Responding to violence against women: A qualitative study with midwives in Timor-Leste
The health sector is a critical partner in the response to violence against women, but little is known about how to translate international guidelines and sustainable good practice in remote and under-resourced health systems. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - November 15, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Kayli J. Wild, Lidia Gomes, Angelina Fernandes, Guilhermina de Araujo, Isabelita Madeira, Livio da Conceicao Matos, Susan McDonald, Angela Taft Source Type: research

Transformation of quality of life in prenatal women with nausea and vomiting
Nausea and vomiting not only cause physical discomfort in pregnant women but also impact their quality of life. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - November 15, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Mei-Chun Liu, Shih-Hsien Kuo, Fan-Hao Chou, Te-Fu Chan, Yi-Hsin Yang Source Type: research

Evaluating awareness of Cultural Safety in the Australian midwifery workforce: A snapshot
There are no validated tools to measure midwives ’ awareness of Cultural Safety. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - November 15, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Tania Fleming, Debra K. Creedy, Roianne West Source Type: research

Getting evidence into practice – Managing hares and tortoises
One of the challenges of being a health care provider in any country is working out what research to respond to and translate into everyday practice and how quickly. Translating evidence into practice generally seems to take a long time – it has been suggested it generally takes about 17 years before evidence is mainstreamed into clinical practice.1 In maternity care, that probably rings true although I find it fascinating that some evidence is accepted quickly while others seem to take forever. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - November 3, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Caroline Homer Source Type: research

Barriers and enablers for smoking cessation amongst pregnant women: An Umbrella Review
The aim of this study is to summarise the qualitative findings from systematic reviews to identify what pregnant women perceive as barriers and enablers to smoking cessation during pregnancy. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - November 2, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Melinda J. Barnett, Shanna Fealy, Amanda Wilson Source Type: research

Maternal and neonatal outcomes from a comparison of spontaneous and directed pushing in second stage
To compare the effect of directed or spontaneous maternal pushing effort on duration of second stage labour, perineal injury and neonatal condition at birth. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - October 27, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Nigel Lee, Yu Gao, Lauren Lotz, Sue Kildea Source Type: research

Disconnection: Exploring transfer from midwifery-led to consultant-led care a phenomenological study of women ’s views
Understanding women ’s feelings during the transfer process can illuminate women’s perspectives thus minimising the risk for postnatal psychological and emotional morbidity, and inform midwifery practice. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - October 25, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Patricia Larkin, Deborah L. Biggerstaff Source Type: research

Labor pain control by aromatherapy: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Aromatherapy is a treatment method that applies fragrant extracts from herbal plants, existed long ago in medical history as a major treatment approach and now used as an auxiliary treatment and sometimes a major treatment for pain and stress management, including those that occur in labor. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - October 18, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Shuo-Fei Chen, Chia-Hui Wang, Pi-Tuan Chan, Hsiu-Wen Chiang, Tsung-Ming Hu, Ka-Wai Tam, El-Wui Loh Source Type: research

A survey of burnout and intentions to leave the profession among Western Canadian midwives
Midwives are at high risk for burnout and occupational stress. This has implications for workforce retention and quality of maternity care. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - October 17, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Kathrin Stoll, Jocelyn Gallagher Source Type: research

Cultural safety continuing professional development for midwifery academics: An integrative literature review
Awareness of cultural safety by midwifery academics is integral to the provision of a safe learning and teaching environments, use of effective pedagogies, and academic success of Indigenous midwifery students. However, little is known about the scope and efficacy of continuing professional development activities that aim to develop awareness of cultural safety by midwifery academics. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - October 16, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Tania Fleming, Debra K. Creedy, Roianne West Source Type: research

High-dose versus low-dose of oxytocin for labour augmentation: a randomised controlled trial
Delayed labour progress is common in nulliparous women, often leading to caesarean section despite augmentation of labour with synthetic oxytocin. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - October 16, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Lotta Selin, Ulla-Britt Wennerholm, Maria Jonsson, Anna Dencker, Gunnar Wallin, Eva Wiberg-Itzel, Elisabeth Almstr öm, Max Petzold, Marie Berg Source Type: research

Women on the move: A search for preferred birth services
Women and midwives travel long distances, or abroad, to receive or provide birth services. Travel for birth services is not represented in the existing literature, despite the wide scale research available on medical travel. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - October 12, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Alena Pa řízková, Jette Aaroe Clausen Source Type: research

