Pseudomonas sp. UW4 acdS gene promotes primordium initiation and fruiting body development of Agaricus bisporus
AbstractTo simplify industrial mushroom cultivation, we introduced a bacterialPseudomonas sp. UW4acdS gene, encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase (AcdS), into fungusAgaricus bisporus. TransformantA. bisporus-acdS14 cased with sterilized-vermiculite generated primordia 5  days sooner than wild-type strain, confirming the specific role of the AcdS enzyme. Being consistent with the AcdS enzyme activity increased by 84%, the mycelium growth rate was increased by 25%; but, the ACC and ethylene concentrations were reduced by 71% and 36%, respectively, in theA. bisporus-acdS14 transformant. And the b...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 21, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Using 1-propanol to significantly enhance the production of valuable odd-chain fatty acids by Rhodococcus opacus PD630
AbstractOdd-chain fatty acids (OCFAs) have been reported to possess pharmacological activity and have been used in the manufacture of agricultural and industrial chemicals. We here provided a new method to increase the OCFAs content in oil produced byRhodococcus opacus PD630 through addition of 1-propanol to the fermentation media. The OCFAs in oil ofR. opacus PD630 are primarily pentadecanoic acid (C15:0), heptadecanoic acid (C17:0) and heptadecenoic acid (C17:1). After adding 0.5 –1.5% (v/v) 1-propanol, the production of oil increased from 1.27 g/L to 1.31–1.61 g/L, and the OCFAs content in oil incr...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 21, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Antibacterial activities of transient metals nanoparticles and membranous mechanisms of action
AbstractVarious transient metal and metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) have shown pronounced biological activity, including antibacterial action against different Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria including pathogens and drug-resistant ones. Thus, NPs can be applied in nanotechnology for controlling bacterial growth as well as in biomedicine for the treatment of various diseases. However, the mechanisms of these effects are not clear yet. This review is focused on the antibacterial effects of transient metal NPs, especially iron oxide (Fe3O4) and Ag NPs onEscherichia coli wild type and antibiotic-resistant strains. Ag ...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 14, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Identification of common vaginal Lactobacilli immunoreactive proteins by immunoproteomic techniques
AbstractLactobacilli are considered as the most important microorganisms in regulating immune system and maintaining vaginal health. The uses and benefits of Lactobacilli as probiotics, particularly the regulation of immune system, are dependent on the strain used and a comprehensive understanding of their effects on the host. Several factors have been identified in Lactobacilli that influence the immune response, such as exopolysaccharides and proteins. The current study was designed to investigate the serum immunoreactivity of healthy women against common vaginal Lactobacilli immunoreactive proteins. Three common vaginal...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 13, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Talaromyces australis and Penicillium murcianum pigment production in optimized liquid cultures and evaluation of their cytotoxicity in textile applications
AbstractIn this workTalaromyces australis andPenicillium murcianum pigment production in liquid cultures and the cytotoxic effect of such pigments on skin model cells were studied. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize culture conditions aiming to increase pigment production in malt extract and peptone-glucose-yeast extract medium. Cytotoxicity of fungal pigments and also from lixiviates of wool fabrics dyed withT. australis andP. murcianum pigment was evaluated on mammalian cell lines HEK293 and NIH/3T3. Results showed that variations on initial pH, NaCl and peptone, resulted in increments up to 188.2% f...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 12, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The vaginal microbial communities of healthy expectant Brazilian mothers and its correlation with the newborn ’s gut colonization
AbstractThe female lower genital tract harbors a complex microbial community essential for homeostasis and health. During pregnancy, the female body undergoes unique hormonal changes that contribute to weight gain as well as modulations in immune function that can affect microbiota composition. Several studies have described the vaginal microbiota of pregnant women from the USA, Europe and Mexico. Here we expand our knowledge about the vaginal microbial communities during the third trimester to healthy expectant Brazilian mothers. Vaginal samples were collected from patients delivering at the Hospital de Cl ínicas d...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 10, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Combination of natural antimicrobials for contamination control in ethanol production
