A short critique on biomining technology for critical materials
AbstractBeing around for several decades, there is a vast amount of academic research on biomining, and yet it contributes less to the mining industry compared to other conventional technologies. This critique briefly comments on the current status of biomining research, enumerates a number of primary challenges, and elaborates on some kinetically-oriented strategies and bottom-up policies to sustain biomining with focus on critical material extraction and rare earth elements (REEs). Finally, we present some edge cutting developments which may promote new potentials in biomining.Graphic abstract (Source: World Journal of M...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 21, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Physiological performance of Kazachstania unispora in sourdough environments
AbstractIn this work we explored the potential of several strains ofKazachstania unispora to be used as non-conventional yeasts in sourdough fermentation. Properties such as carbohydrate source utilization, tolerance to different environmental factors and the performance in fermentation were evaluated. TheK. unispora strains are characterized by rather restricted substrate utilization: only glucose and fructose supported the growth of the strains. However, the growth in presence of fructose was higher compared to aSaccharomyces cerevisiae commercial strain. Moreover, the inability to ferment maltose can be considered a pos...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 21, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Industrial sustainability of microbial keratinases: production and potential applications
AbstractKeratinases are proteolytic enzymes with a particular ability to cleave peptide bonds in keratin, and in other proteins. Due to their broad-spectrum of activity, keratinases are considered viable substitutes for chemical and thermal treatments of protein-rich industrial by-products. Among these protein residues, special attention has been given to keratinous materials (feathers, hair, horns, etc.), which disposal through harsh conditions methods, such as acid/alkaline hydrolysis or incineration, is not considered ecologically safe. Microbial keratinolytic enzymes allow for keratin degradation under mild conditions,...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 17, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Insights into Bdellovibrio spp. mechanisms of action and potential applications
AbstractRecent studies investigatingBdellovibrio spp. have found that although this predator predominantly preys on Gram-negative organisms, under certain conditions (nutrient/prey limitation), it will adapt to survive and grow axenically (without prey) or in the presence of Gram-positive bacterial prey. These advances in the understanding of predatory bacteria have stimulated a renewed interest in these organisms and the potential applications ofBdellovibrio spp. to the benefit of society. Early studies primarily focused on the application of predatory bacteria as “live antibiotics” in the medical field, ...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 16, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Modulation of Arabidopsis thaliana growth by volatile substances emitted by Pseudomonas and Serratia strains
AbstractMany volatile compounds secreted by bacteria play an important role in the interactions of microorganisms, can inhibit the growth of phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi, can suppress or stimulate plant growth and serve as infochemicals presenting a new type of interspecies communication. In this work, we investigated the effect of total pools of volatile substances and individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs) synthesized by the rhizosphere bacteriaPseudomonas chlororaphis 449 andSerratia plymuthica IC1270, the soil-borne strainP. fluorescens B-4117 and the spoiled meat isolateS. proteamaculans 94 onArabidopsis t...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 15, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Biochemical characterization of a novel bifunctional chitosanase from Paenibacillus barengoltzii for chitooligosaccharide production
AbstractA novel chitosanase gene, designated asPbCsn8, was cloned fromPaenibacillus barengoltzii. It shared the highest identity of 73% with the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 8 chitosanase fromBacillus thuringiensis JAM-GG01. The gene was heterologously expressed inBacillus subtilis as an extracellular protein, and the highest chitosanase yield of 1, 108 U/mL was obtained by high-cell density fermentation in a 5-L fermentor. The recombinant chitosanase (PbCsn8) was purified to homogeneity and biochemically characterized. PbCsn8 was most active at pH 5.5 and 70  °C, respectively. It was stable in a wide pH range ...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 15, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Construction of recombinant Escherichia coli for production of l -phenylalanine-derived compounds
Abstractl-phenylalanine is an important amino acid that is widely used in the fields of food flavors and pharmaceuticals. Apart froml-phenylalanine itself, various commercially valuable chemical compounds can also be generated via thel-phenylalanine biosynthesis pathway. Compared with direct extraction from plants or synthesis by chemical reaction, microbial production ofl-phenylalanine -derived compounds can overcome the drawbacks of environmental pollution, low yield, and mixtures of stereoisomeric products. Accordingly, increasing intracellular levels of precursors, deregulating feedback inhibition and transcription rep...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 15, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

