Findings from a context specific accreditation assessment at 38 public midwifery education institutions in Bangladesh
In this study of 38 public nursing institutions in Bangladesh, we aim to identify a number of structural shortcomings and to discuss strategies for limiting them. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - July 7, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Malin Bogren, Afroza Banu, Shahnaj Parvin, Merry Chowdhury, Kerstin Erlandsson Source Type: research

Why do women choose homebirth in Australia? A national survey
In Australia there have been regulatory and insurance changes negatively affecting homebirth. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - July 4, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Heather Sassine, Elaine Burns, Simone Ormsby, Hannah G. Dahlen Source Type: research

Barriers to delivering quality midwifery education programmes in the Democratic Republic of Congo — An interview study with educators and clinical preceptors
In the Democratic Republic of Congo, the education of midwives at a higher education level has recently been introduced as a strategy to improve maternal and neonatal health. However, little is known about the preconditions for such an education. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - July 1, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Malin Bogren, Berthollet Bwira Kaboru, Marie Berg Source Type: research

The effect of antenatal screening for depression on neonatal birthweight and gestation
Antenatal depression has been associated with poor perinatal outcomes such as preterm birth and low birth weight. Universal screening of perinatal depression has been recommended to improve maternal and pregnancy outcomes. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - July 1, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Macarena A. San Martin Porter, Steve Kisely, Kim S. Betts, Rosa Alati Source Type: research

Identifying the priorities for midwifery education across Australia and New Zealand: A Delphi study
In countries where education programmes are assessed as meeting international standards there is limited knowledge about the challenges facing midwifery education. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - June 30, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Mary Sidebotham, Lois McKellar, Caroline Walters, Andrea Gilkison, Deborah Davis, Jenny Gamble Source Type: research

Navigating infant feeding supports after migration: Perspectives of Arabic and Chinese mothers and health professionals in Australia
Optimal feeding practices can establish lifelong, transgenerational and global health benefits. Migration and cultural factors impact infant feeding practices and the support mothers receive for optimal infant feeding. This qualitative study explored support for infant feeding among Arabic and Chinese speaking migrant mothers in Australia.Semi-structured focus groups were conducted in language with 24 Arabic and 22 Chinese-Mandarin speaking migrant mothers with children under five years of age. Individual interviews were conducted in English with 20 health professionals working with Arabic or Chinese speaking migrant famil...
Source: Women and Birth - June 26, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Sarah Marshall, Sarah Taki, Penny Love, Marianne Kearney, Nancy Tam, Marial Sabry, Konsita Kuswara, Yvonne Laird, Li Ming Wen, Chris Rissel Source Type: research

Childbirth experience in women participating in a continuity of midwifery care project
Continuity models of care are rare in Sweden, despite the evidence of their benefit to women and babies. Previous studies have shown certain factors are associated with a positive birth experience, including continuity of midwifery care. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - June 25, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Ingegerd Hildingsson, Annika Karlstr öm, Birgitta Larsson Source Type: research

Subversive acts and everyday midwifery: Feminism in content and context
Midwives are often at the forefront of political campaigns for women's empowerment, overtly advocating for women's rights and reproductive justice. However, midwives can also be found engaging in inadvertent activism on a daily basis within routine care. When casting a feminist lens over both the content and context of midwifery practice in Australia, subversive acts and opportunities for feminist reform can be found. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - June 24, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Madeline Hawke Tags: Discussion Source Type: research

Barriers and enablers for midwives to use the Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia's Endorsement for scheduled medicines for midwives
In 2010, the Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia introduced a new registration standard: Endorsement for scheduled medicines for midwives. The endorsement enables midwives to provide women with Medicare-rebatable care, prescribe relevant medications, and order relevant Medicare-rebatable diagnostics. Translating endorsement education into clinical midwifery practice has been slow, indicating the presence of barriers affecting midwives ’ ability to use this standard, despite it increasing their scope for service provision. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - June 23, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Paula Medway, Linda Sweet, Amanda M üller Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Validation of the MidACE tool – Students’ perceptions of the Midwifery Academic role in clinical environments
Situating Midwifery Academics in clinical environments can have an important impact on students ’ clinical learning. Students’ perceptions of this support role in the clinical environment using standardised measures has been under-investigated. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - June 20, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Marnie Griffiths, Debra K. Creedy, Amanda G. Carter Source Type: research

