Microalgae as biostimulants: a new approach in agriculture
AbstractThis review aims to elucidate the state of the art of microalgae-based biostimulants as a tool in agriculture by summarizing the biologically active compounds factors that influence the use of microalgae biostimulants and their application methods in the field. Additionally, we examined the factors that support the use of microalgal biostimulants to face abiotic and biotic stress in crop plants. The use of microalgae in crop production and the benefits of seed preparation, foliar application, soil drenching, and hydroponic treatments were discussed. Furthermore, the use of these biostimulants in crop plants and the...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - November 26, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The regulation of BbLaeA on the production of beauvericin and bassiatin in Beauveria bassiana
AbstractBeauvericin and bassiatin are two valuable compounds with various bioactivities biosynthesized by the supposedly same nonribosomal peptide synthetase BbBEAS in entomopathogenic fungusBeauveria bassiana. To evaluate the regulatory effect of global regulator LaeA on their production, we constructedBbLaeA gene deletion and overexpression mutants, respectively. Deletion ofBbLaeA resulted in a decrease of the beauvericin titer, while overexpression ofBbLaeA increased its production by 1 –2.26 times. No bassiatin could be detected in ΔBbLaeA and wild type strain ofB. bassiana, but 4.26 –5.10 µ...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - November 24, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Application of bacterial tyrosinases in organic synthesis
AbstractBacterial tyrosinases, as in the case of other bacterial oxidative enzymes, have been found to possess biochemical characteristics that typically make them more suited to applications requiring special operational conditions such as alkaline pH, high or low temperature, the presence of organic solvents, and the presence of inhibitors. Even though a great deal is known about fungal tyrosinases, bacterial tyrosinases still vastly remain underexplored for their potential application in organic synthesis. A literature survey in particular highlights the gaps in our knowledge pertaining to their biochemical properties. ...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - November 24, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Effects of ultra-long fermentation time on the microbial community and flavor components of light-flavor Xiaoqu Baijiu based on fermentation tanks
In this study, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) coupled with headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) were used to analyze the microbial community structures and flavor components in the fermented grains at the end of ferment ation from different fermentation time of light-flavorXiaoqu Baijiu. HTS results showed thatLactobacillus acetotolerans,Lactobacillus helveticus,Lactobacillus buchneri,Wickerhamomyces,Saccharomyces, andCondenascus were identified as the dominant microbes, butLactobacillus (96.28%) exhibited obvious advantages at the end of ultra-long fermentation time ...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - November 24, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Effect of phytochemical vanillic acid on the growth and lipid accumulation of freshwater microalga Euglena gracilis
AbstractA feasible approach against the low yield of microalgae biomass involves the use of a stimulator for microalgal growth. In this research, vanillic acid present in the hydrolysate of agricultural waste, was applied to the cultivation of unicellular microalgaEuglena gracilis. At the optimal dosage of 800  mg L−1 vanillic acid, biomass yield at treatment increased 2.08-fold. Correspondingly, the content of chlorophylla and carotenoids was 3.48 and 2.69 fold than of the control ground, respectively. Increased in cell aspect ratio demonstrated that the alga was more active after vanillic acid treatment. ...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - November 13, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Contribution of vitamin B12 to biogas upgrading and nutrient removal by different microalgae-based technology
This study shows the potential of microalgae and fungi co-cultivation supplemented with VB12 for the simultaneous upgradation of biogas production as well as for the purification of biogas slurry.Graphical abstract (Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - November 11, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Thermo resistant antioxidants from photoautotrophic microorganisms: screening and characterization
In this study, twenty-five strains among microalgae and cyanobacteria were screened as antioxidants producers. The speciesEnallaxsp.,Synechococcus bigranulatus andGaldieria sulphuraria showed the highest content of chlorophyll a and total carotenoids. In vitro stability and antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extracts were performed. The results revealed that pigments present in the extracts, obtained from the previously mentioned species, were stable at room temperature and exhibited in vitro free radical scavenging potential with IC50 values of 0.099 ± 0.001, 0.048 ± 0.001 and 0.13 ± 0.02 mg m...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - November 11, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Diversity and dynamics of microbial ecosystem on berry surface during the ripening of Ecolly (Vitis vinifera L.) grape in Wuhai, China