In-situ monitoring of xenobiotics using genetically engineered whole-cell-based microbial biosensors: recent advances and outlook
AbstractIndustrialisation, directly or indirectly, exposes humans to various xenobiotics. The increased magnitude of chemical pesticides and toxic heavy metals in the environment, as well as their intrusion into the food chain, seriously threatens human health. Therefore, the surveillance of xenobiotics is crucial for social safety and security. Online investigation by traditional methods is not sufficient for the detection and identification of such compounds because of the high costs and their complexity. Advancement in the field of genetic engineering provides a potential opportunity to use genetically modified microorg...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 12, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Whole-genome sequence-based analysis of the Paenibacillus aquistagni strain DK1, a polyethylene-degrading bacterium isolated from landfill
AbstractPolyethylene-degrading bacteria have been emerging as a rational and safe alternative in bioremediation strategies. In this context, somePaenibacillus species produce enzymes involved in the biodegradation of pollutants. Among the enzymes involved in the biodegradation of polyethylene, the alkane hydroxylases, encoded byalkB homologous genes, play a key role in this process. Therefore, this study aimed to identify and perform a genomic investigation of the first polyethylene-degradingPaenibacillus sp. strain, named DK1. The whole-genome sequence-based analysis revealed that the DK1 strain belonged to the speciesPae...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 11, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Advances in biotechnological production of β-alanine
Abstractβ-Alanine (3-aminopropionic acid) is the only naturally occurring β-type amino acid. Although it is not incorporated into proteins, it has important physiological functions in the metabolism of animals, plants and microorganisms. Furthermore, it has attracted great interest due to its wide usage a s a precursor of many significant industrial chemicals for medicine, feed, food, environmental applications and other fields. With the depletion of fossil fuels and concerns regarding environmental issues, biological production of β-alanine has attracted more attention relative to chemical methods. In this ...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 5, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Carbon sources to enhance the biosynthesis of useful secondary metabolites in Fusarium verticillioides submerged cultures
AbstractFusarium verticillioides is a prolific producer of useful secondary metabolites such as naphthoquinone pigments, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes, as well as the harmful mycotoxins fumonisins. A strategy to increase their production includes creating a proper nutritional environment that enables the fungus to produce the compounds of interest. The aim of the present work was to study the effect of different carbon sources (glucose, fructose, xylose, sucrose, and lactose) on secondary metabolites biosynthesis inF. verticillioides submerged cultures. The production of volatile terpenes was evaluated through gas chrom...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 2, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling of a Rhodotorula color mutant to improve its lipid productivity in fed-batch fermentation
In conclusion, theRhodotorula mutant provided a candidate strain for lipid production with glycerol as the carbon source.Graphic abstract (Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - April 1, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Effect of chlorpyrifos on the earthworm Eudrilus euginae and their gut microbiome  by toxicological and metagenomic analysis
AbstractThe earthworms are important soil invertebrates and play a crucial role in pedogenesis. The application of pesticides and prolonged exposure to pesticides causes mortality of earthworms apart from profoundly affecting the resident gut microbiome. The microbiome plays a significant effect on the metabolic processes associated with earthworms. The pesticide Chlorpyrifos (CPF) was studied for its toxicity onEudrilus euginae by toxicity studies. The LC50 value of filter paper contact test and acute toxicity test was 3.8  mg/mL and 180 mg/kg. The prolonged exposure of earthworms to pesticide on reproductive to...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 31, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Volatile compounds of traditional sorghum beer (tchapalo) produced in C ôte d’Ivoire: comparison between wild yeasts and pure culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae
In this study, the bioflavor of traditional sorghum beer from C ôte d’Ivoire was investigated. The flavor profile of two beers fermented with wild yeasts and with pure culture ofSaccharomycescerevisiae respectively were studied. The main flavor components of the beer fermented by pure culture ofSaccharomycescerevisiae were different from those of the beer fermented with wild yeasts. The total level of esters and higher alcohols were (173.51 and 128.85  mg/L) respectively in the beer fermented with wild yeasts. These levels were significantly higher than those in the beer fermented with pure culture of...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 29, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Cello-oligosaccharides production from lignocellulosic biomass and their emerging prebiotic applications