Perinatal psychosocial assessment of women of refugee background
Women of refugee background may be particularly vulnerable to perinatal mental illness, possibly due to increased exposure to psychosocial stressors associated with their forced migration and post-resettlement adjustment. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - June 19, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Gillian Snow, Glenn A. Melvin, Jacqueline A. Boyle, Melanie Gibson-Helm, Christine E. East, Jacqueline McBride, Kylie M. Gray Source Type: research

Epidural analgesia during birth and adverse neonatal outcomes: A population-based cohort study
In general, epidural analgesia is considered a safe and efficient way to relieve pain during active labour and is increasingly used in childbirth. It is well documented that epidural analgesia during birth has benefits but also adverse effects. However, evidence is limited on how epidural analgesia influences neonatal outcome in a low-risk population of birthing women. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - June 18, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Diana H øtoft, Rikke Damkjær Maimburg Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Spontaneous vaginal birth following induction with intravenous oxytocin: Three oxytocic regimes to minimise blood loss post birth
No evidence was identified in relation to the downward titration/cessation of intravenous oxytocin post spontaneous vaginal birth, in the absence of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH); suggesting clinicians ’ management is based on personal preference in the absence of evidence. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - June 13, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Lucy Lewis, Dorota A. Doherty, Marion Conwell, Zoe Bradfield, Monica Sajogo, Mathias Epee-Bekima, Yvonne L. Hauck Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - June 11, 2020 Category: Midwifery Source Type: research

Measuring women's experiences of maternity care: A systematic review of self-report survey instruments
Recognition of the measurement of women's experiences of their maternity care as a critical component of care quality evaluation has led to a proliferation of instruments to measure this concept. However, the suboptimal methodological and psychometric quality of these instruments, or the lack of reporting of same, hinders the credibility and efficient use of the arising results, which often serve as an indicator for the direction of limited resources within maternity services. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - June 7, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Claire Beecher, Richard Greene, Laura O ’Dwyer, Ethel Ryan, Mark White, Michelle Beattie, Declan Devane Tags: Review article Source Type: research

Women's experiences of interventions for fear of childbirth in the perinatal period: A meta-synthesis of qualitative research evidence
Fear of childbirth (FOC) can be debilitating, impacting women's lives in pregnancy, the puerperium and beyond. Research investigated various interventions for FOC in the perinatal period, but there been no synthesis of the experiences of women who engaged with these interventions, which would inform clinical practice guidance and the development of future interventions. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - June 7, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Maeve A. O ’Connell, Ali S. Khashan, Patricia Leahy-Warren Source Type: research

Two decades of Birth Centre and midwifery-led care in South Australia, 1998 –2016
Birth Centres (BC) are underpinned by a philosophy of woman- centred care and were pivotal in growing models of midwifery-led care in South Australia (SA). (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - June 6, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Pamela Adelson, Julie-Anne Fleet, Lois McKellar, Marion Eckert Source Type: research

Maternal mental health and partner-delivered massage: A pilot study
Anxiety and depression affects many pregnant women. Massage may be beneficial for supporting mental wellbeing during this time. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a partner-delivered relaxation massage program for pregnant women, and its impact on symptoms of antenatal anxiety, stress and depression. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - June 5, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Helen Hall, Niki Munk, Bethany Carr, Sarah Fogarty, Robyn Cant, Sara Holton, Carolina Weller, Romy Lauche Source Type: research

Midwives perceptions: Birth unit environment and the implementation of best intrapartum care practices
Midwives related avoidable factors causing maternal morbidity and mortality rates continue to occur despite the existing intrapartum care-related evidence-based practice guidelines and continuing staff development initiatives. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - June 2, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Jacobeth M.L. Malesela Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Women ’s experiences of intrapartum care and recovery in relation to planned caesarean sections: An interview study
Approximately one third of women in high-income countries give birth by caesarean section (CS). Better understanding of women ’s CS experiences is vital in identifying opportunities to improve women’s experience of care. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - June 2, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Purshaiyna Thirukumar, Dominiek Coates, Amanda Henry Source Type: research

