Revolution spectral CT for urinary stone with a single/mixed composition in vivo: a large sample analysis
ConclusionThe in-vivo analysis of spectral CT in urinary stone revealed characteristics of different compositions, especially mixed compositions. An in-vivo predictive model may be constructed to distinguish stone compositions. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 25, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Overdiagnosis in urologic cancer
ConclusionActive surveillance, the focus of this series of articles, is an important strategy to reduce overtreatment. This article reviews the pathological, clinical, social, and psychological aspects of overdiagnosis in cancer. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 25, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

A call for HoLEP: en-bloc vs. two-lobe vs. three-lobe
AbstractPurposeHolmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate (HoLEP) is widely accepted as standard laser enucleation technique for patients with benign prostate obstruction (BPO). Initially developed as a three-lobe enucleation technique, several modifications have been published. Comparison of the enucleation techniques is lacking. Therefor we aimed to compare outcomes of three enucleation techniques (en-bloc vs. two-lobe vs. three-lobe).Material and methodsWe prospectively collected data of 600 patients treated between 01/2017 and 12/2017 with HoLEP for BPO. Patients were randomised to either enbloc, two-lobe, or three-lobe...
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 24, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

From quality management to quality improvement —structures, processes and outcomes
(Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 23, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging for active surveillance of small renal masses
AbstractPurposeTo assess the safety and efficacy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging for monitoring small (
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 22, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Association between chronic kidney disease and COVID-19-related mortality in New York
AbstractPurposeTo evaluate mortality risk of CKD patients infected with COVID-19, and assess shared characteristics associated with health disparities in CKD outcome.MethodsWe extracted the data from a case series of 7624 patients presented at Mount Sinai Health System, in New York for testing between 3/28/2020 and 4/16/2020. De-identified patient data set is being produced by the Scientific Computing department and made available to the Mount Sinai research community at the following website:https://msdw.mountsinai.org/.ResultsOf 7624 COVID-19 patients, 7.8% (n = 597) had CKD on hospital admission, and 11.2%...
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 22, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Development and validation of a nomogram for predicting early stress urinary incontinence following endoscopic enucleation of the prostate
AbstractPurposeTo develop and validate a predictive nomogram for early stress urinary incontinence (SUI) after endoscopic enucleation of the prostate (EEP) in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).MethodsThe records of 458 patients who underwent plasmakinetic- or diode-based EEP at our center from March 2016 to December 2019 were reviewed. Among these, 326 and 132 cases were randomly assigned to the training and validation set, respectively. A predictive nomogram was constructed based on multivariate logistic regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and calibration curves were employ...
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 21, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

