications of imported confirmed malaria cases between 2005 and 2015 in Switzerland or Liechtenstein. Data for previously visited countries, nationality and reason for travelling were analysed. In contrast with the impressive drop of malaria cases reported worldwide since 2000, we found that the number of malaria cases imported yearly in Switzerland doubled in 2014 and 2015 compared to the average for the preceding decade. Since 2014, Plasmodium vivax infection represented 36% of ...
Source: Swiss Medical Weekly - October 24, 2017 Category: General Medicine Authors: Eperon G, Durieux-Paillard S, Mauris A, Chappuis F, Gysin N Tags: Swiss Med Wkly Source Type: research

Number of < i > Streptococcus mutans < /i > and < i > Lactobacillus < /i > in saliva versus the status of cigarette smoking, considering duration of smoking and number of cigarettes smoked daily.
Number of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus in saliva versus the status of cigarette smoking, considering duration of smoking and number of cigarettes smoked daily. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2017 Sep 21;24(3):396-400 Authors: Nakonieczna-Rudnicka M, Bachanek T Abstract INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: A large number of colonies of Streptococcus mutans (SM) and Lactobacillus (LB) cariogenic bacteria in the saliva show a high risk of dental caries development. Cotinine is a biomarker of exposure to the tobacco smoke. The aim of the study was assessment of the number of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillu...
Source: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine : AAEM - September 21, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Nakonieczna-Rudnicka M, Bachanek T Tags: Ann Agric Environ Med Source Type: research

Evaluating the effect of ceramic veneer thickness on degree of conversion in three luting resin ...
compare the effect of different ceramic thicknesses on degree of conversion (DC) of 3 light-cured resin cements. Methods: In this experimental in-vitro study, the degree of conversion of three light-cured resin cements, Variolink Veneer (Ivoclar, Liechtenstein), RelyX Veneer (3M ESPE, USA) and Choice2 (Bisco, USA) were evaluated beneath feldespatic ceramic discs (Vita VMK Master) with a same shade,  2m2, in different thicknesses (0.5, 1, 2 and3 mm) using FTIR. The light curing unit used was Optilux 501, with an intensity of 600 mW/cm2 and exposure duration of 40 seconds. Three specimens of each cement group were exami...
Source: Journal of Dental Materials and Techniques - March 16, 2017 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

[The Heidelberg CI database module : Quality control in hearing restoration with cochlear implants].
CONCLUSION: The presented patient cohort is representative of patients at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Heidelberg Medical Center, Germany, and the demographic distribution is in accordance with the literature. The state of the contralateral ear, often also fitting the CI indication, is not surprising, as cochlear implantation is a comparatively new procedure. Preoperative electrical stimulation turned out not to be significant by itself. The hearing results and overview of complications were easy to calculate in comparison to a pure data storage system such as i.s.h.med. PMID: 27837216...
Source: HNO - November 14, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: HNO Source Type: research

Colorectal cancer screening in countries of European Council outside of the EU-28.
CONCLUSION: Cancer screening should be viewed as a key health care tool, also because investing in screening protects the weakest in the population, decreases the social burden of cancer, and reduces all types of health care costs, including those for radical surgery, long-term hospitalisation, and chemotherapy. PMID: 27239121 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - May 27, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Altobelli E, D'Aloisio F, Angeletti PM Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Assessing geographical differences in illicit drug consumption—A comparison of results from epidemiological and wastewater data in Germany and Switzerland” [Drug Alcohol Depend. 161 (2016) 189–199]
The authors regret that in this paper the incorrect population size serviced by the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of Bendern (Liechtenstein) was reported. The correct population size for this plant is 37,000 (Tables 1 and 5 erroneously indicated 74,000 inhabitants, which was used for all calculations). Consequently, the population normalised loads for cocaine and amphetamine, the only two substances detected in this WWTP, are twice as high. Hence, the values 70.0 and 5.7mgday−11000inhab−1, respectively (see Figs. (Source: Drug and Alcohol Dependence)
Source: Drug and Alcohol Dependence - April 18, 2016 Category: Addiction Authors: Frederic Been, Lubertus Bijlsma, Lisa Benaglia, Jean-Daniel Berset, Ana M. Botero-Coy, Sara Castiglioni, Ludwig Kraus, Frank Zobel, Michael P. Schaub, Alexander Bücheli, Félix Hernández, Olivier Delémont, Pierre Esseiva, Christoph Ort Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