Design, development and usability testing of Essential Coaching for Every Mother: A postnatal text message educational intervention
The transition to motherhood is an exciting yet challenging period that requires physical, emotional, and social adjustment. During the postpartum period, mothers require support and information to ensure a smooth transition and adjustment to motherhood. One innovative strategy to provide mothers with this information is mobile health (mHealth), and specifically, text messaging. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - May 29, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Justine Dol, Gail Tomblin Murphy, Megan Aston, Douglas McMillan, Marsha Campbell-Yeo Source Type: research

The outbreak of coronavirus disease in China: Risk perceptions, knowledge, and information sources among prenatal and postnatal women
This study aimed to examine COVID-19-related risk perceptions, knowledge, and information sources among prenatal and postnatal Chinese women during the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - May 29, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Tsorng-Yeh Lee, Yaping Zhong, Jie Zhou, Xiaojuan He, Rui Kong, Ji Ji Source Type: research

The ‘fallacy of normalcy’: A content analysis of women's online post-childbirth health-related support
Online forums have changed traditional sources of seeking help because they provide an anonymous and non-judgemental environment particularly suited for women with post-childbirth problems. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - May 25, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Maryam Rouhi, Christine Stirling, Elaine Peta Crisp Source Type: research

What women want and why. Women's preferences for induction of labour or expectant management in late-term pregnancy
Both induction of labour at 41 weeks and expectant management until 42 weeks are common management strategies in low-risk pregnancy since there is no consensus on the optimal timing of induction in late-term pregnancy for the prevention of adverse outcomes. Our aim was to explore maternal preference for either strategy and the influence on quality of life and maternal anxiety on this preference. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - May 19, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: J.K.J. Keulen, P.T. Nieuwkerk, J.C. Kortekaas, J. van Dillen, B.W. Mol, J.A.M. van der Post, E. de Miranda Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Key indicators influencing management of prolonged second stage labour by midwives in freestanding birth centres: Results from an ethnographic interview study
Complications for newborns and postpartum clients in the hospital are more frequent after a prolonged second stage of labour. Midwives in community settings have little research to guide management in their settings. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - May 18, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Karen A. Faulk, Nancy A. Niemczyk Source Type: research

Negotiating who gives birth and the influence of fear of childbirth: Lesbians, bisexual women and transgender people in parenting relationships
Fear of childbirth (FOC) may affect family planning in lesbian, bisexual and transgender (LBT) couples with two potential carriers of a pregnancy. FOC has previously been researched in heterosexual women, while experiences of LBT people have remained unattended. The choice of birth-giving partner in same-sex couples has gained some attention in previous research, but the potential complexities of the decision have not been studied. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - May 14, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Anna Malmquist, Katri Nieminen Tags: Original research Source Type: research

“I guess baby was just too comfy in there…”: A qualitative study of women's experiences of elective late-term induction of labour
The frequency of induction of labour (IOL) in late-term pregnancy has increased significantly, but little is known about how women with uncomplicated pregnancies experience IOL for late-term indication alone. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - May 11, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Stina Lou, Kathrine Carstensen, Lone Hvidman, Trine Fritzner Jensen, Lone Neumann, Joke-Gesine Habben, Niels Uldbjerg Tags: < ![CDATA[Original Research]] > Source Type: research

An exploration of midwives ’ role in the promotion and provision of antenatal influenza immunisation: A mixed methods inquiry
No South Australian study has previously investigated the role of midwives in the promotion and provision of antenatal influenza immunisation. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - May 10, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Susan Elizabeth Smith, Lyn Gum, Charlene Thornton Source Type: research

An exploration of midwives ’ role in the promotion and provision of antenatal influenza immunization: A Mixed Methods Inquiry.
No South Australian study has previously investigated the role of midwives in the promotion and provision of antenatal influenza immunization. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - May 10, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Susan Elizabeth Smith Source Type: research

Women's experiences with breastfeeding in public: An integrative review
Much evidence around public breastfeeding does not reflect experiences of the key stakeholder, the breastfeeding woman, and focuses upon the audience. Selective evidence has explored breastfeeding experiences revealing challenges with public breastfeeding as a serendipitous finding. Although women's experiences have been explored in specific contexts, insight into commonalities reflective of an international perspective is unknown. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - May 10, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Yvonne L. Hauck, Zoe Bradfield, Lesley Kuliukas Tags: Review article Source Type: research