PHI density prospectively improves prostate cancer detection
ConclusionsBased on ROC analysis and DCA, PHID had an advantage in comparison with PHI alone to detect any PCa but PHI and PHID performed equal in detecting significant PCa. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 20, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Incidence, risk factors, and outcome of Clostridioides difficile infection following urological  surgeries
AbstractPurposeTo assess the incidence, risk factors, and clinical outcomes associated with (Clostridioides difficile infection) CDI following urological surgery, which is the leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea and a growing public health burden.MethodsWe queried the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) to identify patients undergoing urological surgery in 2015 –2016. We evaluated the 30-day incidence and factors associated with postoperative CDI and 30-day hospital readmission and length of stay as secondary outcomes. Among the subset of patients undergoing radical cystectomy with urinary diversio...
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 20, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Value of early second session shock wave lithotripsy in treatment of upper ureteric stones compared to laser ureteroscopy
AbstractPurposeThe safety and efficacy of early second session shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) compared with laser ureteroscopy (URS) for the treatment of upper ureteric stones were evaluated.MethodsFrom January to October 2019, 108 patients with upper ureteric stones (
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 20, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Tea and coffee consumption and the risk of urinary stones —a systematic review of the epidemiological data
ConclusionThere is no evidence that moderate consumption of coffee raises the risk for stone formation in healthy individuals, provided the recommended daily fluid intake is maintained. The currently available literature supports in general a protective role for tea against the stone formation, mainly for green tea. However, heterogeneity of published data and lack of standardization needs to be addressed before final and clear conclusions can be given to patients and to the public in general. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 17, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Prospective trial of regional (hockey-stick) prostate cryoablation: oncologic and quality of life outcomes
AbstractPurposeTo report long-term follow-up of the efficacy of subtotal prostate ablation using a “hockey-stick” template, including oncologic control and quality of life (QoL) impact.MethodsWe performed a prospective controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of subtotal prostate ablation in selected men with baseline and confirmatory biopsy showing grade group (GG) 1 –2 prostate cancer. “Hockey-stick” cryoablation that included the ipsilateral hemi-gland and contralateral anterior prostate was performed. Prostate biopsies and QOL queries were performed at 6, 18 and 36 months following r...
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 16, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Available active surveillance follow-up protocols for small renal mass: a systematic review
ConclusionThe minimal cancer-specific mortality does not seem to correlate with the follow-up scheme. Outside of growth rate and initial size, imaging features to predict outcome of RCC during AS are limited. Active surveillance of SRM is a well-established treatment option. However, standardized follow-up protocols are lacking. Prospective, randomized, trials to evaluate the best follow-up strategies are pending. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 16, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

The efficacy and safety of Serenoa repens extract for the treatment of patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
AbstractPurposeTo perform a placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety ofSerenoa repens extract (SRE) for the treatment of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS).MethodsWe conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter, clinical phase 4 study of 221 patients with CP/CPPS across 11 centers. Participants were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive SRE or placebo for 12  weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change in total score on the National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI). Secondary efficacy endpoints included ...
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 16, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

The use of Lactobacillus casei DG ® prevents symptomatic episodes and reduces the antibiotic use in patients affected by chronic bacterial prostatitis: results from a phase IV study
AbstractPurposeTo evaluate the efficacy ofLactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-1572 (L. casei DG ®) in both prevention of symptomatic recurrences and improvement of quality of life in patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP).MethodsPatients with CBP attending a single Urological Institution were enrolled in this phase IV study. At enrollment, all patients were treated with antibiotics in agreement with EAU guidelines and then were treated with L. casei DG ® (2 capsules/day for 3 months). Clinical and microbiological analyses were carried out before (enrollment, T0) and 6 months (T2) after the treatment...
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 13, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Letter to the Editor regarding the article “Relation of ADRB3, GEF, ROCK2 gene polymorphisms to clinical findings in overactive bladder”
(Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 13, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Should Grade Group 1 (GG1) be called cancer?
DiscussionGrade Group 1 prostate cancer, while showing evidence of neoplasia on histology has a remarkably indolent natural history more akin to non-neoplastic precursor lesions. Consideration should be given to renaming Grade Group 1 prostate cancer, which has the potential to minimize overtreatment, treatment-related side effects, patient anxiety, and financial burden on the healthcare system. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 11, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Higher than expected and significantly increasing incidence of upper tract urothelial carcinoma. A population based study
AbstractPurposeTo register all cases of urothelial cancer and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in Norway during 1999 –2018 to obtain the contemporary incidence of UTUC and UTUC incidence relative to other urothelial cancers and RCC. Further to analyse possible changes over time regarding UTUC incidence, UTUC patient characteristics, tumour characteristics and survival.Methods3502 cases registered with ICD code C65 and C66 during 1999 –2018 at the Norwegian cancer registry were entered into a database. After a selection process 3096 cases were included in the study. The crude incidences of UTUC were calculated for eac...
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 9, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Clinical, surgical, pathological and follow-up features of kidney cancer patients with Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome: novel insights from a large consortium
ConclusionsMean period between VHL diagnosis and renal cancer detection is roughly three years, with significant variability. Although, most renal tumors are small low-grade, clinical progression and mortality are not negligible. Moreover, kidney function represents a key issue in VHL patients. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 8, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Surgeon ’s heuristics and decision making: a BPH storytelling
(Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 6, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Risk of UTI in kidney stone formers: a matched-cohort study over a median follow-up of 19  years
AbstractPurposeTo describe risk of UTI in Stone formers comparing to non-stone formers.MethodsRetrospective cohort study using electronic records for patients across southern England. Stone formers referred to a tertiary referral centre in Southern England, comparator patients were age and sex matched with 3:1 ratio from same database. Those with no documentation were excluded. UTI defined using ICD-10 codes. Risk of UTI presented as hazard ratio with 95% confidence interval, generated using cox regression. Sample size calculated using 80% power and significance set at 0.05.ResultsEight hundred and nineteen stone formers w...
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 5, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Evaluating outcomes of complete supine percutaneous nephrolithotomy for staghorn vs multiple non-staghorn renal stones: a 10-year study
AbstractPurposeTo evaluate the outcomes of complete supine percutaneous nephrolithotomy (csPCNL) for staghorn stones and multiple large non-staghorn stones.MethodsThe records of 886 patients who underwent csPCNL from September 2009 to October 2019 were considered. Out of them, 201 cases met the eligibility criteria and they were divided into three groups: 63 cases of staghorn, 68 cases of multiple medium (20  mm   30 mm) stones. Almost all outcomes and stone-related factors were analyzed.ResultsThere was not any significant difference regarding age, body mass index, history of urinary tract infectio...
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 5, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