AbstractPresence of bacterial contaminants at levels> 107 colony forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) during ethanol production processes reduces the alcoholic fermentation yield by 30%. Antibiotics are currently used to control contamination, but their residues may be detected in yeast extract, restricting this by-product trade to several countries. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess antimicrobial activity of the natural compounds hops extract, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, nisin Z, and lysozyme againstLactobacillus fermentum,Leuconostoc mesenteroides, andSaccharomyces cerevisiae, aiming development of a formula...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 8, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Actinobacterial community in Shuanghe Cave using culture-dependent and -independent approaches
AbstractKarst caves, considering to be the “arks” of biodiversity, often contain high levels of endemism. In the present study, the actinobacterial community in Shuanghe Cave, the longest cave in Asia, was analyzed for the first-time using culture-dependent and -independent (16S rRNA amplicon sequencing) approaches. The amplicon sequenci ng analysis revealed a broad taxonomic diversity in Shuanghe Cave, including 19 phyla (predominantly Actinobacteria) and 264 different genera. While the culture-dependent method got the unrepresentative but supplemental result, a total of 239 actinomycetes were isolated and wer...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Biocontrol yeasts: mechanisms and applications
AbstractYeasts occur in all environments and have been described as potent antagonists of various plant pathogens. Due to their antagonistic ability, undemanding cultivation requirements, and limited biosafety concerns, many of these unicellular fungi have been considered for biocontrol applications. Here, we review the fundamental research on the mechanisms (e.g., competition, enzyme secretion, toxin production, volatiles, mycoparasitism, induction of resistance) by which biocontrol yeasts exert their activity as plant protection agents. In a second part, we focus on five yeast species (Candida oleophila, Aureobasidium pu...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Effect of exogenous stress factors on the biosynthesis of carotenoids and lipids by Rhodotorula yeast strains in media containing agro-industrial waste
In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of exogenous stress factors (sodium chloride as osmotic stressor, hydrogen peroxide as an inducer of oxidative stress, white light irradiation, and low temperature) on the biosynthesis of carotenoids and lipids by red yeast (Rhodotorula glutinis,R. mucilaginosa, andR. gracilis) during cultivation in media containing potato wastewater and glycerol. According to our results, the yeast were able to grow and biosynthesize lipids and carotenoids in the presence of the applied stress factors. Low temperature caused an increase in the biosynthesis of intracellular lipids and caroten...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Adhesion mechanisms of lactic acid bacteria: conventional and novel approaches for testing
AbstractAdhesion ability is a primary criterion for the selection of probiotic microorganisms. Lactic acid bacteria contribute the majority of microorganisms with probiotic properties. They have several important mechanisms for intestinal epithelial cell adhesion. In order to adhere to the intestinal cells, they generally use various structures such as flagella, pili, S layer proteins, lipoteichoic acid, exopolysaccharides and mucus binding proteins. Various in vitro experiments were designed or study models were developed to reveal the mechanisms they utilize for binding to the intestinal cells, yet, the mechanisms for th...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Advances on research in the use of agro-industrial waste in biosurfactant production
AbstractBiosurfactants are amphiphilic molecules produced by a variety of microorganisms, including bacteria, yeast and filamentous fungi. Unlike chemically synthesized surfactants, biosurfactants present advantages, such as biodegradability, low toxicity, high selectivity and activity under extreme temperature, pH and salinity conditions, as well as a low critical micelle concentration. Moreover, they can be produced from agro-industrial waste and renewable sources. Their structural diversity and functional properties mean that they have potential applications in various industrial processes as wetting agents, dispersants...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

What makes a good new therapeutic l -asparaginase?
