Ontogeny of the digestive tract of Brycon amazonicus (Teleostei, Bryconidae) under culture conditions: from hatching to juvenile stage.
Abstract In the present study, the morphological development of the Brycon amazonicus digestive tract is described to provide basic knowledge for nutritional studies and, therefore, increase the survival of this species during larviculture. Samples were collected from hatching up to 25 days of age, measured, processed and observed under a stereomicroscope and light microscopy. Newly hatched larvae presented their digestive tract as a straight tube, dorsal to the yolk sac, lined with a single layer of undifferentiated cells. At 24 h post-hatching (hPH), the buccopharyngeal cavity was open, but the posterior region ...
Source: Zygote - February 20, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Neumann E, Paes MDCF, Mendes JMR, Braga FMS, Nakaghi LSO Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

Establishment of a feeder and serum-free culture system for human embryonic stem cells.
Abstract Stem cells are an immortal cell population capable of self-renewal; they are essential for human development and ageing and are a major focus of research in regenerative medicine. Despite considerable progress in differentiation of stem cells in vitro, culture conditions require further optimization to maximize the potential for multicellular differentiation during expansion. The aim of this study was to develop a feeder-free, serum-free culture method for human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), to establish optimal conditions for hESC proliferation, and to determine the biological characteristics of the resu...
Source: Zygote - January 22, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Wang L, Zhang R, Ma R, Jia G, Jian S, Zeng X, Xiong Z, Li B, Li C, Lv Z, Bai X Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

Micromorphological and ultrastructural description of spermatozoa from squirrel monkeys (Saimiri collinsi Osgood, 1916).
s SFS Abstract Saimiri collinsi is used as an animal model in biotechnology research for conservation of species from the genus Saimiri. However, the development of biotechnologies depends on a proper knowledge of the sperm morphology to understand the basic aspects of sperm physiology, as potential male fertility depends on different cellular sperm structures. With this purpose, this study characterized the micromorphological and ultrastructural characteristics of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri collinsi) sperm using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). SEM electromyography rev...
Source: Zygote - January 14, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Leão DL, Sampaio WV, Sousa PC, Moura AAA, Oskam IC, Santos RR, Domingues SFS Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

Restraint stress of male mice triggers apoptosis in spermatozoa and spermatogenic cells via activating the TNF- α system.
Restraint stress of male mice triggers apoptosis in spermatozoa and spermatogenic cells via activating the TNF-α system. Zygote. 2020 Jan 14;:1-10 Authors: Zhang J, Kong DL, Xiao B, Yuan HJ, Kong QQ, Han X, Luo MJ, Tan JH Abstract Studies have indicated that psychological stress impairs human fertility and that various stressors can induce apoptosis of testicular cells. However, the mechanisms by which psychological stress on males reduces semen quality and stressors induce apoptosis in testicular cells are largely unclear. Using a psychological (restraint) stress mouse model, we tested whether ...
Source: Zygote - January 14, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Zhang J, Kong DL, Xiao B, Yuan HJ, Kong QQ, Han X, Luo MJ, Tan JH Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

Characterization of isolated bovine preantral follicles based on morphology, diameter and cell number.
In this study, we classified bovine preantral follicles by morphology upon isolation, determined diameter and number of granulosa cells by direct counting, and compared our results with previous studies reporting bovine preantral follicle classification. Follicles were isolated via homogenization of ovary tissue and classified into primary, early secondary and secondary stage based on morphology and number of layers of granulosa cells. Diameter was individually measured and Hoechst 33342 was used as a nuclear stain to count granulosa cells. We found that follicles classified by morphology into primary, early secondary, and...
Source: Zygote - January 14, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Candelaria JI, Denicol AC Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

Effects of different polyvinylpyrrolidone concentrations on intracytoplasmic sperm injection.
Abstract To explore whether different polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) concentrations affect the results of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), a prospective study was conducted for 194 couples undergoing 210 ICSI therapy cycles. These cycles were divided into three groups (10, 7 and 5% groups) using the corresponding concentration of PVP for sperm immobilization. The main outcome measures were analyzed. Results indicated that, with a decrease in PVP concentrations, all of the main outcome measures increased. In particular, the high-quality cleavage embryo rate in the 7% group was significantly lower than in the 5% group (P
Source: Zygote - January 14, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Ding D, Wang Q, Li X, Chen B, Zou W, Ji D, Hao Y, Xue R, Zou H, Wei Z, Zhou P, Cao Y, Zhang Z Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