The effect of β 3 -adrenoceptor gene polymorphisms on lower urinary tract function in males
ConclusionThe Trp64Arg variant of the β3-adrenoceptor gene significantly increased PVR and voiding time in men. However, it was not significantly associated with the emergence of LUTS. Thus, since the effect of β3-adrenoceptor gene polymorphisms on the genitourinary organs might be weak, whether men possess the Trp64Arg variant of the β3-adrenoceptor gene might not critically affect urinary quality of life, but modestly affect the lower urinary tract function. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 5, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Independent predictors of mortality for patients with traumatic renal injury
ConclusionWhile procedural interventions are associated with higher mortality for patients with traumatic renal injury, other factors, such as race, age, trauma type, and injury severity may be more predictive of death under care. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 5, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Endoscopic surgical simulation using low-fidelity and virtual reality transurethral resection simulators in urology simulation boot camp course: trainees feedback assessment study
The objective of our study was to study trainees ’ feedback and rating of models for training transurethral resection of bladder lesions (TURBT) and prostate (TURP) during simulation.MethodsThe study was performed during the ‘‘Transurethral resection (TUR) module” at the boot camp held in 2019. Prior to the course, all trainees were required to evaluate their experience in performing TURBT and TURP procedures. Trainees simulated resection on two different models; low-fidelity tissue model (Samed, GmBH, Dresden, Ge rmany) and virtual reality simulator (TURPMentor, 3D Systems, Littleton, US). Followin...
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 4, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

A randomized controlled trial comparing high and medium power settings for holmium laser enucleation of prostate
ConclusionsMP-HoLEP is safe and efficient and does not compromise the outcome for HoLEPs when compared with HP-HoLEP. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 4, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Role of MRI for the detection of prostate cancer
AbstractThe use of multiparametric MRI has been hastened under expanding, novel indications for its use in the diagnostic and management pathway of men with prostate cancer. This has helped drive a large body of the literature describing its evolving role over the last decade. Despite this, prostate cancer remains the only solid organ malignancy routinely diagnosed with random sampling. Herein, we summarize the components of multiparametric MRI and interpretation, and present a critical review of the current literature supporting is use in prostate cancer detection, risk stratification, and management. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 4, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