The therapeutic role of video diaries: A qualitative study involving breastfeeding mothers
Despite breastfeeding providing maximum health benefits to mother and baby, many women in the United Kingdom do not breastfeed, or do so briefly. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - October 11, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Alison M. Taylor, Edwin van Teijlingen, Jo Alexander, Kath M. Ryan Source Type: research

Is the Birthing Unit Design Spatial Evaluation Tool valid for diverse groups?
Awareness of the impact of the built environment on health care outcomes and experiences has led to efforts to redesign birthing environments. The Birth Unit Design Spatial Evaluation Tool was developed to inform such improvements, but it has only been validated with caseload midwives and women birthing in caseload models of care. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - October 5, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Sara Menke, Bec Jenkinson, Maralyn Foureur, Sue Kildea Source Type: research

Association between pregnant women ’s experience of stress and partners’ fly-in-fly-out work
It is relatively common in Western Australia for men to commute long distances and work away from home for extended periods of time, often referred to as fly-in-fly-out work. Women are particularly susceptible to the effects of stress during pregnancy, and the absence of a partner due to working away could be an additional risk to their wellbeing. While there is little published fly-in-fly-out literature, there is evidence that working non-standard hours, more generally, has a negative impact on health and well-being of workers and their families. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - October 1, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Dawson C. Cooke, Garth Kendall, Jianghong Li, Michael Dockery Source Type: research

The association between social support and postpartum depression in women: A cross sectional study
Prevalence of postpartum depression is estimated to be about 10 –15% worldwide. Many risk factors are supposed to play a role leading a new mother to maternal postpartum depression which can considerably affect the baby, mother, family and also the society. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - September 28, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Atefeh Vaezi, Fatemeh Soojoodi, Arash Tehrani Banihashemi, Marzieh Nojomi Source Type: research

The relationship between maternal weight gain in pregnancy and newborn weight
This study investigated the impacts of different pre-pregnancy body mass indexes and gestational weight gain on the risk of delivering a high birth weight infant in China. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - September 28, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Danhua Zhang, Longfei Zhang, Zhiping Wang Tags: Original Research - Qualitative Source Type: research

Previous breastfeeding experience and its influence on breastfeeding outcomes in subsequent births: A systematic review
Despite widely recognized benefits of breastfeeding, the worldwide rate of six months exclusive breastfeeding has not up to the WHO recommendation. Multiparas are considered more likely to initiate breastfeeding and breastfeed much longer. This, however, is not always the case if they have unsuccessful previous breastfeeding experience. Therefore, whether and how previous breastfeeding experience affect subsequent breastfeeding outcomes need to be explored sufficiently. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - September 28, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Yi Huang, Yan-Qiong Ouyang, Sharon R. Redding Source Type: research

Low back pain intensity among childbearing women and associated predictors. A cohort study
Low back pain is a common condition among childbearing women, causing physical disability and an increased risk of sick leave and obstetric complications. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - September 28, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Mette G. Backhausen, Jane M. Bendix, Peter Damm, Ann Tabor, Hanne K. Hegaard Source Type: research

Attitudes toward prenatal screening for chromosomal abnormalities: A focus group study
While discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are well established methods to ascertain patient preferences, there is limited literature describing use of qualitative methods in DCE design. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - September 27, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Sarah Munro, Julie Sou, Wei Zhang, Tima Mohammadi, Logan Trenaman, Sylvie Langlois, Aslam H. Anis Source Type: research

Midwives ’ attitudes towards pregnant women using substances: Informing a care pathway
The purpose of this study was to identify midwives ’ attitudes towards women using substances during pregnancy, which informed the development of an integrated care pathway for the provision of optimal care. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - September 27, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Sadie Geraghty, Gemma Doleman, Annemarie De Leo Source Type: research

Better together: A qualitative exploration of women ’s perceptions and experiences of group antenatal care
Childbearing women from socio-economically disadvantaged communities and minority ethnic groups are less likely to access antenatal care and experience more adverse pregnancy outcomes. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - September 22, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Louise J. Hunter, Giordana Da Motta, Christine McCourt, Octavia Wiseman, Juliet L. Rayment, Penny Haora, Meg Wiggins, Angela Harden Source Type: research