lncRNA FOXD2-AS1 affects trophoblast cell proliferation, invasion and migration through targeting miRNA.
Abstract The abnormal expression of lncRNAs and miRNAs has been found in the placentas of patients with preeclampsia (PE). Therefore, we determined the role of lncRNA FOXD2-AS1/miR-3127 in trophoblast cells. The expression of lncRNA FOXD2-AS1 was detected by qRT-PCR. The proliferation, migration and invasion ability of trophoblast cells were evaluated using CCK-8, wound healing and transwell assays. The target gene of lncRNA FOXD2-AS1 was determined by StarBase and luciferase reporter assays. Western blotting was used to analyze the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MM...
Source: Zygote - January 13, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Zhang Y, Chen X Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

Transcriptome profile and association study revealed STAT3 gene as a potential quality marker of bovine gametes.
Abstract The present study was aimed to investigate differences in molecular signatures in oocytes derived from Holstein-Friesian heifers with different genetic merit for fertility, euthanized during day 0 or day 12 of the estrous cycle. Moreover, association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ODC1 and STAT3 genes and bull fertility traits was investigated. The gene expression patterns were analyzed using cDNA array and validated with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The result revealed that several genes have shown not only to be regulated by fertility merit but also by the d...
Source: Zygote - January 13, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Ghanem N, Salilew-Wondim D, Hoelker M, Schellander K, Tesfaye D Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

Blastocyst collapse as an embryo marker of low implantation potential: a time-lapse multicentre study.
This study suggests that human blastocysts that collapse spontaneously during development are less likely to implant and generate a pregnancy compared with embryos that do not. Although this is a retrospective study, the results demonstrated the utility of collapse episodes as new marker of embryo selection following eSET at blastocyst stage. PMID: 31928572 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Zygote)
Source: Zygote - January 13, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Sciorio R, Herrer Saura R, Thong KJ, Esbert Algam M, Pickering SJ, Meseguer M Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

Preliminary assessment of aneuploidy rates between the polar, mid and mural trophectoderm.
The objective of this study is to compare aneuploidy rates between three distinct areas of the human trophectoderm: mural, polar and a region in between these two locations termed the 'mid' trophectoderm. This is a cohort study on in vitro fertilization (IVF) patients undergoing comprehensive chromosome screening at the blastocyst stage at a private IVF clinic. All embryos underwent assisted hatching on day 3 with blastocyst biopsy and comprehensive chromosome screening. Biopsied blastocysts were divided into three groups depending on which area (polar, mid, or mural) of the trophectoderm was protruding from the zona pellu...
Source: Zygote - December 18, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Taylor TH, Stankewicz T, Katz SL, Patrick JL, Johnson L, Griffin DK Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

Functions and mechanism of noncoding RNA in the somatic cells of the testis.
Abstract ncRNAs are involved in numerous biological processes by regulating gene expression and cell stability. Studies have shown that ncRNAs also contribute to spermatogenesis. Leydig cells (LCs) and Sertoli cells (SCs) are somatic cells of the testis that support spermatogenesis and are vital to male fertility. In this review, we summarized the findings from studies on ncRNAs in SCs and LCs. In SCs, ncRNAs play key roles in phagocytosis, immunoprotection and development of SCs. In LCs, ncRNAs are involved in steroidogenesis, in particular production of testosterone as well as development of LCs. Here, we discus...
Source: Zygote - December 2, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Li C, Chen B, Wang J Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

Protein profile of the ovarian follicular fluid of brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira; Fisher, 1814).
This study provides insight into elucidating folliculogenesis in brown brocket deer. PMID: 31787122 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Zygote)
Source: Zygote - December 2, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Souza TTS, Bezerra MJB, van Tilburg MF, Nagano CS, Rola LD, Duarte JMB, Melo LM, Moura AA, Freitas VJF Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

Synaptotagmin 1 regulates cortical granule exocytosis during mouse oocyte activation.
Abstract Synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1) is an abundant and important presynaptic vesicle protein that binds Ca2+ for the regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Our previous study reported its localization and function on spindle assembly in mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. The present study was designed to investigate the function of Syt1 during mouse oocyte activation and subsequent cortical granule exocytosis (CGE) using confocal microscopy, morpholinol-based knockdown and time-lapse live cell imaging. By employing live cell imaging, we first studied the dynamic process of CGE and calculated the time interval betwee...
Source: Zygote - December 2, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Zhu XL, Li SF, Zhang XQ, Xu H, Luo YQ, Yi YH, Lv LJ, Zhang CH, Wang ZB, Ouyang YC, Hou Y, Schatten H, Liu FH Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