This study provides a basis for understanding the natural characteristics of the microbial ecosystem on the grape surface during grape ripening, as well as the sustainable production concept of the microecology driving the viticulture management system. (Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology)
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - November 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Recent advancements in enzyme engineering via site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids
AbstractWith increased attention to excellent biocatalysts, evolving methods based on nature or unnatural amino acid (UAAs) mutagenesis have become an important part of enzyme engineering. The emergence of powerful method through expanding the genetic code allows to incorporate UAAs with unique chemical functionalities into proteins, endowing proteins with more structural and functional features. To date, over 200 diverse UAAs have been incorporated site-specifically into proteins via this methodology and many of them have been widely exploited in the field of enzyme engineering, making this genetic code expansion approach...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - November 6, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Characterization and genomic analysis of an efficient dibutyl phthalate degrading bacterium Microbacterium sp. USTB-Y
AbstractA promising bacterial strain for biodegrading dibutyl phthalate (DBP) was successfully isolated from activated sludge and characterized as a potential novelMicrobacterium sp. USTB-Y based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis and whole genome average nucleotide identity (ANI). Initial DBP of 50  mg/L could be completely biodegraded by USTB-Y both in mineral salt medium and in DBP artificially contaminated soil within 12 h at the optimal culture conditions of pH 7.5 and 30 ℃, which indicates that USTB-Y has a strong ability in DBP biodegradation. Phthalic acid (PA) was identified as th e end-product of DBP ...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - November 5, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Mutualistic interaction of native Serratia marcescens UENF-22GI with Trichoderma longibrachiatum UENF-F476 boosting seedling growth of tomato and papaya
AbstractA plethora of bacteria –fungal interactions occur on the extended fungal hyphae network in soil. The mycosphere of saprophytic fungi can serve as a bacterial niche boosting their survival, dispersion, and activity. Such ecological concepts can be converted to bioproducts for sustainable agriculture. Accordingly, we test ed the hypothesis that the well-characterised beneficial bacteriumSerratia marcescens UENF-22GI can enhance plant growth-promoting properties when combined withTrichoderma longibrachiatum UENF-F476. The cultural and cell interactions demonstratedS. marcescens and T. longibrachiatum mutual comp...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - November 3, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The microbiome of a shell mound: ancient anthropogenic waste as a source of Streptomyces degrading recalcitrant polysaccharides
AbstractMetagenome amplicon DNA sequencing and traditional cell culture techniques are helping to uncover the diversity and the biotechnological potential of prokaryotes in different habitats around the world. It has also had a profound impact on microbial taxonomy in the last decades. Here we used metagenome 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing to reveal the microbiome composition of different layers of an anthropogenic soil collected at a shell mound Sambaqui archeological site. The Samabaqui soil microbiome is mainly composed by phylaAcidobacteria,Rokubacteria,Proteobacteria andThaumarchaeota. Using culture-dependent analysis w...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - November 1, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Remediation of soil cadmium pollution by biomineralization using microbial-induced precipitation: a review
This article summarizes the pollution status, pollution source, biological toxicity and existing forms of Cd, as well as the biomineralization mechanism of microbial induced Cd(II) precipitation, mainly including microbial-induced carbonate precipitation, microbial-induced phosphate precipitation and microbial-induced sulfide precipitation. Factors affecting the bioremediation of Cd, such as pH, coexisting ions, and temperature, are introduced. Finally, the key points and difficulties of future microbe-induced Cd(II) biomineralization research are highlighted, providing a scientific basis and theoretical guidance for the a...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - November 1, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Rapid visualization and detection of Staphylococcus aureus based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification
In this study, we developed a closed-tube loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the visual detection ofS. aureus using the colorimetric indicator hydroxy naphthol blue (HNB). The LAMP reaction was optimized by adjusting the amplification temperature, the concentrations of Mg2+, dNTP, and HNB, and the incubation time. In the optimized reaction system, the specificity of LAMP forS. aureus was 100%. The results established that this method accurately identifiedS. aureus, with no cross-reactivity with 14 non-S. aureus strains. The limit of detection (LOD) of LAMP was 8 copies/reaction of purified plasmid DNA ...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - November 1, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Isocitrate dehydrogenase of Bacillus cereus is involved in biofilm formation
In this study, we scanned the genome ofB. cereus 0-9 and found a gene encoding isocitrate dehydrogenase (FRY47_22620) namedicdH. The IcdH protein was expressed and purified. The enzyme activity assay showed that the protein had IDH activity dependent on NADP+, indicating that this gene encoded an IDH. The ΔicdH mutant and its complemented strains were obtained by a homologous recombination strategy, and crystal violet data and CLSM were measured. The results showed that the biofilm yield of the mutant ΔicdH decreased, and the biofilm morphology also changed, while the growth of ΔicdH was not affected. The...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - November 1, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The endophytome (plant-associated microbiome): methodological approaches, biological aspects, and biotech applications
AbstractSimilar to other organisms, plants establish interactions with a variety of microorganisms in their natural environment. The plant microbiome occupies the host plant ’s tissues, either internally or on its surfaces, showing interactions that can assist in its growth, development, and adaptation to face environmental stresses. The advance of metagenomics and metatranscriptomics approaches has strongly driven the study and recognition of plant microbiome impacts . Research in this regard provides comprehensive information about the taxonomic and functional aspects of microbial plant communities, contributing to...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 28, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Recent progress on n-butanol production by lactic acid bacteria
Abstractn-Butanol is an essential chemical intermediate produced through microbial fermentation. However, its toxicity to microbial cells has limited its production to a great extent. The anaerobe lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the most resistant ton-butanol, so it should be the first choice for improvingn-butanol production. The present article aims to review the following aspects ofn-butanol production by LAB: (1) the tolerance of LAB ton-butanol, including its tolerance level and potential tolerance mechanisms; (2) genome editing tools in then-butanol-resistant LAB; (3) methods of LAB modification forn-butanol productio...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 26, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Silage fermentation characteristics and microbial diversity of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in response to exogenous microbiota from temperate grasses
The objective of this study was to explore the microbiological factors that cause the difference in silage fermentation characteristics between grass and legume. Specifically, the effects of epiphytic microbiota from alfalfa, oat and Italian ryegrass on ensiling characteristics and microbial community of alfalfa were assessed. By γ-ray irradiation sterilization and microbiota transplantation technology, the sterile alfalfa was inoculated as follows: (i) aseptic water (STAL); (ii) epiphytic bacteria from alfalfa (ALAL); (iii) epiphytic bacteria from oat (ALOT); (iv) epiphytic bacteria from Italian ryegrass (ALIR). Alf...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 22, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

3, 5-Di-tert-butylphenol combat against Streptococcus mutans by impeding acidogenicity, acidurance and biofilm formation
AbstractStreptococcus mutans is a common pathogen present in the oral cavity and it causes dental caries for all aged groups of people, in particular, children.S. mutans have several virulence factors such as acidogenecity, aciduricity, adhesion and biofilm formation. These virulence factors are working together and lead to the development of caries in the tooth surface. The present study aimed to investigate the anticariogenic potential of 3, 5-di-tert-butylphenol (3, 5-DTBP) againstS. mutans. 3, 5-DTBP biofilm inhibitory concentration (BIC) was found at 100  µg/ml concentration without any lethal effect on the...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 20, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Characterization of extracellular secondary metabolites in Oudemansiella canarii BRM-044600 displaying antifungal activity against the phytopathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
The objective of this study was to screen for basidiomycete fungi capable of inhibitingS. sclerotiorum and investigate their bioactive metabolites responsible for antifungal activities. Two out of 17 tested basidiomycete isolates inhibited the mycelial growth ofS. sclerotiorum in pair culture experiments on agar plates, namelyOudemansiella canarii BRM-044600 andLaetisaria arvalis ATCC52088.O. canarii BRM-044600 liquid culture filtrate exhibited the greatest antifungal activity and was selected for further investigation. UHPLC-MS analysis suggests that six putative strobilurins, including strobilurin A and/or stereoisomers ...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 20, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Photodynamic control of citrus crop diseases