AbstractCello-oligosaccharides (COS) are linear oligosaccharides composed of β-1,4-linked glucopyranose units. They comprise a group of important new oligosaccharides of significant interest and potential applications in the pharmaceutical, food, chemical, and feed industries, currently emerging as potential prebiotic compounds. COS from lignocellulosic biomass, specificall y the agro-industrial residues and by-products of the forestry industry, constitute a new attractive process that imposes the sustainable use of biomass resources. Two main strategies have been used for the production of COS: acid-based and enzyme-...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 29, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Protein biomarker elucidation for the verification of biological agents in the taxonomic group of Gammaproteobacteria using tandem mass spectrometry
This study describes targeted and shot-gun tandem MS based approaches for the verification of biological agents from the environmental samples. The marker proteins and peptides were elucidated by an exhaustive literature mining, in silico analysis of prioritized proteins, and MS/MS analysis of abundant proteins from selected bacterial species. For the shot-gun methodology, tandem MS analysis of abundant peptides was carried from spiked samples. The validation experiments employing a combination of shot-gun tandem MS analysis and a targeted search reported here is a proof of concept to show the applicability of the methodol...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 29, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Methane monooxygenases: central enzymes in methanotrophy with promising biotechnological applications
AbstractWorldwide, the use of methane is limited to generating power, electricity, heating, and for production of chemicals. We believe this valuable gas can be employed more widely. Here we review the possibility of using methane as a feedstock for biotechnological processes based on the application of synthetic methanotrophs. Methane monooxygenase (MMO) enables aerobic methanotrophs to utilize methane as a sole carbon and energy source, in contrast to industrial microorganisms that grow on carbon sources, such as sugar cane, which directly compete with the food market. However, naturally occurring methanotrophs have prov...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Progress in ultrasound-assisted extraction of the value-added products from microorganisms
AbstractExtracting value-added products from microorganisms is an important research focus for the future. Among the many extraction methods, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) has attracted more attention owing to its advantages in reducing working time, increasing yield, and improving the quality of the extract. This review summarizes the use of UAE value-added products from microorganisms, with the main extracted substances are pigments, lipids, polysaccharides, and proteins. In addition, this work also summarizes the mechanism of UAE and highlights the factors that affect UAE operation, such as ultrasonic power inten...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Advanced strategies for development of vaccines against human bacterial pathogens
AbstractInfectious diseases are one of the main grounds of death and disabilities in human beings globally. Lack of effective treatment and immunization for many deadly infectious diseases and emerging drug resistance in pathogens underlines the need to either develop new vaccines or sufficiently improve the effectiveness of currently available drugs and vaccines. In this review, we discuss the application of advanced tools like bioinformatics, genomics, proteomics and associated techniques for a rational vaccine design. (Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 22, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Moving bed biofilm reactor developed with special microbial seed for denitrification of high nitrate containing wastewater
AbstractBiological denitrification is the most promising alternative approach for the removal of nitrate from wastewater. MBBR inoculated with activated sludge is a widely studied approach, but very few studies have focused on the bioaugmentation of biofilm forming bacteria in MBBR. Our study revealed that the use of special microbial seed of biofilm forming denitrifying bacteriaDiaphorobacter sp. R4,Pannonibacter sp. V5,Thauera sp. V9,Pseudomonas sp.V11, andThauera sp.V14 to form biofilm on carriers enhanced nitrate removal performance of developed MBBR. Various process parameters C/N ratio 0.3, HRT 3  h at Nitrate l...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 22, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Nutritional analysis and molecular characterization of hybrid mushrooms developed through intergeneric protoplast fusion between Pleurotus sajor-caju and Calocybe indica with the purpose to achieve improved strains
AbstractTwo edible mushroomsCalocybe indica and Pleurotus sajor-caju were chosen as parent strains in this study to approach the concept of hybridization through the  protoplast fusion technique. Protoplast fusion in presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG) was conducted between the parent strains and by further double selection screening method, six somatic hybrid lines were developed. Those fruit bodies of the hybrid lines showed phenotypic resemblance withPleurotus sajor-caju when grown on paddy straw under favorable conditions. The hybridity of the newly developed somatic hybrid strains was established by barrage rea...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 22, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Streptomyces tunisiensis DSM 42037 mediated bioconversion of ferulic acid released from barley bran