Exchanges of histone methylation and variants during mouse zygotic genome activation.
In conclusion, our data revealed dynamics of histone methylation and variants during mice ZGA and provided details of their exchange in mice embryogenesis. Moreover, we further inferred that macroH2A1, H2A.Z, H3K9me2/3 and H3K27me2/3 may play crucial roles during mouse ZGA. PMID: 31746724 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Zygote)
Source: Zygote - November 20, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Deng M, Chen B, Liu Z, Cai Y, Wan Y, Zhou J, Wang F Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

mInscuteable regulates meiotic spindle organization during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation.
In this study, we investigated the roles of mInsc in mouse oocyte maturation. mInsc was detected at all stages of oocyte maturation. The protein level of mInsc was slightly higher at the germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) stage and remained constant during mouse oocyte maturation. The subcellular localization of mInsc overlapped with spindle microtubules. Disruption of microtubules and microfilaments caused changes in the localization of mInsc. Depletion or overexpression of mInsc significantly decreased the maturation rates of mouse oocytes. Depletion of mInsc significantly affected asymmetric division, spindle assembly, a...
Source: Zygote - November 18, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Xiao Z, Peng J, Xie M, Yang J, Xu W Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

Culture of goat preantral follicles in situ associated with mesenchymal stem cell from bone marrow.
This study aims to develop an in vitro co-culture system of in situ goat preantral follicles with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC), evaluating the influence of these cells on follicular growth, rate of activation and morphologically normal follicles. Fragments of ovarian cortex were cultured for 1 or 7 days in the presence of BM-MSC (BM-MSC+) and absence of BM-MSC (BM-MSC-). Histological sections of the fragments were analysed and data were obtained regarding morphological classification, survival rate of morphologically normal follicles and rate of follicular activation. Culture medium on days 1 and 7 w...
Source: Zygote - November 18, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Arrivabene Neves C, Dos Santos Silva L, de Carvalho CES, Silva Carvalho M, Sarmento JLR, Vasconcelos Cavalcante T, Arrivabene M, Arrivabene Neves T, de Sousa Bezerra MÉ, Júnior ALG, da Silva CMG, de Carvalho MAM Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

Determination of the ideal volume of activating solution and the optimal ratio of spermatozoa per oocyte for Prochilodus brevis fertilization.
The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of sperm per oocyte and the ideal volume of activating solution to be used in the assisted fertilization of P. brevis. Gametes were collected and fertilization performed in two steps. In step 1, the ideal proportion of spermatozoa was determined based on the fertilization rate:oocyte by testing six doses of semen: D1 = 30 × 103, D2 = 150 × 103, D3 = 300 × 103, D4 = 3 × 106, D5 = 5 × 106, and D6 = 10 × 106. In step 2, the fertilization and hatching rates were evaluated using different volumes of activating solution (V1 - 25 ml, V...
Source: Zygote - November 18, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Oliveira-Araújo MS, Lopes JT, Nunes LT, Almeida-Monteiro PS, Nascimento RVD, Pereira VA, Ferreira YM, Neres RWP, Montenegro AR, Leite-Castro LV, Salmito-Vanderley CSB Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

Disulphide-less crotamine is effective for formation of DNA-peptide complex but is unable to improve bovine embryo transfection.
This study aimed to investigate the ability of disulphide-less crotamine (dLCr) to complex DNA and to evaluate whether the DNA-dLCr complex is capable of improving transfection in bovine embryos. Three experiments were performed to: (i) evaluate the formation and stability of the DNA-dLCr complex; (ii) assess the dLCr embryotoxicity by exposure of bovine embryos to dLCr; and (iii) assess the efficiency of bovine embryo transfection after microinjection of the DNA-dLCr complex or green fluorescent protein (GFP) plasmid alone (control). DNA complexation by dLCr after 30 min of incubation at 1:100 and 1:50 proportions present...
Source: Zygote - October 30, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Freitas VJF, Campelo IS, Silva MMAS, Cavalcanti CM, Teixeira DIA, Camargo LSA, Melo LM, Rádis-Baptista G Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