Abstractl-asparaginase is a critical part of the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children and adolescents, and has contributed to the improvement in patient outcomes over the last 40  years. The main products used in clinical treatment arel-asparaginase enzymes derived fromEscherichia coli andErwinia chrysanthemi. However, a very active area of research is the identification and characterisation of potential newl-asparaginase therapeutics, from existing or novel prokaryotic and eukaryotic sources, including mutations to improve function. In this review, we discuss the critical factors necessary to adequa...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - September 24, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Mycoprotein: environmental impact and health aspects
AbstractThe term mycoprotein refers to the protein-rich food made of filamentous fungal biomass that can be consumed as an alternative to meat. In this paper, the impact caused by the substitution of animal-origin meat in the human diet for mycoprotein on the health and the environment is reviewed. Presently, mycoprotein can be found in the supermarkets of developed countries in several forms (e.g. sausages and patties). Expansion to other markets depends on the reduction of the costs. Although scarce, the results of life cycle analyses of mycoprotein agree that this meat substitute causes an environmental impact similar t...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - September 23, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Metagenomic analysis of relationships between the denitrification process and carbon metabolism in a bioaugmented full-scale tannery wastewater treatment plant
AbstractThe goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between the denitrification process and carbon metabolism in a full-scale tannery wastewater treatment plant bioaugmented with the microbial consortium BM-S-1. The metagenomic analysis of the microbial community showed thatBrachymonas denitrificans, a known denitrifier, was present at a high level in the treatment stages of buffering (B), primary aeration (PA), and sludge digestion (SD). The occurrences of the amino acid-degrading enzymes alpha ketoglutarate dehydrogenase ( α-KGDH) and tryptophan synthase were highly correlated with the presence of de...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - September 23, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Effect of temperature on Pi54- mediated leaf blast resistance in rice
AbstractAssessment of temperature effect on plant resistance against diseases has become essential under climate change scenario as temperature rise is anticipated to modify host resistance. To determine temperature influence on resistance gene, a pair of near-isogenic rice lines differing for thePi54 resistance gene was assessed against leaf blast. Blast resistance was determined as the extent of infection efficiency (IE) and sporulation (SP) at suboptimal (22  °C and 32 °C) and optimal temperature (27 °C) of pathogen aggressiveness. Relative resistance for IE and SP was higher at suboptimal tem...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - September 23, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Purification and identification of a novel antifungal protein from Bacillus subtilis XB-1
This study aimed to characterize a powerful antifungal component from bacteria.Bacillus subtilis strain XB-1, which showed maximal inhibition ofMonilinia fructicola, was isolated and identified, and an antifungal protein was obtained from it. Ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography, and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) were used to purify and identify the proteins secreted byB. subtilis XB-1. Analyses revealed that purified fraction V had the strongest antifungal effect, with the largest pathogen inhibition zone diameter of 4.15  cm after 4 days (P 
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - September 23, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Correction to: Antibiotic resistance and molecular characterization of poultry isolates of Salmonella by RAPD-PCR
Unfortunately, The first author ’s name has been incorrectly published in the original publication of the article. The correct name of the author is “Youg Raj Thaker”. (Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - September 23, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

An overview on anti-biofilm properties of quercetin against bacterial pathogens
AbstractBacterial biofilms are multicellular aggregates enclosed in a self-created biopolymer matrix. Biofilm-producing bacteria have become a great public health problem worldwide because biofilms enable these microorganisms to evade several clearance mechanisms produced by host and synthetic sources. Over the past years, different flavonoids including quercetin have engrossed considerable interest among researchers owing to their potential anti-biofilm properties. To our knowledge, there is no review regarding effects of quercetin towards bacterial biofilms, prompting us to summarize experimental evidence on its anti-bio...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - September 6, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Campylobacter and Arcobacter species in food-producing animals: prevalence at primary production and during slaughter
AbstractTheCampylobacter andArcobacter genera encompass closely related species that are ubiquitous in nature and are harboured in the gastrointestinal tract of many animals, including food-producing animals (cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry). In humansCampylobacter spp. is the cause of most of the gastroenteritis cases worldwide and in more severe cases the infection can result in Guillian Barr é syndrome. Similarly,Arcobacter species can cause gastroenteritis as well as bacteraemia. Infections in humans can be induced by the consumption of contaminated vegetables, meat, milk and water. However, food originating fro...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - September 6, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Microbial chitinases: properties, current state and biotechnological applications