AbstractCitrus are economically important fruit crops to which infectious diseases like citrus canker caused byXanthomonas citri subs.citri, citrus variegated chlorosis caused byXylella fastidiosa, “huanglongbing” associated with the presence ofCandidatusliberibacter species, anthracnose caused byColletotrichum gloeosporioides and citrus black spot caused byPhyllosticta citricarpa, impose significant losses. Control measures involve chemical treatment of orchards but often, eradication of infected plants is unavoidable. To circumvent the environmental impacts of pesticides and the socio-economic impacts of erad...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 19, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Approaches in the photosynthetic production of sustainable fuels by cyanobacteria using tools of synthetic biology
AbstractCyanobacteria, photosynthetic prokaryotic microorganisms having a simple genetic composition are the prospective photoautotrophic cell factories for the production of a wide range of biofuel molecules. The simple genetic composition of cyanobacteria allows effortless genetic manipulation which leads to increased research endeavors from the synthetic biology approach. Various unicellular model cyanobacterial strains likeSynechocystis sp. PCC 6803 andSynechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 have been successfully engineered for biofuels generation. Improved development of synthetic biology tools, genetic modification methods...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 19, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Novel amylomacins from seaweed-associated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens as prospective antimicrobial leads attenuating resistant bacteria
This study aimed to isolate antibacterial leads from a seaweed-associated bacterium. HeterotrophicBacillus amyloliquefaciens MTCC 12716 associated with the seaweedHypnea valentiae, was isolated and screened for antimicrobial properties against drug-resistant pathogens. The bacterial crude extract was purified and three novel amicoumacin-class of isocoumarin analogues, 11 ′-butyl acetate amicoumacin C (amylomacin A), 4′-hydroxy-11′-methoxyethyl carboxylate amicoumacin C (amylomacin B) and 11′-butyl amicoumacin C (amylomacin C) were isolated to homogeneity. The studied amylomacins possessed potential ...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 19, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Multifarious effect of ACC deaminase and EPS producing Pseudomonas sp. and Serratia marcescens to augment drought stress tolerance and nutrient status of wheat
AbstractDrought is the prime abiotic stress that rigorously influences plant growth, yield and quality of crops. The current investigation illustrated the bio-protective characters ofSerratia marcescens andPseudomonas sp. to ameliorate drought stress tolerance, plant growth and nutrient status of wheat. The present study aimed for search of potential drought tolerant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). All screened bacterial isolates exhibited potential plant growth promoting (PGP) attributes such as production of ACC deaminase, exo-polysaccharide, siderophore, ammonia, IAA, and efficiently solubilized zinc and ph...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 19, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Modifications in the Kex2 P1 ’ cleavage site in the α-MAT secretion signal lead to higher production of human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in Pichia pastoris
AbstractThe human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is one of the hematopoietic growth factors administered for chemotherapy induced neutropenia and is currently produced through recombinant route inEscherichia coli. The methylotrophic unicellular yeastPichia pastoris (syn.Komagataella phaffii) makes a good host for production of human therapeutics as the proteins are low-mannose glycosylated, disulfide bonded and correctly folded on their way to the cell exterior. Given the low level of production of G-CSF inP. pastoris, the present study examined modification of theSaccharomyces cerevisiae derived α-mat...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 16, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Improved antimicrobial spectrum of the N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase from Latilactobacillus sakei upon LysM domain deletion
The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of LysM domain deletion on antibacterial activity as well the biochemical characterization of each recombinant protein. AmiC and AmiLysM4 were expressed inEscherichia coli BL21. Using a zymography method, two bands with lytic activity were observed, which were confirmed by LC –MS/MS analysis, with molecular masses of 71 kDa (AmiC) and 66 kDa (AmiLysM4). The recombinant proteins were active againstListeria innocua andStaphylococcus aureus strains. The inhibitory spectrum of AmiLysM4 was broader than AmiC as it showed inhibition ofLeuconostoc mesenteroides...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 16, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Pseudocitrobacter anthropi reduces heavy metal uptake and improves phytohormones and antioxidant system in Glycine max L.
