Utilization of Wrist Protection by Snowboarders
Publication date: March 2015 Source:Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, Volume 26, Issue 1 Author(s): R. Alissa Mussell , Hollynn L. Larrabee , Danielle M. Davidov , Virginia K. Horne , Henderson D. McGinnis (Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - February 21, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Irukandji-Like Syndrome in the Caribbean Sea, Puerto Rico: Case Report
Publication date: March 2015 Source:Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, Volume 26, Issue 1 Author(s): Isabel Algaze , Joanna Mercado , Pedro Arroyo (Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - February 21, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Healthcare Utilization Following Acute and Overuse Injuries Among Outdoor Rock Climbers
Publication date: March 2015 Source:Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, Volume 26, Issue 1 Author(s): Nathan Furst-Nichols , Courtney Jones , Erik Rueckmann , Mark Mirabelli (Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - February 21, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Polar Predators
Publication date: March 2015 Source:Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, Volume 26, Issue 1 Author(s): Christina L. Bourne , Simon C. Watson (Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - February 21, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

The Impact of Freeze-Thaw Cycles on Epinephrine
Publication date: March 2015 Source:Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, Volume 26, Issue 1 Author(s): Heather Beasley , Pearlly Ng , Scott E. McIntosh , Albert Wheeler , William R Smith (Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - February 21, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Nonsurgical Treatment of Two Cases of Infantile Facial Growths in a Resource-Poor Setting
Publication date: March 2015 Source:Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, Volume 26, Issue 1 Author(s): Ronald Natawidjaja , N. Ewen Wang (Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - February 21, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Injury Patterns at Isle Royale National Park: An Epidemiologic Review of Injuries and Illnesses Sustained in a Remote Environment
Conclusions The majority of incidents were trauma related. The majority of the rangers on the island are trained to the level of emergency medical technician-B and appear to offer appropriate care to the island’s many visitors, utilizing the National Park Service treatment protocols and comprehensive medical kits. In addition, access to advanced medical care is readily available by air and water evacuation. (Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - February 21, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

The Effect of Acetazolamide on Saccadic Latency at 3459 Meters
Conclusions Brain function, measured by saccadic eye movements, appears to be unimpaired after rapid ascent to 3459 m. Although acetazolamide improves oxygen saturations, it may worsen prosaccades, possibly indicating adverse effects of acetazolamide on brain function at moderate altitude. (Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - February 21, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Injury Trends in Rock Climbers: Evaluation of a Case Series of 911 Injuries Between 2009 and 2012
Conclusions When comparing this study with our previous study from 1998 to 2001, there are some notable differences. Although pulley injuries are still the most common climbing injury, there are now more A4 pulley injuries than A2. Shoulder injuries are becoming more common, as are epiphyseal fractures among young climbers. It is important to understand current patterns of climbing injuries so that health providers can target interventions appropriately. (Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - February 21, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Presence of L-Canavanine in Hedysarum alpinum Seeds and Its Potential Role in the Death of Chris McCandless
Conclusions The data led us to conclude it is highly likely that the consumption of H alpinum seeds contributed to the death of Chris McCandless. (Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - February 21, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Protection Against Cold in Prehospital Care: Wet Clothing Removal or Addition of a Vapor Barrier
Conclusions In protracted rescue scenarios in cold environments with only limited insulation available, wet clothing removal or the use of a vapor barrier is advocated to limit the need for shivering thermogenesis and improve the patient’s condition on admission to the emergency department. (Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - February 21, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

2014 Wilderness & Environmental Medicine Peer Reviewers
Publication date: March 2015 Source:Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, Volume 26, Issue 1 (Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - February 21, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

What is Wilderness Medicine?
Publication date: March 2015 Source:Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, Volume 26, Issue 1 Author(s): Scott E. McIntosh , Tracy A. Cushing , Linda E. Keyes , Neal W. Pollock (Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - February 21, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Application of Current Hemorrhage Control Techniques for Backcountry Care: Part Two, Hemostatic Dressings and Other Adjuncts
Publication date: Available online 20 February 2015 Source:Wilderness & Environmental Medicine Author(s): Lanny Littlejohn , Brad L. Bennett , Brendon Drew Decade-long advances in battlefield medicine have revolutionized the treatment of traumatic hemorrhage and have led to a significant reduction in mortality. Part one of this review covered the use of tourniquets on the extremities and the newer devices for use in junctional areas. Part two focuses on the use of hemostatic agents or dressings, pelvic binders, and tranexamic acid. Field applicable hemostatic dressings are safe and effective in controlling hemorr...
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - February 20, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Shark Attacks and Shark Diving
Publication date: Available online 20 February 2015 Source:Wilderness & Environmental Medicine Author(s): Juerg Brunnschweiler (Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - February 20, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