In and out catheterisation; how safe?
(Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 4, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Initial single centre experience of Aquablation of the prostate using the AquaBeam system with athermal haemostasis for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: 1-year outcomes
AbstractPurposeAquablation using the AquaBeam system combines real-time image guidance and robotics to enable precise and heat-free removal of prostatic tissue with a high velocity water jet. The aim of this study is to report the outcomes of Aquablation up to 1  year in a single centre within the UK employing an athermal approach to haemostasis.MethodsFifty-five consecutive men underwent Aquablation between September 2017 and December 2018 (as part of OPEN WATER trial). Standard Aquablation was performed with the AquaBeam system (PROCEPT® BioRobotics) with 2 passes of Aquablation followed by bladder washout with ...
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 3, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Rezum therapy for patients with large prostates ( ≥ 80 g): initial clinical experience and postoperative outcomes
AbstractPurposeRezum is a minimally invasive surgery for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Current guidelines recommend Rezum for prostates  
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 3, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Impact of the presence of a median lobe on functional outcomes of greenlight photovaporization of the prostate (PVP): an analysis of the Global Greenlight Group (GGG) Database
AbstractObjectivesPrevious analyses of  the impact of median lobe presence on Greenlight photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) outcomes were limited by their small sample size and the ability to adjust for important confounders. As such, we sought to investigate the impact of prostate median lobe presence on the operative ou tcomes of 180 W XPS GreenLight PVP using a large international database.MethodsData were obtained from the Global GreenLight Group (GGG) database which  pools data of eight high-volume, experienced surgeons, from a total of seven international centers. All men with establishe...
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 3, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Girls and renal scarring as risk factors for febrile urinary tract infection after stopping antibiotic prophylaxis in children with vesicoureteral reflux
ConclusionsThe present study revealed that girls and abnormal renal scan, especially focal defect, are risk factors for fUTI. Active surveillance without CAP for persistent VUR seems to be a safe option for children with no or 1 risk factor. Prophylactic surgery or careful conservative follow-up may be an option for girls with abnormal renal scan results if VUR persists under CAP. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 3, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

External validation of genomic classifier-based risk-stratification tool to identify candidates for adjuvant radiation therapy in patients with prostate cancer
ConclusionOur report is the first to confirm the validity of this genomic-based risk-stratification tool in identifying men who might benefit from aRT after RP. As such, it can be a useful instrument to be incorporated in shared decision making on whether administration of aRT will lead to a clinically meaningful benefit. Such a model can also be useful for patients ’ classification in future clinical trials. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 3, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Photoselective sharp enucleation of the prostate with a front-firing 532-nm laser: an innovative surgical technique for benign prostatic hyperplasia —a single-center study of 475 cases
ConclusionsPSEP is effective and safe for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. The innovative technique integrates the excellent hemostatic property of the 532-nm laser and the high efficiency of enucleation. It decreases the occurrence of postoperative incontinence associated with “blunt” enucleation of 532-nm laser and eliminates the lack of tissue samples problem associated with photoselective vaporization of the prostate. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 3, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Anastomosis quality score during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: a new simple tool to maximize postoperative management
AbstractPurposeThe urethro-vesical anastomosis represents one of the most challenging steps of robotic prostatectomy (RARP). To maximize postoperative management, we specifically designed our anastomosis quality score (AQS), based on the intraoperative characteristics of the urethra and bladder neck.MethodsThis is a prospective study, conducted from April 2019 to March 2020. All the patients were classified into three different AQS categories (low, intermediate, high) based on the quality of the anastomosis. The postoperative management was modulated accordingly.ResultsWe enrolled 333 patients. According to AQS, no differe...
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 3, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Comparison of the outcomes of the pediatric kidney transplantation between recipients below and above 15  kg: a single center retrospective study
ConclusionKidney transplantation in children weighing    15 kg) pediatric recipients with equally low complication rates. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 3, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Single-surgeon experience of excision and primary anastomosis for bulbar urethral stricture: analysis of surgical and patient-reported outcomes
AbstractPurposeTo report our experience with excision and primary anastomosis (EPA) for bulbar urethral stricture.MethodsPatients who underwent EPA for bulbar stricture between 2012 and 2019 were retrospectively analyzed (n = 308). Successful urethroplasty was defined as the absence of the need for additional treatment. For follow-up, uroflowmetry was performed and the patients completed the validated Urethral Stricture Surgery Patient-reported Outcome Measure and Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) questionnai res before (baseline) and 6 months after EPA. Overall patient satisfaction after urethropla...
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 3, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Psychological aspects of active surveillance
ConclusionGiven that research is conflicted regarding the psychological impact of AS for PCa, it is suggested that focus shifts away from debate of the ‘true’ experience of AS rather researchers and clinicians should seek to identify the factors associated with positive and negative psychological response to diagnosis and AS to improve psychological and physical outcomes. Recommendations for clinical practice are discussed. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 3, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Robotic bilateral partial adrenalectomy
(Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 3, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Letter to the editor for the article “Robot‑assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty (RALP) in children with complex pelvi‑ureteric junction obstruction (PUJO): results of a multicenter European report”
(Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 3, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Rural –urban variation in characteristics among prostate cancer patients
(Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 3, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Adherence to guidelines in the management of urolithiasis: are there differences among distinct patient care settings?
ConclusionWe firstly describe compliance and the use of CPG on urolithiasis. EAU and DGU present the most commonly used CPG. Short version and app version of CPG find frequent clinical utilization. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Outcomes of laparoscopic artificial urinary sphincter in women with stress urinary incontinence: mid-term evaluation
ConclusionOur study shows that the laparoscopic approach for AUS implantation is an efficient treatment option for women with moderate to severe SUI. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Combined top-down approach with low-power thulium laser enucleation of prostate: evaluation of one-year functional outcomes
ConclusionLow-power Thulium enucleation with a combined top and down technique provided a safe and efficacious outcome, that may reduce strenuous wrist flexion and eliminate the need for high-power Thulium laser device. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