AbstractStreptomyces tunisiensis DSM 42037 exhibited growth capacity on a minimum medium containing 1% barley bran. This peculiar strain released 83.5% of total ferulic acid present in barley bran after 5  days of incubation and the highest amount of released ferulic acid (19 mg/L) was observed on the 3rd day of incubation. The concentrated supernatant ofS. tunisiensis also released ferulic acid from the parietal arabinoxylan complex of barley bran. This strain was able to convert the free ferulic acid into 4-vinyl guaiacol (14  mg/L) and acetovanillone (12 mg/L) at molar yield of 97% and 83% respective...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 22, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Characterization of antibacterial activity of a N-acetylmuramoyl- l -alanine amidase produced by Latilactobacillus sakei isolated from salami
AbstractLactic acid bacteria are the predominant group within meat products, whose metabolites such as bacteriocins and peptidoglycan hydrolases inhibit pathogenic or spoilage bacteria. Fermented meat products, as a salami, is a good source to analyze the viable microbiota, due to these products present a low risk to consumer health. The aim of this work was to identify the lactic acid bacteria with broad antibacterial activity present in salami, purify the protein responsible for this activity, achieve antagonistic spectrum and perform the biochemical characterization. Five strains from salami were selected, isolated and ...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 19, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Anti-quorum sensing and antibiofilm potential of 1,8-cineole derived from Musa paradisiaca against Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1
This study aimed to evaluate the anti-quorum sensing and antibiofilm inhibitory potential ofMusa paradisiaca againstChromobacterium violaceum (ATCC 12472) andPseudomonas aeruginosa. The methanol extract ofM. paradisiacsa exhibits that better antibiofilm potential againstP. aeruginosa. Then, the crude methanol extract was subjected to purify by column chromatography and collected the fractions. The mass-spectrometric analysis of a methanol extract ofM. paradisiaca revealed that 1,8-cineole is the major compounds. 1, 8-cineole significantly inhibited the QS regulated violacein production inC. violaceum. Moreover, 1,8-cineole...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 19, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Immunity improvement and gut microbiota remodeling of mice by wheat germ globulin
AbstractThe wheat germ protein (WG) and it ’s proteolytic peptide have a variety of biological activities. Our previous work showed that WG could improve immunity of the immunosuppressive mice established by cyclophosphamide. However, in the healthy condition and normal diet, as a supplementary food, the effects of immunity improvement and gut microbiota remodeling by the wheat germ globulin has not been studied yet. Here, we reported that WG could improve the immunity and remodel the gut microbiota of the mice, as a potentially safe functional supplementary food for the first time. The increase of interleukin-6 (IL-...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 18, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Genetically engineered rpsL merodiploidy impacts secondary metabolism and antibiotic resistance in Streptomyces
AbstractCertain point mutations within gene for ribosomal protein S12,rpsL, are known to dramatically change physiological traits of bacteria, most prominently antibiotic resistance and production of various metabolites. TherpsL mutants are usually searched among spontaneous mutants resistant to aminoglycoside antibiotics, such as streptomycin or paromomycin. The shortcomings of traditional selection are as follows: randomrpsL mutants may carry undesired genome alterations; manyrpsL mutations cannot be isolated because they are either not associated with increased antibiotic resistance or non-viable in the absence of intac...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 17, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Microbial alkaline serine proteases: Production, properties and applications
AbstractProteolytic enzymes hold a pivotal position in numerous industrial processes where hydrolysis of protein molecules is required under precise conditions. The emerging trend of biotechnological applications in recent years has witnessed a renewed interest in alkaline serine proteases extending their utility in detergent, leather, textile, food and pharmaceutical industries. A variety of microorganisms have been reported to produce alkaline serine proteases on a large scale, however, extensive research to find an alkaline serine protease with desirable characteristics such as significant catalytic efficiency, expanded...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 17, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Lactic acid production using cheese whey based medium in a stirred tank reactor by a ccpA mutant of Lacticaseibacillus casei
This study aimed to evaluate accpA mutant ofLacticaseibacillus casei BL23 to increase lactic acid production using cheese whey. TheccpA derivative (BL71) showed better growth than theL. casei wild-type in the whey medium. In a stirred tank reactor, at 48  h, lactate production by BL71 was eightfold higher than that by BL23. In batch fermentations, the final values reached were 44.23 g L−1 for BL71 and 27.58  g L−1 for BL23. Due to a decrease in the delay of lactate production in the mutant, lactate productivity increased from 0.17  g (L.h)−1 with BL23 to 0.80  g (L.h)−1 with...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 15, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Application of a dissolved oxygen control strategy to increase the expression of Streptococcus suis glutamate dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli
In this study, the effect of DO levels on glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) expression was investigated, and then different DO control strategies were tested for effects on GDH expression. DO control strategy IV (50% 0 –9 h, 30% 9–18 h) provided the highest cell density (15.43 g/L) and GDH concentration (3.42 g/L), values 1.59- and 1.99-times higher than those achieved at 10% DO. The accumulation of acetate was 2.24 g/L with DO control strategy IV, a decrease of 40.74% relative to that achieved for growth at 10% DO. Additionally, under DO control strategy IV, there was lower expression of P...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 12, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Metagenomics of two gnotobiotically grown aromatic rice cultivars reveals genotype-dependent and tissue-specific colonization of endophytic bacterial communities attributing multiple plant growth promoting traits
AbstractExploration of community structures, habitations, and potential plant growth promoting (PGP) attributes of endophytic bacteria through next generation sequencing (NGS) is a prerequisite to culturing PGP endophytic bacteria for their application in sustainable agriculture. The present study unravels the taxonomic abundance and diversity of endophytic bacteria inhabiting in vitro grown root, shoot and callus tissues of two aromatic rice cultivars through 16SrRNA gene-based Illumina NGS. Wide variability in the number of bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and genera was observed between the two samples of th...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 4, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Protoplast fusion between Blakeslea trispora 14,271 (+) and 14,272 ( −) enhanced the yield of lycopene and β-carotene
In this study, the protoplast fusion technique was successfully used inBlakeslea trispora, providing new ideas for improving lycopene and β-carotene production. (Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - March 2, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Lactobacillus plantarum strain HT-W104-B1: potential bacterium isolated from Malaysian fermented foods for control of the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum
The objective was to screen and evaluate the anti-fungal activity of lactic acid bacteria (LABs) isolated from Malaysian fermented foods against twoTrichophyton species. A total of 66 LAB strains were screened using dual culture assays. This showed that four LAB strains were very effective in inhibiting growth ofT. rubrum but notT. interdigitale. More detailed studies withLactobacillus plantarum strain HT-W104-B1 showed that the supernatant was mainly responsible for inhibiting the growth ofT. rubrum. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), inhibitory concentration, the 50% growth inhibition (IC50) and minimum fungicid...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 24, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Methane utilizing plant growth-promoting microbial diversity analysis of flooded paddy ecosystem of India
AbstractMethane utilizing bacteria (MUB) are known to inhabit the flooded paddy ecosystem where they play an important role in regulating net methane (CH4) emission. We hypothesize that efficient MUB having plant growth-promoting (PGP) attributes can be used for developing novel bio-inoculant for flooded paddy ecosystem which might not only reduce methane emission but also assist in improving the plant growth parameters. Hence, soil and plant samples were collected from the phyllosphere, rhizosphere, and non-rhizosphere of five rice-growing regions of India at the tillering stage and investigated for efficient methane-oxid...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 23, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Biosurfactant based formulation of Pseudomonas guariconensis LE3 with multifarious plant growth promoting traits controls charcoal rot disease in Helianthus annus
In this study a biosurfactant producing novel plant growth promoting isolatePseudomonas guariconensis LE3 from the rhizosphere ofLycopersicon esculentum is presented as biostimulant and biocontrol agent. Biosurfactant extracted from culture was characterized to be mixture of various mono- and di-rhamnolipids with antagonistic activity againstMacrophomina phaseolina, causal agent of charcoal rot in diverse crops. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) analysis confirmed the rhamnolipid nature of biosurfactant. PCR analysis established the presence of genes involved in s...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 22, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

DNA barcoding of phytopathogens for disease diagnostics and bio-surveillance
AbstractDNA barcoding has proven to be a versatile tool for plant disease diagnostics in the genomics era. As the mass parallel and next generation sequencing techniques gained importance, the role of specific barcodes came under immense scrutiny. Identification and accurate classification of phytopathogens need a universal approach which has been the main application area of the concept of barcode. The present review entails a detailed description of the present status of barcode application in plant disease diagnostics. A case study on the application of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) as barcode forAspergillus andFusa...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 19, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Repositioning of antidepressant drugs and synergistic effect with ciprofloxacin against multidrug-resistant bacteria
AbstractThe repositioning of drugs has been shown to be an advantageous alternative for treating diseases caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) microorganisms. The study aimed to investigate the in vitro antibacterial activity of the antidepressants fluoxetine and paroxetine alone and in combination with the antibacterial ciprofloxacin against standard strains and clinical isolates to explore the repositioning of these drugs in severe bacterial infections. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), tolerance level, fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) and interaction of anti...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 19, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