AbstractChitinases are a group of hydrolytic enzymes that catalyze chitin, nd are synthesized by a wide variety of organisms. In nature, microbial chitinases are primarily responsible for chitin decomposition. Several chitinases have been reported and characterized, and they are garnering increasing attention for their uses in a wide range of applications. In the food industry, the direct fermentation of seafood, such as crab and shrimp shells, using chitinolytic microorganisms has contributed to increased nutritional benefits through the enhancement of chitin degradation into chitooligosaccharides. These compounds have be...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - September 6, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Antagonistic activity and mechanism of an isolated Streptomyces corchorusii stain AUH-1 against phytopathogenic fungi
In conclusion,S. corchorusii strain AUH-1 showed a promising prospect for the development of biological agent, especially due to its broad-spectrum and effective antagonist on various soil-borne plant pathogens. (Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - September 6, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Transcriptome analysis of gene expression in Chlorella vulgaris under salt stress
AbstractChlorella vulgaris is an important freshwater alga that is widely used as a food source for humans and animals. High-salinity environments can cause accumulation of lipids and proteins in this species, but the mechanism of this accumulation and the salt response remain unclear. In this work, transcriptome analysis was performed for theC. vulgaris response to salt stress (1% and 3% NaCl) applied for different times (2  h and 4 h). In total, 5232 and 9196 were differentially expressed after 1% NaCl for 2 and 4 h, and 3968 and 9035 unigenes were differentially expressed after 3% NaCl for 2 and 4 h,...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - August 28, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Antibiogram and molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus recovered from treated wastewater effluent and receiving surface water in Durban, South Africa
This study aimed to determine the antibiogram and virulence gene profiles of MRSA isolates recovered from treated wastewater effluent and receiving surface waters. Genetic fingerprinting of the isolates was also carried out to determine the phylogenetic relationship between the isolates and selected antibiogram profiles. Eighty MRSA isolates were obtained from treated effluent and receiving rivers of two WWTPs in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal. Antibiotic resistance was observed towards lincomycin (100%), oxacillin (98.75%), cefoxitin and penicillin (97.50%), and ampicillin (96.25%). In addition, 72.50%, 66.25%, 52.50%, 40% and 33....
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - August 28, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Fungal biological resources to support international development: challenges and opportunities
AbstractExploitation of microbes, especially fungi, has the potential to help humankind meet the UN ’s sustainable development goals, help feed the worlds growing population and improve bioeconomies of poorer nations. The majority of the world’s fungal genetic resources are held in collections in developed countries, primarily within the USA, Europe and Japan. Very little capacity exists in lo w to middle income countries, which are often rich in biodiversity but lack resources to be able to conserve and exploit their own microbial resources. In this paper we review the current challenges facing culture collect...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - August 26, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Rewiring the functional complexity between Crc, Hfq and sRNAs to regulate carbon catabolite repression in Pseudomonas
AbstractPseudomonas species are the most versatile of all known bacteria for metabolic flexibility and the extent of host range from plants to humans that remains unmatched. The evolution of diverse metabolic strategies in these species to adapt to the fluctuating environment guarantees high fitness as well as the ability to withstand stress at multiple levels. These abilities inPseudomonas species are imprinted by an adaptable genetic repertoire through the integration of external and internal signals via complex regulatory networks. One of the main regulatory networks that lead to optimal growth, survival and cellular ro...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - August 26, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Transcriptional regulation contributes more to Monascus pigments diversity in different strains than to DNA sequence variation
In this study, four wild-typeMonascus strains, namelyM. anka M7, M. purpureus M9,M. ruber C100, andM.aurantiacus M15, were selected as research objects according to the diversification of their pigments fermented in the same mediums and conditions. Twenty-three 3  kbp segments (300 bp overlap with adjacent segments) of the pigment gene cluster were amplified, sequenced, and assembled into the DNA sequences of the clusters. The DNA sequences of pigment biosynthetic gene clusters of the four strains showed 99.94% similarity according to the results of multip le alignment. The expression levels of 17 pigment biosynt...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - August 26, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Virgicin, a novel lanthipeptide from Virgibacillus sp. strain AK90 exhibits inhibitory activity against Gram-positive bacteria
