Robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy with the Senhance ® robotic platform: single center experience
ConclusionsRobotic prostatectomy using a Senhance® robotic system is feasible, and warrants further study to determine whether it can improve patient outcomes. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - July 27, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Correction to: Endoscopic enucleation of the prostate (EEP). The same but different —a systematic review
(Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - July 26, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Effects of β3-adrenoceptor agonist on acute urinary retention in a rat model
AbstractPurposeTo investigate the protective effect of mirabegron on bladder dysfunction in an acute urinary retention rat model.Materials and methodsThirty-six 16-week Sprague –Dawley rats were assigned to the mirabegron and normal saline (N/S) groups. Each group of eighteen was divided into sub-groups of 6 for 30 min, 2 h, and 24 h. They were administered mirabegron (10 mg/kg) and N/S daily for 4 weeks, respectively. Mirabegron and N/S groups were divided into sub -groups of 6 rats for 30 min, 2 h, and 24 h. The changes in bladder blood flow were measured using laser Doppler ...
Source: World Journal of Urology - July 25, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Real-world data and treatment patterns of patients with lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia in Germany: an observational study using health insurance claims data
ConclusionsA widespread diffusion of alternative individualized minimally invasive approaches in the outpatient sector might address pharmacotherapy discontinuation and patient-access barriers to other treatments. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - July 22, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

TURPxit or not: contemporary management options for benign prostatic obstruction
(Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - July 20, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Clinical outcomes and prognosis of metastatic prostate cancer patients  ≤ 60-year-old
ConclusionsIn mPCa patients  ≤ 60-year-old, BCR occurs earlier and OS is significantly reduced than older patients. Therefore, special caution is mandatory when treating these mPCa patients. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - July 19, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Transcorporal vs. bulbar artificial urinary sphincter implantation in male patients with fragile urethra
ConclusionsTranscorporal AUS implantation was not associated with longer explantation-free survival. History of previous AUS explantation was the only risk factor associated with shorter explantation-free survival and this subgroup of patients may be the only one to draw benefits of transcorporal AUS implantation. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - July 17, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Differences in treatment choices between prostate cancer patients using a decision aid and patients receiving care as usual: results from a randomized controlled trial
AbstractObjectiveTo determine whether or not decision aid (DA) use influences treatment decisions in patients with low and intermediate risk prostate cancer (PC).Patients and methodsIn a cluster randomized controlled trial, patients were randomized to either DA use (DA group) or no DA use (control group). Between 2014 and 2016, newly diagnosed patients with low or intermediate risk PC were recruited in 18 hospitals in the Netherlands. DA users had access to a web-based DA that provided general PC information, PC-treatment information, and values clarification exercises to elicit personal preferences towards the treatment o...
Source: World Journal of Urology - July 17, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Robotic radical prostatectomy: difficult to start, fast to improve? Influence of surgical experience in robotic and open radical prostatectomy
AbstractPurposeThe assistance of robotic systems raises the concern of whether there is an improved learning in robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) compared to open retropubic radical prostatectomy (ORP).MethodsWe retrospectively analyzed data from 1438 patients who underwent ORP (n = 735) or RARP (n = 703). For each procedure, the level of experience of three different surgeons was summarized. Perioperative and pathological parameters reflecting surgical performance were compared between both learning curves. RARP data were influenced by new introduction of the robotic system.ResultsT...
Source: World Journal of Urology - July 16, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

RE: Retropulsion force in laser lithotripsy —an in vitro study comparing a Holmium device to a novel pulsed solid‑state thulium laser
(Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - July 16, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