In vitro properties of potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria originating from Ghanaian indigenous fermented milk products
AbstractFermented milk products are a major source of health-promoting microorganisms known as probiotics. To characterize the probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Ghanaian traditionally fermented milk, thirty (30) isolates comprisingEnterococcus faecium (1),Lactobacillus fermentum (14),Lb. plantarum (2) andPediococcus acidilactici (13) identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, were tested for survival at low pH (2.5) and bile salts (0.3% (w/v)), hydrophobicity, co-aggregation, auto-aggregation and antimicrobial activities against selected pathogens. Safety of potential probiotic bacteria was assessed b...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 17, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Microbial diversity and chemical characteristics of Coffea canephora grown in different environments and processed by dry method
This study aimed to assess the microbial diversity inCoffea canephora grown in four different environments of Espirito Santo state, Brazil. Coffee cherries of two different altitudes (300 and 600  m) and two terrain aspects (Southeast-facing and Northwest-facing slopes) were processed by the dry method. Samples were collected during the drying/fermentation process. Microorganisms were counted, isolated, and identified by MALDI-TOF, followed by sequencing of the ribosomal region. Sugars and organic acids were quantified by HPLC and volatile compounds of the roasted coffees were evaluated by GC–MS. Bacteria popula...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 17, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Chlamydia trachomatis induces autophagy by p62 in HeLa cell
AbstractChlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial pathogen causing sexually transmitted diseases.C. trachomatis infection is closely related to the development of cervical cancer, studies have shown thatC. trachomatis can induce host cell autophagy. The autophagy related gene p62 plays an important role in the process of autophagy. To further understand the role of autophagy-associated gene p62 in autophagy of HeLa cells induced byC. trachomatis, p62-silencing cell line, HeLa229-shp62, and control cell line, HeLa229-shNC, were constructed, and aC. trachomatis-infected cell model was established. The autophagosome ...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 16, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Recent progress in production of amino acid ‐derived chemicals using Corynebacterium glutamicum
AbstractGreen chemical production by microbial processes is critical for the development of a sustainable society in the twenty-first century. Among the important industrial microorganisms, the gram-positive bacteriumCorynebacterium glutamicum has been utilized for amino acid fermentation, which is one of the largest microbial-based industries. To date, several amino acids, includingl-glutamic acid,l-lysine, andl-threonine, have been produced byC. glutamicum. The capability to produce substantial amounts of amino acids has gained immense attention because the amino acids can be used as a precursor to produce other high-val...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 11, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Systematic Review and Meta-analysis: Salmonella spp. prevalence in vegetables and fruits
In this study, a systematic review and a meta-analysis were conducted to analyse recent worldwide information about the prevalence ofSalmonella spp. in vegetables and fruits to estimate the effect of the different processes such as washing, cutting or disinfection, and place of sampling. A systematic search was conducted for articles from 2014 to 2020 published to date regarding prevalence ofSalmonella spp. in vegetables and fruits, without excluding material by location, or author. It was possible to determine eight categories for vegetables and fruits in comparison with the meta-analysis which showed five categories due ...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 10, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Unravelling Toxoplasma treatment: conventional drugs toward nanomedicine
AbstractToxoplasma gondii is a worldwide protozoan parasite that infects almost all warm-blooded animals. Although human toxoplasmosis is mostly latent, pregnant women and immunocompromised patients need effective treatment. There are drugs of choice for treatment of toxoplasmosis; however, due to their side effects and/or their disease stage-specificity, prescription of them is limited. During recent years, nanomedicine has been employed to overcome limitations of conventional drugs. Here, we provided a state-of-the-art review of experimental toxoplasmosis treatment using nanotechnology.Graphic abstract (Source: World Jou...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 10, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Recent advances on aptamer-based biosensors for detection of pathogenic bacteria
AbstractAs a significant constituent in biosphere, bacteria have a great influence on human activity. The detection of pathogen bacteria is closely related to the human health. However, the traditional methods for detection of pathogenic bacteria are time-consuming and difficult for quantification, although they are practical and reliable. Therefore, novel strategies for rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective detection are in great demand. Aptamer is a kind of oligonucleotide that selected by repeated screening invitro or systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) technology. Over the past years, owing...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Effect of consortium bioaugmentation and biostimulation on remediation efficiency and bacterial diversity of diesel-contaminated aged soil