In this study, we have isolated and characterized a new antimicrobial peptide from a marine bacterium identified asVirgibacillus species. The low molecular mass and stability of the antimicrobial substance pointed towards the bacteriocinogenic nature of the compound. The RAST analysis of genome sequence showed presence of a putative bacteriocin biosynthetic cluster containing genes necessary for synthesis of a lanthipeptide. Translated amino acid sequence of mature C-terminal propeptide showed identity with salivaricin A (52.2%) and lacticin A (33.3%). Accordingly, the mass (2417  Da) obtained by MALDI analysis was in...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - August 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Cloning and expression of a thermostable keratinase gene from Thermoactinomyces sp. YT06 in Escherichia coli and characterization of purified recombinant enzymes
AbstractThe feather-degrading strainThermoactinomyces sp. YT06 secretes an extracellular keratinolytic protease (KERTYT); however, the gene encoding this protease remains unknown. ThekerT1 gene (1170  bp) encoding keratinase was cloned and expressed inEscherichia coli BL21(DE3). Purified recombinant keratinase (rKERTYT) was achieved at a yield of 39.16% and 65.27-fold purification with a specific activity of 1325 U/mg. It was shown that rKERTYT has many similarities to the native enzyme (KERTYT) by characterization of rKERTYT. The molecular weight of rKERTYT secreted by recombinantE. coli was approximately 28  kD...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - August 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Culturable halophilic bacteria inhabiting Algerian saline ecosystems: A source of promising features and potentialities
This study on halophilic bacteria of unexplored saline niches provides potential sources of biocatalysts and novel bioactive metabolites as well as promising candidates of biocontrol agents and eco-friendly tools for heavy metal bioremediation. (Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - August 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Interaction of 4-ethylphenol, pH, sucrose and ethanol on the growth and fermentation capacity of the industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae PE-2
AbstractVolatile phenols such as 4-ethylphenol are produced from hydroxycinnamic acids byDekkera bruxellensis, an important yeast contaminating alcoholic fermentations. 4-ethylphenol results from the decarboxylation and reduction ofp-coumaric acid, a compound found in sugarcane musts. In wine, volatile phenols are responsible by sensorial alterations whereas in the context of bioethanol fermentation, little is known about their effects on the main yeast,Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we evaluated the interaction of 4-ethylphenol and pH, sucrose and ethanol on the growth and fermentation capacity of the industrial strain of...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - August 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Microbial transformation of cholesterol: reactions and practical aspects —an update
AbstractCholesterol is a C27-sterol employed as starting material for the synthesis of valuable pharmaceutical steroids and precursors. The microbial transformations of cholesterol have been widely studied, since they are performed with high regio- and stereoselectivity and allow the production of steroidal compounds which are difficult to synthesize by classical chemical methods. In recent years, ongoing research is being conducted to discover novel biocatalysts and to develop biotechnological processes to improve existing biocatalysts and biotransformation reactions. The main objective of this review is to present the mo...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - August 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Characterization of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) obtained from feces of sheep in Brazil
This study aimed to characterize the resistance to antimicrobials, plasmids and virulence, as well as the serotypes and phylogenetic groups inE. coli isolated from sheep in Brazil. A total of 57 isolates were obtained and showed different antimicrobial resistance profiles. Nineteen isolates presented acquired antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) (blaCTX-M-Gp9,qnrB, qnrS, oqxB, oqxA, tetA, tetB, tetC, sul1 andsul2) and plasmid families (F, FIA, FIB, I1, K, HI1 and ColE-like). Thestx1,stx2 andehxA virulence genes were detected by PCR, being 50 isolates (87.7%) classified as STEC. A great diversity of serotypes was detected,...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - August 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Batch experiments towards remediation of phenolic syntan using individual as well as co-culture of Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa
AbstractThe presence of very high concentrations of organic pollutants, phenols, tannins and heavy metals mainly chromium in wastewater discharged from leather industries, tags it as one of the most polluting industries. The phenolic syntans discharged from tanning units have an adverse effect on living organisms and cause serious environmental pollution, thereby making it very imperative to remove it. Among various treatment methods available for removal of phenols, biodegradation is environment friendly. The present study aims at the remediation of phenolic syntan used in the leather industry employing individual as well...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - August 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Advances in research on signal molecules regulating biofilms