The impact of metabolic syndrome components on urinary parameters and risk of stone formation
AbstractPurposeTo investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MS) and urinary abnormalities in stone-forming patients. Additionally, to delineate whether severity of urinary derangements is impacted by the number of co-occurring MS components.MethodsStone-forming patients who underwent initial metabolic workup prior to medical intervention at a comprehensive stone clinic were retrospectively reviewed and included in the study. Patients were given a six point (0 –5) Metabolic Syndrome Severity Score (MSSS) based on the number of co-occurring MS components and split into six respective groups. Baseline cli...
Source: World Journal of Urology - July 15, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Prognostic impact of molecular muscle-invasive bladder cancer subtyping approaches and correlations with variant histology in a population-based mono-institutional cystectomy cohort
ConclusionIn our consecutive cystectomy cohort, neither gene, protein expression-based subtyping, nor histological subtypes associated with DSS or RFS in multi-variably adjusted survival analyses. Application of a limited IHC subtyping marker panel showed high concordance of 83.9% with gene expression-based subtyping, thus underlining the utility for subtyping in pathological routine diagnostics. In addition, histological MIBC subtypes are strong indicators for intrinsic subtypes. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - July 14, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Transperineal anastomotic urethroplasty for the treatment of pelvic fracture urethral distraction defects: a progressive surgical strategy
ConclusionThe progressive transperineal anastomotic urethroplasty strategy was effective for treating PFUDD cases, improving surgical efficacy and reducing complications. It may contribute to standardizing the transperineal anastomotic urethroplasty and making it easy to master. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - July 10, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Mirabegron in medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteral stones: a prospective, randomized, controlled study
ConclusionsThe MET with Mirabegron has a significant role in improve SFR for the patients with distal ureteral stones  ≤ 5 mm and no effect in >  5 mm stones. Furthermore, Mirabegron reduces the need for antalgic in ≤ 10 mm stones with low incidence of adverse effects. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - July 9, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Safety and efficacy of TURP vs. laser prostatectomy for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia in multi-morbid and elderly individuals aged  ≥ 75
ConclusionCompared to LP, TURP was associated with higher complication rates for the multi-morbid and elderly cohorts overall but a lower hazard of reoperation, supporting its durability. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - July 7, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Potential role of glutathione S-transferase P1 gene polymorphism and metabolic syndrome in lower urinary tract symptoms attributed to benign prostatic hyperplasia
This study included 195 patients diagnosed with LUTS secondary to BPH as case group, divided into simple BPH group (S-BPH group) and combined with MS group (MS-BPH group). Control group included 200 healthy elderly men without LUTS. Use peripheral blood samples detected theGSTP1 gene polymorphism (Ile 105 Val A  → G polymorphism) by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism. Recorded age,GSTP1 gene polymorphism, international prostate symptom score (IPSS), prostate volume (PV), residual urine volume (RV), maximal urinary flowrate (Qmax), and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ...
Source: World Journal of Urology - July 6, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Gender gap at a large European urological congress: still at the beginning
AbstractPurposeWomen are underrepresented at scientific conferences, decreasing the visibility of female role models, which are vital for aspiring young female scientists. This investigation aimed to evaluate female representation at the German Society of Urology's (GSoU) annual meeting.MethodsThe programs of the GSoU meeting of 2011, 2018, 2019 and the virtual conference in 2020 were retrospectively quantified by gender and categorized by chair or speaker, type, and topic of the session. Descriptive analysis was applied. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify gender inequity and variables influenc...
Source: World Journal of Urology - July 4, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Multicenter external validation of the radical cystectomy pentafecta in a European cohort of patients undergoing robot-assisted radical cystectomy with intracorporeal urinary diversion for bladder cancer
ConclusionThis study confirmed that the RC-pentafecta is reproducible and could be externally used for the outcome assessment after RARC with ICUD. Therefore, the RC-pentafecta could be a useful tool to assess surgical success and its impact on different outcomes. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - July 3, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Are all procedures for benign prostatic hyperplasia created equal? A systematic review on post-procedural PSA dynamics and its correlation with relief of bladder outlet obstruction
ConclusionsVarious surgical procedures for BPH result in varying PSA nadirs level. Enucleation procedures and simple prostatectomy produce the most drastic and sustained decrease in PSA. There is a possible indirect evidence suggesting that the level of PSA nadir corresponds closely with the degree of post-operative improvement and durability of the procedure. Establishing the new PSA nadir at 3 –6 months after the procedure is recommended as a part of routine surveillance for prostate cancer in eligible patients. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 as adjuvant therapy in patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis: a non-blinded, randomized, controlled trial
ConclusionsCombination therapy with EcN and levofloxacin allows a better control of symptoms and biological recurrences in patients with CBP, without worsening the safety of the treatment. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Risk factors associated with positive surgical margins ’ location at radical cystectomy and their impact on bladder cancer survival
AbstractPurposeTo evaluate the risk factors associated with positive surgical margins' (PSMs) location and their impact on disease-specific survival (DSS) in patients with bladder cancer (BCa) undergoing radical cystectomy (RC).MethodsWe analyzed a large multi-institutional cohort of patients treated with upfront RC for non-metastatic (cT1-4aN0M0) BCa. Multivariable binomial logistic regression analyses were used to assess the risk of PSMs at RC for each location after adjusting for clinicopathological covariates. The Kaplan –Meier method was used to estimate DSS stratified by margins’ status and location. Log-...
Source: World Journal of Urology - July 1, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Sex differences resulted differential morbidity and mortality in bladder cancer: smoke, hormone or urobiome?
(Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - July 1, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Active surveillance for intermediate risk prostate cancer could be risky for the patient
(Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - July 1, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Correction to: Health-related quality of life after open and robot-assisted radical prostatectomy in low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients: a propensity score-matched analysis
A correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00345-021-03750-1 (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - July 1, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Correction to: Impact of previous transurethral prostate surgery on health-related quality of life after radical prostatectomy: Does the interval between surgeries matter?
A correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00345-020-03327-4 (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - June 30, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Irrigation fluid absorption during transurethral bipolar and laser prostate surgery: a systematic review
ConclusionsIrrigation fluid absorption during bTUR and laser surgery of the prostate is not negligible. Iso-osmolar overhydration with development of non-classical TUR-syndrome should be identified peri- and postoperatively and surgical teams should be aware of complications. Breath ethanol, venous pH, serum chloride, and bicarbonate could be markers for detecting dangerous events of IFA with saline. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - June 30, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Development of a nomogram predicting the probability of stone free rate in patients with ureteral stones eligible for semi-rigid primary laser uretero-litothripsy
ConclusionsThe implementation of our nomogram could better council patients before treatment and could be used to identify patients at risk of failure. External validation is warranted before its clinical implementation. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - June 26, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