In this study, exposing soybean plants to different concentrations (i.e., 10 and 50 ppm) of chromium and arsenic showed a severe reduction in agronomic attributes, higher reactive oxygen species production, and disruption in the antioxidant system. Contrarily, rhiz obacterial isolate C18 inoculation not only rescued host growth, but also improved the production of nonenzymatic antioxidants (i.e., flavonoids, phenolic, and proline contents) and enzymatic antioxidants i.e., catalases, ascorbic acid oxidase, peroxidase activity, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, lower reactive oxygen species accumulation in leaves. Thereby, ...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 15, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of antibacterial efficacy of rhamnolipid-coated zinc oxide nanoparticles against Staphylococcus aureus
AbstractThe antimicrobial efficacy of rhamnolipid is well established against a wide range of pathogens. However little is known about the enhancement of antimicrobial efficacy of rhamnolipid in the form of nanoparticles. With a curiosity of enhancing antimicrobial activity, a study has been carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of rhamnolipid-coated zinc oxide nanoparticles. The zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized with rhamnolipid, produced byPseudomonas aeruginosa JS29. The rhamnolipid-coated zinc oxide nanoparticles were characterized by FTIR, XRD, TGA, TEM, and SAED. The antimicrobial and antibiofilm...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 13, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Novel mutations detected from drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from North East of Thailand
AbstractThe emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis is a major global public health threat. Thailand is one of the top 14 countries with high tuberculosis and multi-drug resistant tuberculosis rates. Immediate detection of drug-resistant tuberculosis is necessary to reduce mortality and morbidity by effectively providing treatment to ameliorate the formation of resistant strains. Limited data exist of mutation profiles in Northeastern Thailand. Here, 65 drug-resistantMycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were used to detect mutations by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. In thekatG gene, mutations were occu...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 13, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain lineage in mixed tribal population across India and Andaman Nicobar Island
This study attempts to provide critical information pertaining to the TB strain diversity, its public health implications, and distribution among the tribal population in eleven Indian states and Andaman& Nicobar (A&N) Island. The study employed a population-based molecular approach. Clinical isolates were received from 66 villages (10 states and Island) and these villages were selected by implying situation analysis. A total of 78M. tb clinical isolates were received from 10 different states and A&N Island. Among these, 16 different strains were observed by spoligotyping technique. The majorM. tb strains spoli...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 12, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

In vitro study on the potential fungicidal effects of atorvastatin in combination with some azole drugs against multidrug resistant Candida albicans
This study investigates the potential fungicidal effects of atorvastatin (ATO) combinations with fluconazole (FLU), itraconazole (ITR), ketoconazole (KET) and voriconazole (VOR) against thirty-four multidrug-resistant (MDR)C. albicans using checkerboard and time-kill methods. Results showed that 94.12% of these isolates were MDR to  ≥ two azole drugs, whereas 5.88% of them were susceptible to azole drugs. The tested isolates exhibited high resistance rates to FLU (58.82%), ITR (52.94%), VOR (47.06%) and KET (35.29%), whereas only three representative (8.82%) isolates were resistant to all tested azoles. Re...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 11, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Medicinal potentialities and pathogenic profile of Lasiodiplodia genus
AbstractConsidering that current biotechnological advances have been contributing towards improving the well-being of humanity, endophytic fungi, such asLasiodiplodia, are promising sources of new substances to be used in chemical, pharmaceutical and agrochemical processes. Bioactive secondary metabolites are examples of such substances, although it is widely known thatLasiodiplodia inflicts irreparable damage to several crops of major economic importance. They are often produced as a response against biotic and abiotic factors, thus revealing that they play different roles, such as in signaling and defense mechanisms. The...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 11, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Computerized fluorescence microscopy of microbial cells