Perinatal Mental Health during the COVID-19 Pandemic
(Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - May 6, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Karen Matvienko-Sikar, Shahla Meedya, Claudia Ravaldi Tags: EDITORIAL Source Type: research

Mental health care for pregnant women in the COVID-19 outbreak is urgently needed
Infection diseases is one of the biggest threats to all human race. The 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19), which is also named Novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) by China government, is a highly infectious disease and was a global public health emergency as declared by World Health Organization (WHO), first reported in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, at the end of 2019 [1]. To support the battle against the COVID-19, China has adopted some measures immediately, including isolation suspected people, suspending public transport, close monitoring of contacts, collecting clinical data and biological samples, mobilizing the countr...
Source: Women and Birth - May 3, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Liang-Nan Zeng, Li-Gang Chen, Chang-Mei Yang, Li-Ping Zeng, Li-Ying Zhang, Tang-Ming Peng Source Type: research

Factors affecting rural women's utilisation of continuum of care services in remote or isolated villages or Pakistan – A mixed-methods study
This study aimed to estimate the continuum of care utilisation rate of women who lived in remote and isolated regions of Pakistan and explored factors that influence women's utilisation of reproductive and maternity care services. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - April 28, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Humaira Maheen, Elizabeth Hoban, Catherine Bennett Source Type: research

Perspectives on antenatal education associated with pregnancy outcomes: Systematic review and meta-analysis
Many studies on the relation between maternal health and infant health, including the effect of structured antenatal education, have been published and expanded over the years. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - April 28, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Kwan Hong, Hari Hwang, Helin Han, Jaeeun Chae, Jimi Choi, Yujin Jeong, Juneyoung Lee, Kyung Ju Lee Tags: Review article Source Type: research

Salutogenic qualities of midwifery care: A best-fit framework synthesis
Although midwifery care is wellness-based and promotes normal physiology, it exists within a medical model that focuses on risk aversion and disease prevention. Salutogenic theory could provide an alternative approach to midwifery care, supporting health-promoting factors, rather than solely avoiding adverse events. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - April 20, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Laura A. Mathias, Deborah Davis, Sally Ferguson Source Type: research

Opportunities for enhancing pregnancy planning and preconception health behaviours of Australian women
The preconception period provides a significant opportunity to engage women in healthy behaviour change for improved maternal and child health outcomes. However, there is limited research exploring women ’s pregnancy planning in Australia. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - April 17, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Adina Y. Lang, Cheryce L. Harrison, Geraldine Barrett, Jennifer A. Hall, Lisa J. Moran, Jacqueline A. Boyle Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - April 16, 2020 Category: Midwifery Source Type: research

A phenomenological exploration of parenting after birth trauma: Mothers perceptions of the first year
While perinatal mental health issues are considered to have an impact on a mother ’s parenting capacity, there is limited research exploring mothers’ perceptions of their relationship with their child following traumatic birth experiences and how these might affect their parenting capacity. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - April 14, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: E. Molloy, D.L. Biggerstaff, P. Sidebotham Source Type: research

Caring for the carers: Ensuring the provision of quality maternity care during a global pandemic
This article provides an overview of important considerations for supporting the emotional, mental and physical health needs of maternity care providers in the context of the unprecedented crisis that COVID-19 presents. Cooperation, planning ahead and adequate availability of PPE is critical. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - April 7, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Alyce N. Wilson, Claudia Ravaldi, Michelle J.L. Scoullar, Joshua P. Vogel, Rebecca A. Szabo, Jane R.W. Fisher, Caroline S.E. Homer Source Type: research

The future of the Australian midwifery workforce – impacts of ageing and workforce exit on the number of registered midwives
Ensuring an adequate supply of the midwife workforce will be essential to meet the future demands for maternity care within Australia. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - April 6, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Emily Callander, Mary Sidebotham, Daniel Lindsay, Jenny Gamble Source Type: research