Supplementation of kaempferol to in vitro maturation medium regulates oxidative stress and enhances subsequent embryonic development in vitro.
This study investigated the effect of KAE addition to in vitro maturation on the antioxidant capacity of embryos in porcine oocytes after parthenogenetic activation. The effects of kaempferol on oocyte quality in porcine oocytes were studied based on the expression of related genes, reactive oxygen species, glutathione and mitochondrial membrane potential as criteria. The rate of blastocyst formation was significantly higher in oocytes treated with 0.1 µm KAE than in control oocytes. The mRNA level of the apoptosis-related gene Caspase-3 was significantly lower in the blastocysts derived from KAE-treated oocytes than...
Source: Zygote - October 30, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Zhao Y, Xu Y, Li Y, Jin Q, Sun J, E Z, Gao Q Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

Effects of high calcium levels on the disturbed extrusion of the second polar body during in vitro fertilization in C3H/He mouse substrains.
In this study, the substrain specificity of this phenomenon was examined under 1.71-6.84 mM calcium concentration in ova from six C3H/He mouse commercially available substrains in Japan. PBII extrusion in ova from J substrains was not affected by calcium concentrations (
Source: Zygote - October 29, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Ohta-Takada Y, Nagao Y, Kito S Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

Function of leukaemia inhibitory factor in spermatogenesis of a teleost fish, the medaka Oryzias latipes.
Abstract In response to gonadotropins and androgens, testicular cells produce various molecules that control proper proliferation and differentiation of spermatogenic cells through their paracrine and autocrine actions. However, molecules functioning downstream of the hormonal stimulation are poorly understood. Leukaemia inhibitory factor (Lif) is known to maintain the pluripotency of stem cells including embryonic stem cells and primordial germ cells at least in vitro, but its actual roles in vivo remain to be elucidated. To clarify the function of Lif in teleost (medaka) testes, we examined the effects of Lif on...
Source: Zygote - October 16, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Satoh R, Bando H, Sakai N, Kotani T, Yamashita M Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

Supplementation of culture medium with knockout serum replacement improves the survival of bovine secondary follicles when compared with other protein sources during in vitro culture.
a JRV Abstract The present study evaluated the effect of knockout serum replacement (KSR), fetal bovine serum (FBS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the viability and growth of bovine secondary follicles cultured in vitro for 12 days. To this end, secondary follicles were isolated (185-202 μm) and cultured in vitro in TCM-199+ medium supplemented with KSR (5% and 10%), FBS (5% and 10%) or BSA (3 mg/ml) at 38.5°C with 5% CO2 in air. Follicular diameters were evaluated on days 0, 4, 8 and 12. After 12 days of culture, follicular survival analysis was performing by using calcein-AM and ethidium homodimer. Bef...
Source: Zygote - October 11, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Gomes DS, Aragão LB, Lima Neto MF, Barroso PAA, Paulino LRFM, Silva BR, Souza ALP, Vasconcelos GL, Silva AWB, Silva JRV Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

Thermal influence on the embryonic development and hatching rate of the flameback pygmy angelfish Centropyge aurantonotus eggs.
s JVA, Tsuzuki MY Abstract The flameback pygmy angelfish Centropyge aurantonotus, highly appreciated and valued by the aquarium market, is heavily harvested and traded. Temperature is one of the abiotic factors that has the most influence on fish development, especially in the early stages of life. For captive production, it is essential to know the appropriate environmental parameters for each species. In this sense, this study aimed to evaluate the influence of temperature on the embryonic development and hatching rates of C. aurantonotus incubated at six different temperatures (20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30°C). Em...
Source: Zygote - October 11, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Mendonça RC, Ikebata SP, Araújo-Silva SL, Manhães JVA, Tsuzuki MY Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

Treatment with roscovitine and butyrolactone I prior to in vitro maturation alters blastocyst production.
This study evaluated the effects of oocyte meiosis inhibitors roscovitine (ROS) and butyrolactone I (BL-I) on in vitro production of bovine embryos. Bovine oocytes were maintained in pre in vitro maturation (pre-IVM) with 25 µM ROS or 100 µM BL-I for 24 h to delay meiosis and for 24 h in in vitro maturation (IVM). Following this treatment, the nuclear maturation index was evaluated. All embryos degenerated following this procedure. In the second set of experiments, oocytes were maintained for 6 or 12 h in pre-IVM with the following three treatments: ROS (25 µM or 12.5 µM), BL-I (100 µM or 50 &...
Source: Zygote - October 11, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Maziero RRD, Guaitolini CRF, Paschoal DM, Crespilho AM, Monteiro BA, Lima JS, Sestari DAO, Landim-Alvarenga FDC Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