Aims and scope
(Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - September 21, 2018 Category: Midwifery Source Type: research

Water immersion policies and guidelines: How are they informed?
Water immersion for labour and birth is consistently challenged as a practice lacking support from high quality evidence. Despite this, the option is available to Australian women. Practitioners are guided by policies and guidelines however, given the research paucity, questions surround the way in which water immersion policies and guidelines are informed. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - September 20, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Megan Cooper, Helen McCutcheon, Jane Warland Source Type: research

Editorial on Advancing midwifery education
This month sees the first ever conference dedicated solely to midwifery education in Australia and New Zealand, titled Transforming midwifery practice through education. This meeting is a landmark event, hosted by the Trans-Tasman midwifery education consortium partners,1 which brings together midwifery academics, researchers, clinicians, and students to share educational ideas and practices that enhance the midwifery profession. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - September 14, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Linda Sweet, Mark Keough Source Type: research

Editorial on Transforming midwifery practice conference
This month sees the first ever conference dedicated solely to midwifery education in Australia and New Zealand, titled Editorial on Advancing midwifery education. This meeting is a landmark event, hosted by the Trans-Tasman midwifery education consortium partners,1 which brings together midwifery academics, researchers, clinicians, and students to share educational ideas and practices that enhance the midwifery profession. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - September 14, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Linda Sweet, Mark Keough Source Type: research

Becoming a midwife: A survey study of midwifery alumni
Becoming a competent midwife is a complex process. The aim of midwifery education is to support the development of competence in midwifery skills, knowledge and to prepare graduates to meet the responsibilities inherent in the midwifery role. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - September 13, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Jean Patterson, Aleksandra K. M ącznik, Suzanne Miller, Bridget Kerkin, Sally Baddock Source Type: research

Effect of an in-situ simulation workshop on home birth practice in Australia
Interprofessional training programs for obstetric emergencies have been introduced for up-skilling birth unit staff in hospitals but not frequently used in training midwives and paramedicine staff for home birth emergency. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - September 13, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Arunaz Kumar, Euan M. Wallace, Cathy Smith, Debra Nestel Source Type: research

Intrapartum midwifery care impact Swedish couple ’s birth experiences — A cross-sectional study
Parents ’ birth experiences affect bonding with their infant, which in turn may influence the child’s future health. Parents’ satisfaction with childbirth is multi-dimensional and dependent on both expectations and experiences. Increasing involvement of partners in intrapartum care may lead to an assu mption that the birthing couple shares attitudes and expectations of intrapartum care. There is a limited knowledge regarding the uniformity of couples’ experiences of labour and birth. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - September 11, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Li Thies-Lagergren, Margareta Johansson Source Type: research

Does it get better with age? Women ’s experience of communication in maternity care
Communication with maternity care providers is one of the strongest predictors of the perceived quality of maternity care. There is evidence that older mothers experience better communication than younger mothers, but no evidence for why this occurs. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - September 8, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Katy Wyles, Yvette D. Miller Source Type: research

Gestational diabetes and postnatal depressive symptoms: A prospective cohort study in Western China
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) can lead to adverse birth outcomes, but its effect on postnatal depression has not been thoroughly investigated, especially in Asian populations. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - September 6, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Jonathan K.L. Mak, Andy H. Lee, Ngoc Minh Pham, Li Tang, Xiong-Fei Pan, Colin W. Binns, Xin Sun Source Type: research

Practitioner accreditation for the practice of water immersion during labour and birth: Results from a mixed methods study
Water immersion for labour and birth is an option that is increasingly favoured by women. Australian water immersion policies and guidelines commonly specify that practitioners, such as midwives, must undertake further education and training to become accredited. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - September 5, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Megan Cooper, Jane Warland, Helen McCutcheon Source Type: research

Breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes of baccalaureate nursing students in Taiwan: A cohort study
Optimal nutrition during the first year of life is critical to infants ’ healthy growth and development. Hence, it is vital that undergraduate health professional curricula provide good quality learning environments to enable students to acquire the necessary knowledge and skills to support breastfeeding mothers. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - September 5, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Shu-Fei Yang, Virginia Schmied, Elaine Burns, Yenna Salamonson Source Type: research