A systematic review of long-duration stents for ureteral stricture: which one to choose?
ConclusionMetallic stents are a suitable option for MUO and BUO. When compared to standard double J stents, although they are relatively high priced, they show a financial benefit in the long-term. The Detour bypass stent seems to be an effective alternative for complete ureteral obstruction or patients unfit for surgery. Further prospective randomized studies should be done on the effectiveness of tumor stents versus metallic stents. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Making a case “for” focal therapy of the prostate in intermediate risk prostate cancer: current perspective and ongoing trials
AbstractFocal therapy is growing as an alternative management options for men with clinically localized prostate cancer. Parallel to the increasing popularity of active surveillance (AS) as a treatment for low-risk disease, there has been an increased interest towards providing focal therapy for patients with intermediate-risk disease. Focal therapy can act as a logical “middle ground” in patients who seek treatment while minimizing potential side effects of definitive whole-gland treatment. The aim of the current review is todefine the rationale of focal therapy in patients with intermediate-risk prostate canc...
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

The role of chemotherapy in patients with pure squamous cell bladder carcinoma
(Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

B3 agonists or anticholinergics in the treatment of the lower urinary tract dysfunction in patients with multiple sclerosis? —A randomized study
ConclusionsMS patients receiving either mirabegron or anticholinergic therapy for LUTD showed improvement. Nevertheless, no statistical difference was noted between the two cohorts at 3  months in terms of drug efficacy in all the statistically significant parameters. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Update on the most promising biomarkers of response to immune checkpoint inhibitors in clear cell renal cell carcinoma
AbstractIn the last few years, the standard of care for metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (mccRCC) has changed dramatically with the emergence of the immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI): anti-PD(L)-1 used as a monotherapy or as in combination either with an anti CTLA-4 or with an anti-angiogenic molecule (VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)). These combinations are now recommended in first line setting for mccRCC, according to the last European recommendations. In the face of these new therapeutic options, the question of selecting the best treatment arises as well as the optimal sequence. Predictive biomarkers a...
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

COVID-19 and BCG: where ’s the challenge?
(Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - January 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research