Reproductive cycle of the tetra Astyanax bimaculatus (Characiformes: Characidae) collected in Amazonian streams.
va DH Abstract A histological characterization of gonadal development in the tetra Astyanax bimaculatus was performed, aimed at determining its reproductive cycle in streams localized inside the Amazonian forest. Collections were carried out monthly from August 2017 to July 2018 at the Zoobotânica Foundation of Marabá, PA. Collected specimens were weighed and measured, and their gonads and liver were removed and weighed to calculate gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indexes. Gonads were fixed and treated for routine histology for light microscopy. Materials were stained with toluidine blue and haematoxy...
Source: Zygote - October 11, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Cordeiro JG, Rodrigues J, Rodrigues MDS, Bertolini RM, Nóbrega RH, Yasui GS, Maximino C, Siqueira-Silva DH Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

Sperm DNA fragmentation: causes and identification.
ilde;o MEOD Abstract Sperm DNA fragmentation is referred to as one of the main causes of male infertility. Failures in the protamination process, apoptosis and action of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered the most important causes of DNA fragmentation. Action of ROS or changes in sperm protamination would increase the susceptibility of sperm DNA to fragmentation. Routine semen analysis is unable to estimate sperm chromatin damage. Sperm DNA integrity influences sperm functional capability, therefore tests that measure sperm DNA fragmentation are important to assess fertility disorders. Actually, there is...
Source: Zygote - October 11, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Hamilton TRDS, Assumpção MEOD Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

Germ plasm-related structures in marine medaka gametogenesis; novel sites of Vasa localization and the unique mechanism of germ plasm granule arising.
Abstract Germ plasm, a cytoplasmic factor of germline cell differentiation, is suggested to be a perspective tool for in vitro meiotic differentiation. To discriminate between the: (1) germ plasm-related structures (GPRS) involved in meiosis triggering; and (2) GPRS involved in the germ plasm storage phase, we investigated gametogenesis in the marine medaka Oryzias melastigma. The GPRS of the mitosis-to-meiosis period are similar in males and females. In both sexes, five events typically occur: (1) turning of the primary Vasa-positive germ plasm granules into the Vasa-positive intermitochondrial cement (IMC); (2) ...
Source: Zygote - October 8, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Reunov AA, Au DWT, Alexandrova YN, Chiang MWL, Wan MT, Yakovlev KV, Reunova YA, Komkova AV, Cheung NKM, Peterson DR, Adrianov AV Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

The expression level of SOX2 at the blastocyst stage regulates the developmental capacity of bovine embryos up to day-13 of in vitro culture.
e;guez-Alvarez LL Abstract Quality of in vitro-produced embryos is influenced by changes in gene expression in response to adverse conditions. Gene markers for predicting 'good embryos' do not exist at present. We propose that the expression of pluripotency markers OCT4-SOX2-NANOG in D9 (day 9) bovine demi-embryos correlated with development at D13 (day 13). Day 8 in vitro-produced blastocysts were split in two cloned halves, one half (D9) was subjected to analysis of pluripotency markers and the other was kept in culture until D13 of development. Embryo development was scored and correlated with its own status at...
Source: Zygote - October 2, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Velásquez AE, Veraguas D, Cabezas J, Manríquez J, Castro FO, Rodríguez-Alvarez LL Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

Lipid characterization of in vitro-produced bovine embryos with distinct kinetics of development.
In conclusion, the kinetics of development had a greater effect on the membrane lipid profiles throughout the embryo culture, especially at the 8-16-cell stage. The in vitro environment affects lipid composition and may compromise cell signalling and function in blastocysts. PMID: 31566145 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Zygote)
Source: Zygote - September 30, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Annes K, Sudano MJ, Belaz KRA, Tata A, Santos VG, Fonseca Junior AMD, Dos Santos ÉC, Eberlin MN, Milazzotto MP Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