The interrelationships of birthweight, inflammation and body composition in healthy adults
Abstract BackgroundLower birthweight is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. We hypothesized that inflammation and body fat may be potential mediators for these inverse relationships. Materials and methodsHealthy adults aged 25–41 years were enrolled in a prospective population‐based cohort study in the Principality of Liechtenstein. Main exclusion criteria were diabetes, overt cardiovascular disease or a body mass index> 35 kg/m2. Birthweight was self‐reported by the study participants. White blood cell (WBC) count and high‐sensitivity C‐reactive protein (hs‐CRP) le...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Investigation - March 3, 2016 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Thomas Kofler, Matthias Bossard, Stefanie Aeschbacher, Alexandra Tabord, Francisco Javier Ruperti Repilado, Stéphanie Lely, Sebastian Berger, Martin Risch, Lorenz Risch, David Conen Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Effect of Instrument Lubricants on the Surface Degree of Conversion and Crosslinking Density of Nanocomposites
This study aimed to analyze the effect of instrument lubricants on the degree of conversion and crosslink density of nanocomposites. Materials and MethodsSamples (N = 10) were fabricated according to the composites (Filtek Z350 XT, 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA; and IPS Empress Direct, Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein and lubricants used (Adper Single Bond 2 and Scotchbond Multi‐Purpose bonding agent adhesive systems, 3M ESPE; 70% ethanol, absolute ethanol, and no lubricant). Single composite increments were inserted into a Teflon mold using the same dental instrument. The composite surface was then ...
Source: Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry - January 1, 2016 Category: Dentistry Authors: Felipe Costa Paula, Regis de Souza Valentin, Boniek Castillo Dutra Borges, Maria Cristina dos Santos Medeiros, Raiza Freitas Oliveira, Ademir Oliveira Silva Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Molecular characterization and virus neutralization patterns of severe, non-epizootic forms of feline calicivirus infections resembling virulent systemic disease in cats in Switzerland and in Liechtenstein
In conclusion, clinicians should be aware of severe, non-epizootic forms of FCV infections with initial clinical presentations similar to VSD. (Source: Veterinary Microbiology)
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - November 25, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Differential involvement of RASSF2 hypermethylation in breast cancer subtypes and their prognosis.
In conclusion, RASSF2 gene is differently methylated in luminal and non-luminal tumors and is a promising suppressor gene with clinical involvement in breast cancer. PMID: 26284587 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Oncotarget)
Source: Oncotarget - August 19, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research

A randomized controlled clinical trial of 3-unit posterior zirconia–ceramic fixed dental prostheses (FDP) with layered or pressed veneering ceramics: 3- year results
Conclusion Zirconia FDPs with pressed and layered veneering ceramics exhibited similar outcomes at 3 years. A trend to more chipping of the pressed veneering ceramic, however, was observed. Clinical Significance Posterior restorations with zirconia frameworks are a viable treatment method. When restoring posterior teeth with all-ceramic restorations, care providers should be aware of the higher rate of chipping compared to the published data on conventional metal-ceramic restorations. (Source: Journal of Dentistry)
Source: Journal of Dentistry - July 31, 2015 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

The effect of spark plasma sintering on lithium disilicate glass-ceramics
Lithium disilicate glass-ceramics are now well established for the construction of dental appliances using heat extrusion and computer-aided design/computer-aided machining (CAD–CAM). Depending on the manufacturing process these materials are produced as ingots (IPS e.max Press, IPS Empress 2, Ivoclar-Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) or blocks (IPS e.max CAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent). A colored pressure cast block used for CAD/CAM applications is produced in a partially crystallized state with a 40% lithium metasilicate phase (Li2SiO3), to allow ease of machining and reduced tooling costs. (Source: Dental Materials)
Source: Dental Materials - July 23, 2015 Category: Materials Science Authors: Fatima Al Mansour, Natalia Karpukhina, Salvatore Grasso, Rory M. Wilson, Mike J. Reece, Michael J. Cattell Source Type: research

Collective effective dose in Europe from X-ray and nuclear medicine procedures
Population doses from radiodiagnostic (X-ray and nuclear medicine) procedures in Europe were estimated based on data collected from 36 European countries. For X-ray procedures in EU and EFTA countries (except Liechtenstein) the collective effective dose is 547 500 man Sv, resulting in a mean effective dose of 1.06 mSv per caput. For all European countries included in the survey the collective effective dose is 605 000 man Sv, resulting in a mean effective dose of 1.05 mSv per caput. For nuclear medicine procedures in EU countries and EFTA (except Liechtenstein) countries the collective effective dose is 30 700 man Sv, resu...
Source: Radiation Protection Dosimetry - July 13, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Bly, R., Jahnen, A., Jarvinen, H., Olerud, H., Vassileva, J., Vogiatzi, S. Tags: Assessment of medical exposure Source Type: research