External validation of two MRI-based risk calculators in prostate cancer diagnosis
ConclusionBoth risk models supply accurate results and reduce the number of biopsies and basically no sPC were overlooked. The van Leeuwen model suggests a better balance between unnecessary biopsies and overlooked sPC at thresholds range of 10 –15%. The MRI-ERSPC-RC-3/4 risk model provides better overall calibration. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - June 24, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Validity of a patient-specific percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) simulated surgical rehearsal platform: impact on patient and surgical outcomes
AbstractIntroductionSimulators provide a safe method for improving surgical skills without the associated patient risks. Advances in rapid prototyping technology have permitted the reconstruction of patient imaging into patient-specific surgical simulations that require advanced expertise, potentially continuing the learning curve.ObjectivesTo evaluate the impact of preoperative high-fidelity patient-specific percutaneous nephrolithotomy hydrogel simulations on surgical and patient outcomes.Materials and methodsBetween 2016 and 2017, a fellowship-trained endourologist performed 20 consecutive percutaneous nephrolithotomy p...
Source: World Journal of Urology - June 24, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Perioperative outcomes of transurethral resection for t1 bladder tumors: quality evaluation based on patient, tumor and surgeon criteria
ConclusionTURBT is a challenging procedure and surgeon ’s experience is crucial in reducing the rate of post-operative complications. Technical difficulties resulting from patient’s gender, tumor location or number of tumors may be as important as oncological factors in deciding whether or not to perform a second-look resection. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - June 23, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

New imaging modalities to consider for men with prostate cancer on active surveillance
ConclusionThere are very limited data on micro-US and PSMA-PET in AS patients. However, given the ability of these modalities to identify high-grade cancer, their judicious use in AS patients may be of utility in the future. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - June 19, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