AbstractThe upgrading of fluorescence microscopy by the introduction of computer technologies has led to the creation of a new methodology, computerized fluorescence microscopy (CFM). CFM improves subjective visualization and combines it with objective quantitative analysis of the microscopic data. CFM has opened up two fundamentally new opportunities for studying microorganisms. The first is the quantitative measurement of the fluorescence parameters of the targeted fluorophores in association with certain structures of individual cells. The second is the expansion of the boundaries of visualization/resolution of intracel...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 7, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Archaeal community dynamics in biogas fermentation at various temperatures assessed by mcrA amplicon sequencing using different primer pairs
In this study, the taxonomic and functional diversity of methanogenic archaea in two parallel 120  l fermenters operated at different temperatures and fed with maize silage was estimated bymcrA metabarcoding analysis using two typical primer pairs (ML and MLA) amplifying part of the functional methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) gene. The alpha diversity indices showed that the ML primer pair detected a higher Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU) abundance compared to the MLA primer pair and methanogen diversity was significantly lower in the 60  °C fermenters. The beta diversity analysis showed the methanogenic c...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - October 6, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The novel biphasic medium for transport, culture and conservation at an ambient temperature of Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae
AbstractBacterial meningitis remains a very important disease worldwide, and the major causative pathogens wereNeisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis), Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) and Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae). In our context, the technical difficulties encountered in the routine practice were associated with the fragility of these bacteria, the high rates of negative culture and the demanding transport conditions. That's why the need to look for a solution to its technical problems and to propose a new proper solution with the local situation. The aim of this study was to develop, perform and ev...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - September 29, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Prevalence and multidrug resistance in Salmonella enterica Typhimurium: an overview in South East Asia
AbstractAcute/chronic gastroenteritis is caused by a few serovars ofSalmonella enterica. Among different serovars,S. enterica Typhimurium is a potent pathogen that contributes significantly to self-limiting diarrhea related mortality worldwide. With no successful vaccine in hand against this pathogen, antibiotics are used as for gold standard for treatment againstSalmonella induced gastroenteritis. Indispensably, rise in multi drug resistance againstSalmonella Typhimurium poses challenge to treatment options. South East Asia, with 11 different countries, stands 3rd as super region for global burden ofSalmonella induced gas...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - September 28, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Bacterial community structure of aged oil sludge contaminated soil revealed by illumina high-throughput sequencing in East China
In this study, sequence analyses showed 77–89% and 92–98% reduction ofFirmicutes at phylum level in DQ and SL respectively after treated with AOS. Enhanced universal gene location was observed inProteobacteria,Actinobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes andBacteroidetes in DQ and SL. The universal dominant family in the two oilfields wasanaerolineaceae. At the genus level, Algiphilus in DQ andPseudomonas in SL were the majority respectively. In total, 3 negligible genera (Perlucidibaca, Alcanivorax andAlgiphilus) in DQ and 13 negligible genera (Salinisphaera, Microbulbifer andIdiomarina, et al.,) in SL were significantly ...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - September 28, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Changes of urine isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae biofilm affect monocytes ’ response
AbstractThe Gram negative rods asEscherichia coli andKlebsiella pneumoniae belong to the most common etiology agents of urinary tract infections. The aim of our study was to assess the diversity of biofilm formed in different urinary tract diseases and their impact on monocytes ’ adherence and activation. The bacteria were obtained from patients with different kidney problems. Some of the patients were after renal transplantation, some of them were not. Changes in the size and granularity of monocytes, as well as their adherence to biofilm, were assessed using FACSVerse flow cytometer after 1 h co-incubation of ...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - September 28, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Secretomics: a biochemical footprinting tool for developing microalgal cultivation strategies