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of consortium bioaugmentation (CB) and various biostimulation options on the remediation efficiency and bacterial diversity of diesel-contaminated aged soil. The bacterial consortium was prepared using strains D-46, D-99, D134 –1, MSM-2-10-13, and Oil-4, isolated from oil-contaminated soil. The effects of CB and biostimulation were evaluated in various soil microcosms: CT (water), T1 (CB only), T2 (CB + NH4NO3 and KH2PO4, nutrients), T3 (CB  + activated charcoal, AC), T4 (CB + nutrients + AC), T5 (AC + water), T6 (CB&thin...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Citral and geraniol induce necrotic and apoptotic cell death on Saccharomyces cerevisiae
AbstractEssential oils and their main components, monoterpenes, have been proven to be important alternatives for the control of pathogenic and spoiling microorganisms, but the mode of action of these compounds is poorly understood. This work aimed to determine the mode of action of citral and geraniol on the model yeastSaccharomyces cerevisiae using a flow cytometry approach. Exponentially growing yeast cells were treated with different concentrations of citral and geraniol for 3  h, and evaluated for cell wall susceptibility to glucanase, membrane integrity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, mitochondrial ...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 6, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Evidences for antioxidant response and biosorption potential of Bacillus simplex strain 115 against lead
In this study, we investigated effects of lead on growth response and antioxidant defense protection in a new identified strain isolated from a soil, in the rhizosphere of SainfoinHedysarum coronarium L. Different concentrations of lead (0, 0.2, 1.5 and 3  g L−1) added toBacillus simplex strain 115 cultures surprisingly did not inhibit its growth. However, a resulting oxidative stress as attested by overproduction of H2O2 (+  6.2 fold) and malondialdehyde (+ 2.3 fold) concomitantly to the enhancement of proteins carbonylation (+ 221%) and lipoxygenase activity (+ 59%) was observed in ...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 6, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Biotechnology and bioengineering of pullulanase: state of the art and perspectives
AbstractPullulanase (EC 3.2.1.41) is a starch-debranching enzyme in theα-amylase family and specifically cleavesα-1,6-glycosidic linkages in starch-type polysaccharides, such as pullulan,β-limited dextrin, glycogen, and amylopectin. It plays a key role in debranching and hydrolyzing starch completely, thus bring improved product quality, increased productivity, and reduced production cost in producing resistant starch, sugar syrup, and beer. Plenty of researches have been made with respects to the discovery of either thermophilic or mesophilic pullulanases, however, few examples meet the demand of industri...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 6, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

SigB-regulated antioxidant functions in gram ‐positive bacteria
AbstractOxidative stress can have lethal consequences if organisms do not respond and remediate the damage to DNA, proteins and lipids. Bacterial species respond to oxidative stress by activating transcriptional profiles that include biochemical functions to reduce oxidized cellular components, regenerate pools of reducing molecules, and detoxify harmful metabolites. Interestingly, the general stress response in Gram positive bacteria controlled by SigB is induced by oxidative stress from reactive oxygen and electrophilic species. The upregulation of SigB regulated genes during exposure to electrophilic and oxidative compo...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 5, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Characteristics of the copper ‐induced viable‐but‐non‐culturable state in bacteria
AbstractThe antimicrobial applications of copper (Cu) are exploited in several industries, such as agriculture and healthcare settings. While Cu is capable of efficiently killing microorganisms, sub-lethal doses can induce a viable-but-non-culturable (VBNC) state in bacteria of many distinct clades. VBNC cells cannot be detected by standard culture-based detection methods, and can become a threat to plants and animals as they often retain virulent traits upon resuscitation. Here we discuss the putative mechanisms of the Cu-induced VBNC state. Common observations in Cu-induced VBNC cells include a cellular response to react...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 5, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Novel microbial nitrogen transformation processes in constructed wetlands treating municipal sewage: a mini-review
AbstractTraditionally nitrogen transformation in constructed wetlands (CWs) has been attributed to the activities of aerobic autotrophic nitrifiers followed by anoxic heterotrophic denitrifiers. However, the nitrogen balances in such systems are far from being explained as a large fraction of the losses remain unaccounted for. The classical nitrification-denitrification theory has been successfully employed in certain unit processes by culturing fast-growing bacteria, but the CWs offer an ideal environment for slow-growing bacteria that may be beneficially exploited to achieve enhanced nitrogen removal by manipulating the ...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 5, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research