M āori and Pasifika perceptions of their local maternity care in Logan, Australia
Many childbearing women from M āori and Pasifika backgrounds living in the Logan region of Queensland, Australia experience poor health outcomes. Compared to the general population of childbearing women, Māori and Pasifika women are more likely to experience gestational diabetes mellitus and obesity, are less likely to attend r ecommended antenatal visits and present for initial antenatal visits at later gestations. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - September 4, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Andrea Henning Cruickshank, Thomas S. Lilley, Barbara Radcliffe, Vili Nosa, Jennifer Fenwick Source Type: research

A brief survey to identify pregnant women experiencing increased psychosocial and socioeconomic risk
Identifying pregnant women whose children are at risk of poorer development in a rapid, acceptable and feasible way. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - September 4, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Anna Price, Hannah Bryson, Fiona Mensah, Lynn Kemp, Charlene Smith, Francesca Orsini, Harriet Hiscock, Lisa Gold, Ashlee Smith, Lara Bishop, Sharon Goldfeld Source Type: research

Global competencies for midwives: external cephalic version; ultrasonography, and tobacco cessation intervention
The International Confederation of Midwives (ICM) conducts regular updates to the Essential Competencies for Basic Midwifery Practice to determine the introduction or retention of items in the global scope of midwifery practice guidance document. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - August 30, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Judith Fullerton, Michelle Butler, Cheryl Aman, Tobi Reid Source Type: research

Why ARRIVE should not thrive in Australia
Published last week and surrounded by a flurry of commentary and social media was the ARRIVE trial.1 This trial was based on the hypothesis that elective induction of labour at 39weeks would reduce perinatal mortality and morbidity. Across 41 hospitals in the United States, more than 6000 low-risk nulliparous women who were at 34weeks 0days to 38weeks 6days of gestation were randomised to either to induction of labour at 39weeks 0days to 39weeks 4days or to expectant management, which meant waiting beyond 40weeks and 5days to be induced but no later than 42weeks and 2days. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - August 30, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Miranda Davies-Tuck, Euan M. Wallace, Caroline S.E. Homer Source Type: research

A validation study of the Australian Maternity Care Classification System
The Maternity Care Classification System is a novel system developed in Australia to classify models of maternity care based on their characteristics. It will enable large-scale evaluations of maternal and perinatal outcomes under different models of care independently of the model ’s name. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - August 27, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Natasha R. Donnolley, Georgina M. Chambers, Kerryn A. Butler-Henderson, Michael G. Chapman, Elizabeth Sullivan Source Type: research

“The loss was traumatic… some healthcare providers added to that”: Women’s experiences of miscarriage
Miscarriage is a common event in Australia and is estimated to occur in up to one in four confirmed pregnancies. Prior research has demonstrated that miscarriage is associated with significant distress, grief and loss, and in some cases clinically significant levels of depression, anxiety, and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Despite these consequences for women ’s emotional and mental health, studies have commonly found that women feel that healthcare providers often lack empathy, support, and acknowledgement of their loss. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - August 25, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Clare Bellhouse, Meredith Temple-Smith, Shaun Watson, Jade Bilardi Source Type: research

A cross-country survey of attitudes toward childbirth technologies and interventions among university students
Cultural beliefs that equate birth technology with progress, safety and convenience contribute to widespread acceptance of childbirth technology and interventions.Little is known about attitudes towards childbirth technology and interventions among the next generation of maternity care users and whether attitudes vary by country, age, gender, childbirth fear, and other factors. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - August 24, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Kathrin Stoll, Joyce Edmonds, Michelle Sadler, Gill Thomson, Judith McAra-Couper, Emma M. Swift, Anne Malott, Joana Streffing, Mechthild M. Gross, Soo Downe, the ICAPP Study Team Tags: Original Research - Quantitative Source Type: research

What attributes do Australian midwifery leaders identify as essential to effectively manage a Midwifery Group Practice?
Despite well-known benefits of continuity of midwifery care, less than 10% of women have access to this model of care in Australia. Staff retention and satisfaction are strongly related to the quality of management; however, little is known about the attributes required to effectively manage a midwifery group practice. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - August 24, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Leonie Hewitt, Holly Priddis, Hannah G. Dahlen Source Type: research