AbstractMicroalgae offer a promising source of biofuel and a wide array of high-value biomolecules. Large-scale cultivation of microalgae at low density poses a significant challenge in terms of water management. High-density microalgae cultivation, however, can be challenging due to biochemical changes associated with growth dynamics. Therefore, there is a need for a biomarker that can predict the optimum density for high biomass cultivation. A locally isolated microalgaCyanobacterium aponinum CCC734 was grown with optimized nitrogen and phosphorus in the ratio of 12:1 for sustained high biomass productivity. To understan...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - September 28, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Phenotypic characterization of cell-to-cell interactions between two yeast species during alcoholic fermentation
AbstractMicrobial multispecies ecosystems are responsible for many biotechnological processes and are particularly important in food production. In wine fermentations, in addition to the natural microbiota, several commercially relevant yeast species may be co-inoculated to achieve specific outcomes. However, such multispecies fermentations remain largely unpredictable because of multilevel interactions between naturally present and/or co-inoculated species. Understanding the nature of such interactions has therefore become essential for successful implementation of such strategies. Here we investigate interactions between...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - September 28, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Insights into endophytic bacterial diversity of rice grown across the different agro-ecological regions of West Bengal, India
AbstractEndophytes have recently garnered importance worldwide and multiple studies are being conducted to understand their important role and mechanism of interaction inside plants. But before we indulge in their functions it is necessary to dig into the microbiome. This will help to get a complete picture of the microbes intrinsic to their host and understand changes in community composition with respect to their habitats. To fulfil this requirement in our study we have attempted to dissect the endophytic diversity in roots of rice plant grown across the various agro-ecological zones of West Bengal by undergoing amplicon...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - September 28, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Indigofera tinctoria leaf powder as a promising additive to improve indigo fermentation prepared with sukumo (composted Polygonum tinctorium leaves)
AbstractBeing insoluble in the oxidize form, indigo dye must be solubilized by reduction for it to penetrate textile. One of the procedures is the reduction by natural bacterial fermentation.Sukumo, composted leaves ofPolygonum tinctorium, is a natural source of indigo in Japan. Althoughsukumo has an intrinsic bacterial seed, the onset of indigo reduction with this material may vary greatly. Certain additives improve indigo fermentation. Here, we studied the effects ofIndigofera tinctoria leaf powder (LP) on the initiation of indigo reduction, bacterial community, redox potential (ORP), and dyeing intensity in the initial ...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - September 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Advances in the biological control of phytoparasitic nematodes via the use of nematophagous fungi
AbstractAgricultural production is one of most important activities for food supply and demand, that provides a source of raw materials, and generates commercial opportunities for other industries around the world. It may be both positively and negatively affected by climatic and biological factors. Negative biological factors are those caused by viruses, bacteria, or parasites. Given the serious problems posed by phytoparasitic nematodes for farmers, causing crop losses globally every year, the agrochemical industry has developed compounds with the capacity to inhibit their development; however, they can cause the death o...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - September 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Genome analysis of the salt-resistant Paludifilum halophilum DSM 102817T reveals genes involved in flux-tuning of ectoines and unexplored bioactive secondary metabolites
In this study, the whole genome ofP. halophilum was sequenced and analysed. Analysis revealed 3,789,765 base pairs with an average GC% content of 51.5%. A total of 3775 genes were predicted of which 3616 were protein-coding genes and 73 were RNA genes. The genes encoding key enzymes for ectoines (ectoine and hydroxyectoine) synthesis (ectABCD) were identified from the bacterial genome next to a gene cluster (ehuABCD) encoding a binding-protein-dependent ABC transport system responsible for ectoines mobility through the cell membrane. With the aid of KEGG analysis, we found that the central catabolic network ofP. halophilum...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - September 22, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Master regulator NtrC controls the utilization of alternative nitrogen sources in Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501