AbstractBacterial biofilms (BFs) are membrane-like structures formed by the secretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) by bacteria. The formation of BFs contributes to bacterial survival and drug resistance. When bacteria proliferate, they produce secondary metabolites that act as signaling molecules in bacterial communities that regulate intracellular and cell-to-cell communication. This communication can directly affect the physiological behavior of bacteria, including the production and emission of light (bioluminescence), the expression of virulence factors, the resistance to antibiotics, and the shift betwe...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - August 5, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Two plant-hosted whole-cell bacterial biosensors for detection of bioavailable Cr(VI)
AbstractMetal whole-cell biosensors (WCBs) have been reported as very useful tools to detect and quantify the presence of bioavailable fractions of certain metals in water and soil samples. In the current work, two bacterial WCBs able to report Cr(VI) presence and plants growing on Cr(VI)-enriched soil/medium were used to assess the potential transfer of this metal to organisms of higher trophic levels, and the risk of transfer to the food chain. To do it, the functionality of the WCBs within tissues of inoculated plants in contact with Cr(VI)-contaminated soil and water was studied in vitro and in a controlled greenhouse ...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - August 2, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Four LysR-type transcriptional regulator family proteins (LTTRs) involved in antibiotic resistance in Aeromonas hydrophila
In this study, to further investigate the role of four putative LTTR family proteins (A0KIU1, A0KJ82, A0KPK0, and A0KQ63) in antibiotic resistance inA. hydrophila, their genes were cloned and overexpressed in engineeredEscherichia coli. After the optimization of experimental conditions including incubation time, temperature, and IPTG concentration, these proteins were successfully purified, and their specific antibodies against mice were obtained. Using western blot analysis, we found that these LTTR family proteins were downregulated inA. hydrophila following antibiotic treatment, indicating that they may be involved in t...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - August 2, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Valinomycin, produced by Streptomyces sp. S8, a key antifungal metabolite in large patch disease suppressiveness
This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of using the strain as a biological control mechanism. Sequencing of the S8 strain genome revealed a valinomycin biosynthesis gene cluster. This cluster is composed of thevlm1 andvlm2 genes, which are known to produce antifungal compounds. In order to verify this finding for the large patch pathogen, a valinomycin biosynthesis knockout mutant was created via the CRISPR/Cas9 system. The mutant lost antifungal activity against the large patch pathogen. Consequently, it is anticipated that eco-friendly microbial preparations derived from the S8 strain can be utilized to biologica...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - August 2, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Chemo-enzymatically prepared lignin nanoparticles for value-added applications
AbstractThe global need to develop sustainable materials and products from non-fossil raw material is pushing industry to utilize side-streams more efficiently using green processes. Aromatic lignin, the world ’s second most abundant biopolymer, has multiple attractive properties which can be exploited in various ways instead of being burnt or used as animal feed. Lignin’s poor water solubility and its highly branched and random structure make it a challenging biopolymer to exploit when developing nov el technologies for the preparation of tailored nanobiomaterials for value-added applications. The notable numb...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - July 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Isolation and identification of temperature tolerant phosphate solubilizing bacteria as a potential microbial fertilizer
In this study, TTPSB were isolated from soil samples treated for 16  h at 55 °C. Their phosphate solubilizing activity was either evaluated in solid media by forming a clear zone (halo) or in liquid media by quantification of the soluble phosphate in the growth medium. Five colonies (RPS4, RPS6, RPS7, RPS8 and RPS9) were identified to be able to form a halo and t wo of the isolates (RPS9 and RPS7) tolerated a temperature of 55 °C. With tricalcium phosphate (TCP) as the sole P-source, the phosphate solubilizing capacity of RPS9 and RPS7 was determined to be 563.8 and 324.1 mg P L−1 in liqui...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - July 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Analysis of the microbiota involved in the early changes associated with indigo reduction in the natural fermentation of indigo
AbstractConstituents of the seed microbiota and initial changes in the microbiota in fermentations are important in fermentation progression. To identify the origin of indigo-reducing bacteria and understand the initial changes in the microbiota that occur concomitantly with the initiation of indigo reduction during indigo fermentation, we analysed the initial changes in the microbiota. The proportions of the reported indigo-reducing taxaAlkalibacterium,Amphibacillus andPolygonibacillus increased to 24.0% on the 5th day, to 15.2% on the 7th day and to 42.8% at 4.5  months, and the relative abundances of these taxa wer...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - July 26, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Trk1, the sole potassium-specific transporter in Candida glabrata , contributes to the proper functioning of various cell processes
AbstractCandida glabrata is a haploid yeast that is considered to be an emergent pathogen since it is the second most prevalent cause of candidiasis. Contrary to most yeasts, this species carries only one plasma membrane potassium transporter namedCgTrk1. We show in this work that the activity of this transporter is regulated at the posttranslational level, and thus Trk1 contributes to potassium uptake under very different external cation concentrations. In addition to its function in potassium uptake, we report a diversity of physiological effects related to this transporter.CgTRK1 contributes to proper cell size, intrace...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - July 26, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