A novel nomogram for the delayed transperineal anastomotic urethroplasty based on relative position between the proximal urethra and the pubic ramus in pelvic fracture injury patients: a retrospective analysis
ConclusionsPUE-PR is a new prognostic factor for PFUI to predict stricture recurrence after TAU. A novel nomogram incorporating PUE-PR could be applied to facilitate the prediction of stricture recurrence after delayed TAU for PFUI. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - June 19, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Prognostic value of the systemic immune-inflammation index in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer
ConclusionPreoperative SII seems to identify NMIBC patients who have a worse disease and prognosis. Such easily available and cheap standard biomarkers may help refine the decision-making process regarding adjuvant treatment in patients with intermediate-risk NMIBC. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - June 18, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Contemporary practice patterns of transurethral therapies for benign prostate hypertrophy: results of a worldwide survey
AbstractPurposeTo perform a global survey to identify contemporary practice patterns of transurethral therapies for benign prostatic hypertrophy.MethodsA REDCap survey was distributed to the  ~ 3500 members of the Endourological Society. Surgeons completed demographic information and then selected the BPH therapies they perform 10 cases/year. There were four categories of BPH therapies: ablation, enucleation, resection/vaporization, and MIST (minimally invasive surgical technique). Within each category, there were subcategories to account for different energy modalities. All statistical analyses were performe...
Source: World Journal of Urology - June 18, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Usability and diagnostic accuracy of different MRI/ultrasound-guided fusion biopsy systems for the detection of clinically significant and insignificant prostate cancer: a prospective cohort study
ConclusionsRigid fusion biopsy systems are easier to use and provide shorter operative time compared to elastic systems, while both types of platforms display similar detection rates for prostate cancer. Still, further high-quality, long-term results are mandatory. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - June 17, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Incidence, predictive factors and oncological outcomes of incidental prostate cancer after endoscopic enucleation of the prostate: a systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionsThe pooled incidence of IPCa after EEP was 8%. An absolute post-operative PSA level of  70% should be expected in BPH patients after EEP. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - June 17, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Predict success of shock wave lithotripsy was still interesting and challenging
(Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - June 16, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Patient-specific, touch-based registration during robotic, image-guided partial nephrectomy
AbstractImage-guidance during partial nephrectomy enables navigation within the operative field alongside a 3-dimensional roadmap of renal anatomy generated from patient-specific imaging. Once a process is performed by the human mind, the technology will allow standardization of the task for the benefit of all patients undergoing robot-assisted partial nephrectomy. Any surgeon will be able to visualize the kidney and key subsurface landmarks in real-time within a 3-dimensional simulation, with the goals of improving operative efficiency, decreasing surgical complications, and improving oncologic outcomes. For similar purpo...
Source: World Journal of Urology - June 16, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Technical standardization of ICG near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for duplex kidney in pediatric patients
ConclusionICG-NIRF LPN is technically easier, quicker, and safer compared with the standard technique. The main advantages of using ICG-NIRF during LPN are the clear identification of normal ureter, vasculature of non-functioning pole, and demarcation line between the avascular and the perfused pole. The main limitation of ICG technology remains the need for specific laparoscopic equipment that is not always available. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - June 14, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Impact of sex on response to BCG in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer patients: a contemporary review from a tertiary care center
AbstractPurposeFemale sex has been implicated with higher stage at diagnosis and as a negative prognostic factor amongst patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Whether this holds true with contemporary management paradigms is unknown. We analyzed a cohort of patients treated with adequate bacillus Calmette –Guerin (BCG) for NMIBC in an effort to identify sex-specific influence on BCG response.MethodsAn IRB-approved review of patients with NMIBC treated at our institution with at least ‘adequate BCG’, as defined by the US FDA and EAU, from 2000 to 2018 was performed. Patients were then s...
Source: World Journal of Urology - June 12, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Can artificial intelligence help reduce unnecessary bladder biopsies? Comment on “Assessing treatment response after intravesical bacillus Calmette–Guerin induction cycle: are routine bladder biopsies necessary”
(Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - June 8, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Evaluation of a novel technique of bladder neck and supramontanal sparing ejaculatory preserving transurethral prostatectomy
We present a novel technique to duplicate both bladder neck sparing and supramontanal sparing with resection of apical tissues to improve voiding and antegrade ejaculation.MethodsA prospective study done from June 2018 to June 2020 on 60 consecutive male patients with normal sexual activity diagnosed with benign prostatic enlargement. These patients were randomized into two groups; 30 patients in each group. Group 1 underwent bladder neck and supramontanal sparing ejaculatory preserving transurethral bipolar resection of prostate (ep-TUBRP) and Group 2 underwent classic transurethral bipolar resection of prostate (c-TUBRP)...
Source: World Journal of Urology - June 6, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Consultation of kidney stones: aspects of intracorporeal lithotripsy
(Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - June 4, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