Midwives in a pandemic: A call for solidarity and compassion
In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced, the spread of the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) as a pandemic. The virus is now affecting more than 155 countries and territories worldwide – and growing. According to a report on lessons learned from the COVID-19 outbreak in China, published in JAMA, 1716 of 44672 (3.8%) health care personnel were infected in China, and in Wuhan 63% (1080 of 1716) health care professionals were infected, 247 of these were critical including 5 health care professionals who died [1]. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - March 30, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Maeve O ’Connell, Susan Crowther, Claudia Ravaldi, Caroline Homer Source Type: research

Perceptions of paternal involvement and labour pain management in Chinese couples during childbirth: A qualitative study
Labour pain is an individual experience embedded in a socio-cultural context. In childbirth, the father ’s involvement provides important support to the mother during labour. However, few published studies have evaluated couples’ experiences of paternal involvement and labour pain management in the Chinese context. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - March 25, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Fei-Wan Ngai, Xiao Xiao Source Type: research

‘It requires something drastic’: Interviews with health care leaders about organisational responses to social disadvantage
Persisting disparities in maternal and child health outcomes in high income countries require new insights for health service response. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - March 20, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Jane Yelland, Elisha Riggs, Wendy Dawson, Dannielle Vanpraag, Josef Szwarc, Stephanie Brown Source Type: research

Breastfeeding and emerging motherhood identity: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of first time Chinese Australian mothers ’ breastfeeding experiences
Chinese Australian mothers are more likely than the general Australian mothers to introduce formula in the first month of age. A better understanding of the context of formula introduction in the early weeks of birth can provide a deeper insight into how Chinese Australian mothers can be supported to continue exclusive breastfeeding. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - March 20, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Konsita Kuswara, Tess Knight, Karen J Campbell, Kylie D Hesketh, Miaobing Zheng, Kristy A. Bolton, Rachel Laws Source Type: research

Women ’s childbirth experience emphasizing own capacity and safety: A cross-sectional Rwandan study
This study accordingly measures women’s childbirth experience in Rwandan health facilities, focusing on own capacity and perceived safety. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - March 17, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Judith Mukamurigo, Marie Berg, Laetitia Nyirazinyoye, Malin Bogren, Anna Dencker Source Type: research

Perinatal care experiences of Muslim women in Northwestern Ontario, Canada: A qualitative study
Although the number of Muslim women in Canada and northwestern Ontario (NWO) is increasing, few studies have focused on their experiences of perinatal health care. Extant research has highlighted discrimination and care that lacks respect for cultural and religious norms. These factors may limit access to health services and increase unfavorable maternal and child health outcomes. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - March 4, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Manal M. Alzghoul, Helle M øller, Pamela Wakewich, Martha Dowsley Source Type: research

Probiotics and human lactational mastitis: A scoping review
Lactational mastitis is a common condition amongst breastfeeding women. It is associated with decreased breastfeeding rates and often treated with antibiotics. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - March 4, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Melissa Barker, Pamela Adelson, Micah D J Peters, Mary Steen Tags: Review article Source Type: research

Women ’s experiences of decision-making and attitudes in relation to induction of labour: A survey study
Rates of induction of labour have been increasing globally to up to one in three pregnancies in many high-income countries. Although guidelines around induction, and strength of the underlying evidence, vary considerably by indication, shared decision-making is increasingly recognised as key. The aim of this study was to identify women ’s mode of birth preferences and experiences of shared decision-making for induction of labour. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - March 4, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Dominiek Coates, Natasha Donnolley, Maralyn Foureur, Amanda Henry Source Type: research

The EPDS and Australian Indigenous women: A systematic review of the literature
The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is considered the gold standard in perinatal mental health screening and the Australian Clinical Practice Guidelines recommend universal use. However, screening rates are four times lower with Indigenous Australian women compared to non-Indigenous women. Difficulties have been reported using the EPDS in this context. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - March 3, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Jayne Kotz, Rhonda Marriott, Corinne Reid Source Type: research

‘They follow the wants and needs of an institution’: Midwives’ views of water immersion
A midwife ’s ability to fully support women’s autonomy and self-determination with respect to midwifery care is often challenging. This is particularly true of water immersion for labour and birth. However, the woman’s agency over what happens to her body and that of her unborn baby should be key consid erations for maternity care provision. (Source: Women and Birth)
Source: Women and Birth - March 3, 2020 Category: Midwifery Authors: Megan Cooper, Helen McCutcheon, Jane Warland Source Type: research