Predictors of a successful external cephalic version: A population-based study of Washington state births
Breech presentation affects approximately 3% of women with singleton pregnancies. External cephalic version is a manual procedure that reorients a foetus to cephalic position in preparation for birth, reducing indications for caesarean birth. However, unsuccessful attempts are associated with some adverse health outcomes. Versions are successful in 17 –86% of attempts. Temporal trends in version success and association between maternal height or prenatal care and version success are unknown. Few population-based studies and no recent investigations in the United States have evaluated predictive factors for version su...
Source: Women and Birth - August 24, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Erin R. Morgan, Audrey E. Hu, Audrey M.V. Brezak, Seth S. Rowley, Alyson J. Littman, Stephen E. Hawes Source Type: research

Improving student midwives ’ workplace learning by moving from self- to co-regulated learning!
Contemporary perspectives on regulated learning are moving beyond models, emphasising individual learning (self-regulated learning) to models that position social transactions at the core of learning (co-regulated learning). In discussing this paradigm shift, it is important to study self- and co-regulated learning in situational context but research in the context of midwifery education is scarce. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - August 22, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: M. Embo, M. Valcke Tags: Original Research - Qualitative Source Type: research

The healthy migrant effect and predictors of perinatal depression
Although prenatal depression is a risk factor for postpartum depression, current screening tools for prenatal depression fail to predict postpartum depression in some marginalized populations. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - August 22, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Leonora King, Nancy Feeley, Ian Gold, Barbara Hayton, Phyllis Zelkowitz Source Type: research

Transitioning across professional boundaries in midwifery models of care: A literature review
High-risk pregnancy, or one with escalating complexities, requires the inclusion of numerous health professions in care provision. A strategy of midwife navigators to facilitate the smooth transition across models of care and service providers has now been in place in Queensland, Australia, for over twelve months, and a formal review process will soon begin. Navigators are experienced nurses or midwives who have the expertise and authority to support childbearing women with chronic or complex problems through the health system so that it is co-ordinated and they can transition to self-care. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - August 22, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Adele Baldwin, Clare Harvey, Eileen Willis, Bridget Ferguson, Tanya Capper Source Type: research

Mobile applications providing guidance about decreased fetal movement: Review and content analysis
Maternal perception of decreased fetal movement has clinical significance as a predictor of pregnancies at risk of adverse outcomes, including stillbirth. Increasingly, women are using mobile applications ( “apps”) to access information during the antenatal period. Little is known about how apps intended for use during pregnancy guide women to address fetal movement concerns. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - August 20, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Lisa M. Daly, Frances M. Boyle, Kristen Gibbons, Han Le, Janine Roberts, Vicki Flenady Source Type: research

Alcohol consumption during pregnancy and risk of small-for-gestational-age newborn
Contradictory results have been published on the association of alcohol consumption during pregnancy with perinatal outcomes, including the risk of small for gestational age newborn. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - August 14, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: J.M. Mart ínez-Galiano, C. Amezcua-Prieto, I. Salcedo-Bellido, R. Olmedo-Requena, A. Bueno-Cavanillas, M. Delgado-Rodriguez Source Type: research

Causes and outcomes in studies of fear of childbirth: A systematic review
Fear of childbirth negatively affects women during pregnancy and after birth. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - August 13, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Anna Dencker, Christina Nilsson, Cecily Begley, Elisabeth Jangsten, Margareta Mollberg, Harshida Patel, Helena Wigert, Eva Hessman, Helen Sj öblom, Carina Sparud-Lundin Source Type: research

“I am a Runner”: A qualitative analysis of women-runners’ pregnancy experiences
Women runners are a group with potential for health maintenance and health promotion in pregnancy. When providers counsel women to discontinue or cut back on running without cause, an opportunity for health benefits to both woman and baby may be lost. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - August 11, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Jennifer M. Ohlendorf, Anna L. Anklam, Lindsay Gardner Source Type: research

Initiation and duration of breastfeeding of Aboriginal infants in South Australia
Benefits of breastfeeding are well-established. Few studies have examined initiation and duration of breastfeeding of Aboriginal infants. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - August 10, 2018 Category: Midwifery Authors: Stephanie Brown, Deanna Stuart-Butler, Cathy Leane, Karen Glover, Amanda Mitchell, Janiene Deverix, Theresa Francis, Jackie Ah Kit, Donna Weetra, Deirdre Gartland, Jane Yelland Source Type: research