Optimization of sperm freezability in Bactrian camel using various dilution rates and equilibration times.
Abstract The effect of different dilution rates and equilibration times on the cryopreservation of Bactrian camel spermatozoa was evaluated in the current study. Semen samples from four healthy adult males were collected, processed and pooled. They were then subjected to a completely randomized 4×2 factorial design including four dilution rates (DR; 1:1, 1:2, 1:4 or 1:8; v:v with SHOTOR diluent) and two equilibration times (ET; 1 or 2 h at 5ºC). After freezing and thawing, sperm kinematic parameters as well as viability, plasma membrane integrity, abnormality and seminal malondialdehyde level were asses...
Source: Zygote - September 30, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Vahedi V, Mostafaei M, Vaseghi Dodaran H, Hedayat Evrigh N Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

Embryo culture at a reduced oxygen concentration of 5%: a mini review.
Abstract The optimum oxygen tension for culturing mammalian embryos has been widely debated by the scientific community. While several laboratories have moved to using 5% as the value for oxygen tension, the majority of modern in vitro fertilization (IVF) laboratory programmes still use 20%. Several in vivo studies have shown the oxygen tension measured in the oviduct of mammals fluctuates between 2% and 8% and in cows and primates this values drops to
Source: Zygote - September 23, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Sciorio R, Smith GD Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

Establishment of mouse androgenetic embryonic stem cells by double sperm injection and differentiation into beating embryoid body.
In this study, we produced androgenetic embryos by injecting two sperm into an enucleated metaphase II (MII) oocyte. By this method, 88.48% of oocytes survived after injection, and 20.24% of these developed to the blastocyst stage. We successfully generated AgES cell lines from the androgenetic embryos and assayed the expression of imprinted genes in the cell lines. We found that the morphological characteristics of AgES cells were similar to that of fertilized embryonic stem cells (fES), such as expression of key pluripotent markers, and generation of cell derivatives representing all three germ layers following in vivo a...
Source: Zygote - September 23, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Lei L, Hu L, Li T, Shen X, Liang X, Chen Y, Feng X, Yang Z, Shan Z Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

Reference genes selection for real-time quantitative PCR analysis in mouse germinal vesicle oocytes.
Abstract Reference gene selection in mouse oocytes is an important task required to perform further adequate analysis of target gene expression levels. In the current work we have analyzed expression stability of the seven most commonly used reference genes (Actb, Eef1e1, Gapdh, H2afz, Ppia, Rpl4 and Ubc) in mouse oocytes at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage. We have performed analysis of expression stability of the above-mentioned reference genes with the three most commonly used software tools: geNorm, BestKeeper and NormFinder. Taking into account the results obtained from all of these programmes Gapdh, Rpl4 and ...
Source: Zygote - September 23, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Filatov MA, Nikishin DA, Khramova YV, Semenova ML Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

Anethole improves blastocysts rates together with antioxidant capacity when added during bovine embryo culture rather than in the in vitro maturation medium.
do JR Abstract We performed the exposure of bovine oocytes to anethole during in vitro maturation (0 or 300 µg/ml), during in vitro embryo production (0, 30, 300 or 2000 µg/ml), or during both periods to determine the rates of 2-4 cells embryos, blastocysts rates and cells numbers, as well as the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Bovine ovaries (n = 240) were collected from a local abattoir after slaughter and cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) with homogeneous and non-dark cytoplasm, surrounded by two or more compact layers of cumulus cells, and an intact zona pellucida were selected for in vi...
Source: Zygote - August 27, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Anjos JC, Aguiar FLN, Sá NAR, Souza JF, Cibin FWS, Alves BG, Santos RR, Figueiredo JR Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

Adipose-derived stem cells transplantation improves endometrial injury repair.
Abstract Endometrial injury is an important cause of intrauterine adhesion (IUA), amenorrhea and infertility in women, with limited effective therapies. Recently, stem cells have been used in animal experiments to repair and improve injured endometrium. To date, our understanding of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in endometrial injury repair and their further therapeutic mechanisms is incomplete. Here, we examined the benefit of ADSCs in restoration of injured endometrium by applying a rat endometrial injury model. The results revealed by immunofluorescence showed that green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled ...
Source: Zygote - August 27, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Shao X, Ai G, Wang L, Qin J, Li Y, Jiang H, Zhang T, Zhou L, Gao Z, Cheng J, Cheng Z Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

Effects of melatonin on production of reactive oxygen species and developmental competence of bovine oocytes exposed to heat shock and oxidative stress during in vitro maturation.
PMID: 31431196 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Zygote)
Source: Zygote - August 21, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Cavallari FC, Leal CLV, Zvi R, Hansen PJ Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