A novel unhairing enzyme produced by heterologous expression of keratinase gene ( kerT ) in Bacillus subtilis
In conclusion, the enzymatic unhairing method with recombinant KerT has the potential to be more sustainable and efficient alternative than current sulphur-lime method, and it d oes not require the further purification thereby saving the cost. (Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - July 26, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Comprehensive profiling of codon usage signatures and codon context variations in the genus Ustilago
AbstractThe fungal genusUstilago consists of intimidating pathogens associated with disease manifestations in plants of agricultural importance and gravity. Rapid progress of genome sequencing has opened the floodgates for biological research. Availability ofUstilago genomes provides a scope to explore complex codon and amino acid usage patterns in the genus. An extensive scrutiny of the factors underlying the complex modalities of codon and amino acid usage inUstilago has been executed in the present analysis. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed a dominant effect of natural selection pressure, aimed at translationa...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - July 22, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Culture optimization for production and characterization of bioflocculant by Aspergillus flavus grown on chicken viscera hydrolysate
This study for the first time indicates a high potential of bioflocculant yield from chicken viscera at the appropriate culture conditions. (Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - July 22, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Exposure to different arsenic species drives the establishment of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria on rice root iron plaques
AbstractIron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria inhabiting rice rhizoplane play a significant role on arsenic biogeochemistry in flooded rice paddies, influencing arsenic translocation to rice grains. In the present study, the selective pressure of arsenic species on these microbial populations was evaluated. Rice roots from continuously flooded plants were incubated in iron sulfide (FeS) gradient tubes and exposed to either arsenate or arsenite. The biomass developed in the visible iron-oxidation band of the enrichments was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy-Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM –EDS) and the ba...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - July 22, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Efflux proteins MacAB confer resistance to arsenite and penicillin/macrolide-type antibiotics in Agrobacterium tumefaciens 5A
In this study, the roles of MacAB for the co-resistance of different antibiotics and several metal(loid)s were analyzed inAgrobacteriumtumefaciens 5A, a strain resistant to arsenite [As(III)] and several types of antibiotics. ThemacA andmacB genes were cotranscribed, andmacB was deleted inA.tumefaciens 5A and heterologously expressed inEscherichia coli AW3110 andE. coli S17-1. Compared to the wild-type strain 5A, themacB deletion strain reduced bacterial resistance levels to several macrolide-type and penicillin-type antibiotics but not to cephalosporin-type antibiotics. In addition, themacB deletion strain showed lower re...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - July 22, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Biological hydrogen production: molecular and electrolytic perspectives
AbstractExploration of renewable energy sources is an imperative task in order to replace fossil fuels and to diminish atmospheric pollution. Hydrogen is considered one of the most promising fuels for the future and implores further investigation to find eco-friendly ways toward viable production. Expansive processes like electrolysis and fossil fuels are currently being used to produce hydrogen. Biological hydrogen production (BHP) displays recyclable and economical traits, and is thus imperative for hydrogen economy. Three basic modes of BHP were investigated, including bio photolysis, photo fermentation and dark ferment...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - July 22, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Bioproduction of N -acetyl-glucosamine from colloidal α-chitin using an enzyme cocktail produced by Aeromonas caviae CHZ306
This study provides valuable information on the GlcNAc bioproduction from chitin using an enzymatic approach, addressing the key points for its production, including the enzyme cocktail composition and the substrate structures.Graphic abstract (Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - July 22, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

High efficiency transformation by electroporation of the freshwater alga Nannochloropsis limnetica
AbstractThe microalgal genus ofNannochloropsis is considered one of the most promising organisms for the production of biofuels due to their high lipid content. Transformation systems for marineNannochloropsis species have been established in the recent decade, however, genetic manipulation ofNannochloropsis limnetica, the only known freshwater species in this genus, is not yet available. Based on established marineNannochloropsis species electrotransformation protocol, nuclear genetic transformation was established inN. limnetica, meanwhile the appropriate antibiotic selection concentration and electric field strength of ...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - July 22, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research