Microstructural evolution and physical behavior of a lithium disilicate glass–ceramic
Lithium disilicate glass–ceramics were first introduced into the dental community in 1998 by Ivoclar Vivadent. Since its inception, dental research on the lithium disilicate glass–ceramics have been based on the commercial product, IPS Empress® 2 (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein). It contained approximately 65% volume fraction of lithium disilicates, 34% volume fraction of residual glass, and 1% volume fraction of porosity after heat treatments [1]. Unlike the binary lithium disilicate system that was first developed by Stookey [2], the IPS Empress® 2 was derived from a multi-component system, f...
Source: Dental Materials - June 13, 2015 Category: Materials Science Authors: Wen Lien, Howard W. Roberts, Jeffrey A. Platt, Kraig S. Vandewalle, Thomas J. Hill, Tien-Min G. Chu Source Type: research

[Dendritic cells in cancer immunotherapy].
ors D Abstract Since the beginning of the 20th century, biomedical scientists have tried to take advantage of the natural anti-cancer activities of the immune system. However, all the scientific and medical efforts dedicated to this have not resulted in the expected success. In fact, classical antineoplastic treatments such as surgery, radio and chemotherapy are still first line treatments. Even so, there is a quantity of experimental evidence demonstrating that cancer cells are immunogenic. However, the effective activation of anti-cancer T cell responses closely depends on an efficient antigen presentation carri...
Source: Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra - May 1, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Gato M, Liechtenstein T, Blanco-Luquín I, Zudaire MI, Kochan G, Escors D Tags: An Sist Sanit Navar Source Type: research

Ex vivo generation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells that model the tumor immunosuppressive environment in colorectal cancer.
Authors: Dufait I, Schwarze JK, Liechtenstein T, Leonard W, Jiang H, Escors D, De Ridder M, Breckpot K Abstract Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are a heterogeneous population of cells that accumulate in tumor-bearing subjects and which strongly inhibit anti-cancer immune responses. To study the biology of MDSC in colorectal cancer (CRC), we cultured bone marrow cells in conditioned medium from CT26 cells, which are genetically modified to secrete high levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. This resulted in the generation of high numbers of CD11b+ Ly6G+ granulocytic and CD11b+ Ly6C+ mono...
Source: Oncotarget - April 17, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research

Bio: Urs E. Nydegger, MD
Presently, Dr. Nydegger serves as senior consultant for the Central Medical Laboratories/Dr. Risch, a Liechtenstein-based enterprise dedicated to excellence in clinical laboratory testing. He is an alumnus and Titular Professor of the University of Bern, where he was Head of the Blood Bank (1985–2001), later Head of Research and Development at the Clinic of Cardiovascular Surgery (2006–). (Source: Transfusion and Apheresis Science)
Source: Transfusion and Apheresis Science - April 9, 2015 Category: Hematology Authors: Urs Nydegger Tags: Review Source Type: research

Urs E. Nydegger, M.D.
Presently, Dr. Nydegger serves as senior consultant for the Central Medical Laboratories/Dr. Risch, a Liechtenstein-based enterprise dedicated to excellence in clinical laboratory testing. He is an alumnus and Titular Professor of the University of Bern, where he was Head of the Blood Bank (1985-2001), later Head of Research and Development at the Clinic of Cardiovascular Surgery (-2006). (Source: Transfusion and Apheresis Science)
Source: Transfusion and Apheresis Science - April 9, 2015 Category: Hematology Authors: Urs E. Nydegger Tags: Review Source Type: research

Effect of Thermocycling on Flexural Strength and Weibull Statistics of Machinable Glass–Ceramic and Composite Resin
Abstract To evaluate the durability of machinable dental restorative materials, this study performed an experiment to evaluate the flexural strength and Weibull statistics of a machinable lithium disilicate glass–ceramic and a machinable composite resin after being thermocycled for certain cycles. A total of 40 bar-shape specimens of were prepared with the dimension of 20 mm × 4 mm × 2 mm, which were divided into four groups of 10 specimens. Ten specimens of machinable lithium disilicate glass–ceramic (IPS e.max CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent, Liechtenstein) and 10 specimens of ...
Source: The Journal of Indian Prosthodontic Society - December 1, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Intratumoral administration of mRNA encoding a fusokine consisting of IFN-β and the ectodomain of the TGF-β receptor II potentiates antitumor immunity.
In conclusion, these data suggest that intratumoral delivery of mRNA encoding soluble proteins, such as Fβ2, can modulate the tumor microenvironment, leading to effective antitumor T cell responses, which can be further potentiated through combination therapy. PMID: 25338019 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Oncotarget)
Source: Oncotarget - November 12, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research