Immunolocalization of antioxidant enzymes in testis of rams submitted to long-term heat stress.
In conclusion, GPx is the main antioxidant enzyme identified in testicular cells in an attempt to maintain oxidative balance when HS occurs. PMID: 31422785 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Zygote)
Source: Zygote - August 19, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Hamilton TRDS, Duarte GE, Visintin JA, Assumpção MEOD Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

Increased pregnancy outcome after day 5 versus day 6 transfers of human vitrified-warmed blastocysts.
Abstract Vitrification is a highly efficient technique for the cryopreservation of the human embryo. The effect of delayed blastulation may be responsible for implantation failures and negatively affects in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes. The current literature displays discordant results; some studies have announced higher pregnancy rates after day 5 (D5) transfer compared with day 6 (D6) transfer, while others have shown equivalent outcomes. In the present study an investigation into the clinical implications of delayed blastulation (D5 versus D6) was carried out. We performed a retrospective study comparing...
Source: Zygote - August 15, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Sciorio R, Thong KJ, Pickering SJ Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

Histone hyperacetylation and DNA methylation interplay during murine spermatogenesis.
Abstract Male germ cell development is a critical period during which epigenetic patterns are established and maintained. The progression from diploid spermatogonia to haploid spermatozoa involves the incorporation of testis-specific histone variants, mitotic and meiotic divisions, haploid gene expression, histone-protamine transitions and massive epigenetic reprogramming. Understanding the protein players and the epigenetic mark network involved in the setting of the epigenetic programme in spermatogenesis is an exciting new clue in the field of reproductive biology with translational outcomes. As information in ...
Source: Zygote - August 15, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Burlibaşa L, Ionescu AC, Dragusanu DM Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

Effect of butafosfan supplementation during oocyte maturation on bovine embryo development.
s Corrêa M Abstract Around 60-80% of oocytes maturated in vivo reached competence, while the proportion of maturation in vitro is rarely higher than 40%. In this sense, butafosfan has been used in vivo to improve metabolic condition of postpartum cows, and can represent an alternative to increase reproductive efficiency in cows. The aim of this study was to evaluate the addition of increasing doses of butafosfan during oocyte maturation in vitro on the initial embryo development in cattle. In total, 1400 cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were distributed in four groups and maturated according to supplementatio...
Source: Zygote - August 15, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Teixeira Hax L, Rincón JAA, Schneider A, Pegoraro LMC, Franco Collares L, Alves Pereira R, Pradieé J, Del Pino FAB, Nunes Corrêa M Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

Follicular structures of cows with cystic ovarian disease present altered expression of cytokines.
Abstract Ovulation is considered an inflammatory, cytokine-mediated event. Cytokines, which are recognized as growth factors with immunoregulatory properties, are involved in many cellular processes at the ovarian level. In this sense, cytokines affect fertility and are involved in the development of different ovarian disorders such as bovine cystic ovarian disease (COD). Because it has been previously demonstrated that ovarian cells represent both sources and targets of cytokines, the aim of this study was to examine the expression of several cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-1RI, IL-1RII, IL-4 and IL-8...
Source: Zygote - August 15, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Stassi AF, Gareis NC, Marelli BE, Matiller V, Leiva CJM, Rey F, Ortega HH, Salvetti NR, Baravalle ME Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

Intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection, but for whom?
Abstract Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is performed in cases of infertility by injecting a motile and morphologically normal sperm cell under a routine ×400 magnification at which is hard to distinguish morphologically healthy sperm. Recently, the use of high-powered differential interference contrast optics gave the opportunity to select a sperm under ultra-high magnification of ×10,160. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) technique in different infertility populations undergoing ICSI. Main outcome ...
Source: Zygote - August 15, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Karabulut S, Aksunger O, Korkmaz O, Eren Gozel H, Keskin I Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

Cryopreservation of incomplete compacted morulae and preliminary biopsy of excluded fragments.
Abstract The complexity of predicting embryo development potential at the cleavage stages and the emergence of epigenetic risks during prolonged in vitro culture of pre-implantation embryos made it more advantageous to transfer embryos at the morula stage to the uterine cavity. The criteria for estimating embryos at this stage that allow prediction of cryopreservation outcomes have been poorly described. All day 4 embryos (n = 224) were graded 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 according to blastomere compaction degree (BCD = 100, 75, 50, 25 or 0%, respectively) and the survival and blastocyst formation rate of these morulae were st...
Source: Zygote - August 15, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Petrushko M, Yurchuk T, Piniaiev V, Buderatska N Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