A study on comparative outcomes of totally ultrasonography-guided percutaneous nephrolithotomy in prone versus flank position: a randomized clinical trial
ConclusionOverall, there is no significant difference between prone and flank positions in success rate and complications. More prospective studies must be carried out to identify patient populations who are most apt to benefit from one position over the other.Trial registration numberIRCT20200902048597N1Date of registration2020-11-21, retrospectively registered (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - June 3, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Safety and efficacy of holmium laser enucleation of prostate as salvage procedure for persistent or recurrent lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to bladder outlet obstruction after prior prostate artery embolization: a match analysis
ConclusionsPlane of enucleation is well-maintained after prior PAE. Salvage HoLEP is safe and effective after previous PAE and provide outcome comparable with HoLEP as a primary procedure. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - June 3, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Current application of the enhanced recovery after surgery protocol for patients undergoing radical cystectomy: lessons learned from European excellence centers
ConclusionIn this survey, we identified the ERAS items most and less commonly applied. Collaboration with anesthesiologists as well as regular audits remain a challenge for ERAS implementation. These results support the need to uniform ERAS for RC patients and develop strategies to help departments implement ERAS. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - June 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

68Ga-PSMA-PET screening and transponder-guided salvage radiotherapy to the prostate bed alone for biochemical recurrence following prostatectomy: interim outcomes of a phase II trial
ConclusionPre-SRT68Ga-PSMA-PET scans detect metastatic disease in a proportion of patients at low PSA levels but fail to improve FFBR. Transponder-guided SRT to the prostate bed alone is associated with a favourable toxicity profile and preserved QoL.Trial registration numberACTRN12615001183572, 03/11/2015, retrospectively registered. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - June 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy versus extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for renal insufficiency
AbstractObjectiveTo assess the effect and outcome of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) versus extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) in patients with renal insufficiency.Patients and methodsA prospective randomized clinical study of 104 renal insufficiency patients with renal stones (serum creatinine 2 –4 mg/dl and eGFR 
Source: World Journal of Urology - June 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Validation of the new STAR-CAP prognostic group staging system in prostate cancer patients treated with radiation therapy
AbstractPurposeTo externally validate the STAR-CAP prognostic system  for prostate cancer (PCa) and compare it to the CAPRA score to predict for biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radiation therapy (RTx).MethodsWe included patients treated with RTx between 2002 and 2021 for non-metastatic PCa at our institution. BCR was defined based on Phoenix criteria. The 5-year BCR-free survival was assessed by univariable Kaplan –Meier analyses and log-rank test. Multivariable Cox regression models tested the independent association of each model for BCR. Performance of both models to predict 5-year BCR-free survival was as...
Source: World Journal of Urology - May 30, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

New technique of robot-assisted laparoscopic artificial urinary sphincter implantation in female by a posterior approach with intraoperative cystoscopic monitoring
ConclusionsEarly functional results of robot-assisted AUS implantation with a posterior approach to the bladder neck and intraoperative cystoscopic monitoring are promising despite the high rate of intraoperative complications due to previous surgeries. Further evaluation of this technique is required. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - May 29, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research