Porcelain laminate veneers: Clinical survey for evaluation of failure
Conclusion Insufficient clinical skills or operator experience resulted in restoration failure in one-third of patients. (Source: The Saudi Dental Journal)
Source: The Saudi Dental Journal - November 6, 2014 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Association of smoking and nicotine dependence with pre-diabetes in young and healthy adults.
n D Abstract INTRODUCTION: Several studies have shown an increased risk of type 2 diabetes among smokers. Therefore, the aim of this analysis was to assess the relationship between smoking, cumulative smoking exposure and nicotine dependence with pre-diabetes. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of healthy adults aged 25-41 in the Principality of Liechtenstein. Individuals with known diabetes, Body Mass Index (BMI)>35 kg/m2 and prevalent cardiovascular disease were excluded. Smoking behaviour was assessed by self-report. Pre-diabetes was defined as glycosylated haemoglobin between 5.7% and 6.4...
Source: Swiss Medical Weekly - October 11, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Aeschbacher S, Schoen T, Clair C, Schillinger P, Schönenberger S, Risch M, Risch L, Conen D Tags: Swiss Med Wkly Source Type: research

Effects of coronal substrates and water storage on the microhardness of a resin cement used for luting ceramic crowns
Composite resin and metallic posts are the materials most employed for reconstruction of teeth presenting partial or total destruction of crowns. Resin-based cements have been widely used for cementation of ceramic crowns. The success of cementation depends on the achievement of adequate cement curing. Objectives: To evaluate the microhardness of Variolink® II (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein), used for cementing ceramic crowns onto three different coronal substrate preparations (dentin, metal, and composite resin), after 7 days and 3 months of water storage. The evaluation was performed along the cement line i...
Source: Journal of Applied Oral Science - August 16, 2014 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Laser all‐ceramic crown removal—a laboratory proof‐of‐principle study—phase 2 crown debonding time
ConclusionEr:YAG laser energy can successfully be used to efficiently debond all‐ceramic full contour crowns from natural teeth without damage to the underlying tooth structure. Lasers Surg. Med. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine)
Source: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine - August 13, 2014 Category: Laser Surgery Authors: Peter Rechmann, Natalie C.H. Buu, Beate M.T. Rechmann, Frederick C. Finzen Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

Water Sorption, Solubility, and Color Stability of Giomer Restoratives
This study compared the color stability, water sorption, and solubility of a giomer composite and two nanohybrid composite resins. Materials and MethodsDisc‐shaped specimens (1‐mm thickness × 15‐mm diameter) of a giomer (Beautifil II, Shofu, Kyoto, Japan) and two nanohybrid (Filtek Z550, 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA; Tetric N‐Ceram, Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) composites (N = 10) were prepared. Baseline color measurements were taken, and specimens were immersed in water for 28 days. Following immersion, color values were remeasured, and color‐change values (ΔE) w...
Source: Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry - August 1, 2014 Category: Dentistry Authors: Nihan Gonulol, Sezin Ozer, Emine Sen Tunc Tags: Society of Color Source Type: research

Overview of 71 European community-based initiatives against childhood obesity starting between 2005 and 2011: general characteristics and reported effects
Conclusions: Despite diversity of included CBIs, common characteristics were the application of integrated actions at a local level, aimed at changing the environment and the children's behaviour directly. Evidence supporting effectiveness on weight indicators is available, although the design and conduct of most of these studies were suboptimal (i.e. no control group, a small sample size, not random). (Source: Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations)
Source: Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations - July 28, 2014 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Wanda Jose BemelmansTrudy Maria WijnhovenMarieke VerschuurenJoão Breda Source Type: research

The Effects of Mouth Rinses on the Color Stability of Resin‐Based Restorative Materials
Abstract ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to assess the color stability of three direct resin‐based restorative materials: IPS Empress Direct (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein), Nano‐filled composite (Filtek Z 350 XT, 3 M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA), and Nano‐hybrid composite (Tetric Evo Ceram, Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) upon immersion into the following three mouth rinses: Antiseptol (Kahira Pharmaceuticals and Chemical Industries Co. Cairo‐Egypt), Flucal (Alexandria Co. Pharmaceuticals Alexandria, Egypt), and Listerine (Johnson & Johnson, UK). Materials and MethodsNinety disc‐shap...
Source: Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry - June 30, 2014 Category: Dentistry Authors: Abeer El‐Sayed ElEmbaby Tags: Research Article Source Type: research