AbstractPseudomonas stutzeri A1501 is a model strain used to study associative nitrogen fixation, and it possesses the nitrogen regulatory NtrC protein in the core genome. Nitrogen sources represent one of the important factors affecting the efficiency of biological nitrogen fixation in the natural environment. However, the regulation of NtrC during nitrogen metabolism inP. stutzeri A1501 has not been clarified. In this work, a phenotypic analysis of thentrC mutant characterized the roles of NtrC in nitrogen metabolism and the oxidative stress response ofP. stutzeri A1501. To systematically identify NtrC-controlled gene ex...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - September 15, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Efficacy of glutaraldehyde enhancement by d-limonene in the mitigation of biocorrosion of carbon steel by an oilfield biofilm consortium
AbstractMicrobiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is one of the major corrosion threats in the oil and gas industry. It is caused by environmental biofilms. Glutaraldehyde is a popular green biocide for mitigating biofilms and MIC. This work investigated the efficacy of glutaraldehyde enhancement by food-grade green chemicald-limonene in the biofilm prevention and MIC mitigation using a mixed-culture oilfield biofilm consortium. After 7 days of  incubation at 37 °C in enriched artificial seawater in 125 mL anaerobic vials, the 100 ppm (w/w) glutaraldehyde + 200 ppmd-limonene co...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - September 14, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Construction of a eukaryotic expression system with stable and secretory expression of mycobacterium tuberculosis 38  kDa protein
AbstractThe 38  kDa protein is a major antigen of mycobacterium tuberculosis and has been widely used in TB serodiagnosis, due to its highly sensitivity and specificity. Here we attempt to establish a production platform of recombinant 38 kDa protein in mammalian cells and to evaluate the potential value of 38  kDa protein in TB serodiagnosis. The 38 kDa gene is synthesized and cloned into a lentiviral expressing vector. Recombinant lentiviral vector LV-CMV-38 kDa-eGFP was packaged, titered, and then transduced into HEK 293 T cells. Recombinant cell lines were selected by limiting dilution. Su...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - September 14, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Mucolytic bacteria: prevalence in various pathological diseases
AbstractAll mucins are highly glycosylated and a key constituent of the mucus layer that is vigilant against pathogens in many organ systems of animals and humans. The viscous layer is organized in bilayers, i.e., an outer layer that is loosely arranged, variable in thickness, home to the commensal microbiota that grows in the complex environment, and an innermost layer that is stratified, non-aspirated, firmly adherent to the epithelial cells and devoid of any microorganisms. TheO-glycosylation moiety represents the site of adhesion for pathogens and due to the increase of motility, mucolytic activity, and upregulation of...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - September 14, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Bacterial chitinase biochemical properties, immobilization on zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle and its effect on Sitophilus zeamais as a potential insecticide
AbstractIt has been planned to minimize the yield and quality impairment of the seed corn, which is strategically important in the world, by pests under storage conditions with a biological product produced with a biotechnological approach. In this context, the present study aimed to control the maize weevilSitophilus zeamais, known as a warehouse pest, using a nanoformulation. In the study, the chitinase enzyme fromLactobacillus coryniformis was purified first using ammonium sulfate precipitation and then by using the HiTrap Capto DEAE column, and the molecular mass of the purified enzyme was determined to be  ~&th...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - September 14, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

In vitro and in silico approach for characterization of antimicrobial peptides from potential probiotic cultures against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli
AbstractThe focus of the present study was to characterize antimicrobial peptide produced by potential probiotic cultures ofEnterococcus durans DB-1aa (MCC4243),Lactiplantibacillus plantarum Cu2-PM7 (MCC4246) andLimosilactobacillus fermentum Cu3-PM8 (MCC4233) againstStaphylococus aureus MTCC 96 andEscherichia coli MTCC118. The growth kinetic assay revealed 24  h of incubation to be optimum for bacteriocin production. The partially purified compound of all the three selected cultures after ion-exchange chromatography was found to be thermoresistant and stable under a wide range of pH. The compound was sensitive to prot...
Source: World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - September 14, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research