Identification and characterization of POU class V family genes in Japanese red bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster.
In this study, we cloned two cDNAs named CpPou5f1 and CpPou5f3, which encode POU-V family proteins of the Japanese red bellied newt Cynops pyrrhogaster. In the predicted amino acid sequence encoded by CpPou5f1, the typical MAGH sequence at the N-terminus and deletion of arginine at the fifth position of POU-homeodomain were recognized, but not in the sequence encoded by CpPou5f3. Phylogenetic analysis using Clustal Omega software indicated that CpPou5f1 and CpPou5f3 are classified into the clade of the POU5F1 and POU5F3 families, respectively. In a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, the marked gene expr...
Source: Zygote - August 15, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Hasegawa S, Nakao I, Ootani Y, Ogawa A, Takano M, Kinoshita T Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

MicroRNA expression in infertile men: its alterations and effects.
Abstract Infertility is an important reproductive health problem, and male infertility is especially important in more than half of infertility cases. Due to the importance of genetic factors in this condition, analysis of semen alone is not enough to recognize men with idiopathic infertility. A molecular non-invasive investigation is necessary to gain valuable information. Currently, microRNAs (miRNAs) are being used as non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers. miRNAs, single-stranded non-coding RNA molecules, act as post-transcriptional gene silencing regulators either by inhibition or repression of translation. Chang...
Source: Zygote - August 15, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Kiani M, Salehi M, Mogheiseh A Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

Establishment of a protocol for the isolation of ovarian preantral follicles derived from collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu).
va AR Abstract We compare the efficiency of mechanical or enzymatic methods, and their combination, for the isolation of ovarian preantral follicles (PFs) from collared peccaries. The ovaries from six females were subjected to the different methods investigated here. For the enzymatic method, ovary fragments were exposed to collagenase type IV in TCM-HEPES medium; the mechanical procedure was based on ovarian cortex dissociation by using a scalpel blade. The residual solution obtained after the mechanical isolation was subjected to the enzymatic procedure. The number of isolated PFs was quantified and classified a...
Source: Zygote - August 15, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Campos LB, Silva AMD, Moreira SSJ, Santos CS, Apolinário CAC, Saraiva MVA, Oliveira MF, Silva AR Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

New experimental data refuting the idea of a fast electrical block to polyspermy in sea urchin eggs.
PMID: 31409431 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Zygote)
Source: Zygote - August 14, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Dale B Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

DNA fragmentation index, pAKT and pERK1/2 in cumulus cells are related to oocyte competence in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization programme.
In this study, pAKT levels, pERK1/2 nuclear localization and DNA fragmentation index (DFI) in cumulus cells of single cumulus-oocyte complexes of patients undergoing in vitro fertilization programmes were evaluated and correlated with the clinical outcome of the related embryos. For a positive clinical outcome of blastocyst development, pERK1/2 nuclear localization and DFI value had a significant inverse relationship, whereas the former and the intracellular accumulation of pAKT had a significant direct relationship. This relationship was not observed for the negative clinical outcome of the arrested embryos. Moreover, int...
Source: Zygote - August 14, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Ruvolo G, Roccheri MC, Luparello C, Matranga D, Ferrigno A, Bosco L Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

Mitochondrial cell-free DNA secreted from porcine granulosa cells.
In conclusion, the proteasomal mitochondrial quality control system is upstream of mt-cfDNA secretion and autophagy plays a role in cellular digestion of mitochondrial DNA in the cytoplasm. It is further suggested that dsDNA is enclosed in certain vesicles or associated with small molecules and secreted into the medium. PMID: 31411132 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Zygote)
Source: Zygote - August 14, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Kansaku K, Munakata Y, Shirasuna K, Kuwayama T, Iwata H Tags: Zygote Source Type: research

Frozen-thawed ampullary cell monolayer improves bovine embryo in vitro development and quality.
In conclusion, co-culturing bovine oocytes with a frozen-thawed ampullary cell monolayer during the last 6 h of maturation increased blastocyst yield and quality. PMID: 31405390 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Zygote)
Source: Zygote - August 13, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Asaadi A, Kafi M, Atashi H, Azari M, Hostens M Tags: Zygote Source Type: research