In Reply to Shark Attacks and Shark Diving
Publication date: Available online 20 February 2015 Source:Wilderness & Environmental Medicine Author(s): João Pedro Barreiros , Otto B.F. Gadig , Vidal Haddad Jr. (Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - February 20, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Application of Current Hemorrhage Control Techniques for Backcountry Care: Part One, Tourniquets and Hemorrhage Control Adjuncts
This article, the first of two parts, reviews the literature for advancements in prehospital hemorrhage control for any provider in the austere setting. It emphasizes the significant evidence-based advances in tourniquet use on the extremities that have occurred in battlefield trauma medicine since 2001 and reviews the newer junctional tourniquet devices. Recommendations are made for equipment and techniques for controlling hemorrhage in the wilderness setting. (Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - February 20, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Ultraendurance Athletes With Type 1 Diabetes: Leadville 100 Experience
Publication date: Available online 9 February 2015 Source:Wilderness & Environmental Medicine Author(s): Morteza Khodaee , Mark Riederer , Karin VanBaak , John C. Hill (Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - February 16, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Cutaneous Exposure to Cobra Venom: An Uncommon Presentation
Publication date: Available online 11 February 2015 Source:Wilderness & Environmental Medicine Author(s): Shao Hui Koh , R. Ponampalam , Swee Han Lim , Dinesh Visva Gunasekeran (Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - February 16, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Ritualistic Envenomation by Bullet Ants Among the Sateré-Mawé Indians in the Brazilian Amazon
Publication date: Available online 11 February 2015 Source:Wilderness & Environmental Medicine Author(s): Anand N. Bosmia , Christoph J. Griessenauer , Vidal Haddad Jr , R. Shane Tubbs (Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - February 16, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Positive Association of D Allele of ACE Gene With High Altitude Pulmonary Edema in Indian Population
Conclusions These findings demonstrate a possible association of the I/D polymorphism of the ACE gene with the development of HAPE, with D/D being the at-risk genotype. (Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - February 16, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Effectiveness of A Clinical Protocol Implemented To Standardize Snakebite Management In Iran: Initial Evaluation
Conclusions Implementation of a snakebite management protocol at MTC reduced overall antivenom usage, use of antiallergy interventions, and length of hospital stay. (Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - February 16, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Retrospective Study on Search and Rescue Operations in Two Prealps Areas of Italy
Conclusions Search and rescue missions in mountain areas are dangerous for rescuers and made difficult by the severe environment. The knowledge of accident characteristics is therefore very important and is necessary to reduce risks for tourists and healthcare costs. To tackle the problem of safety there is also a need for more information in the form of preventive education and publicity about the typical hazards. (Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - February 16, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Wilderness Emergency Medical Services Medical Director Course: Core Content Developed With Delphi Technique
Publication date: Available online 16 February 2015 Source:Wilderness & Environmental Medicine Author(s): Michael G. Millin , Seth Hawkins , Anthony Demond , Gregory Stiller , Henderson D. McGinnis , Janna Baker Rogers , William R. Smith The National Association of Emergency Medical Services Physicians’ (NAEMSP) position on the role of medical oversight within an operational Emergency Medical Service (EMS) program highlights the importance of integrating specially trained medical directors within the structure of these programs. In response, the NAEMSP Wilderness EMS (WEMS) Committee recognized the need for...
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - February 16, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Differing Levels of Acute Hypoxia Do Not Influence Maximal Anaerobic Power Capacity
Conclusions Jumping power output was not negatively affected by mild or high hypoxia in comparison with normoxia during an anaerobic workout despite having higher hypoxemia and a greater perception of exertion. (Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - December 23, 2014 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Deep: The Story of Skiing and the Future of Snow, Porter Fox Jackson, WY, USA: Rink House, 2013 US $24.95, 286 pages, hardcover
Publication date: December 2014 Source:Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, Volume 25, Issue 4 Author(s): Christopher Van Tilburg (Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - December 11, 2014 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

KevinFedarkoThe Emerald Mile: The Epic Story of the Fastest Ride in History Through the Heart of the Grand Canyon2013ScribnerNew YorkUS $30.00, 415 pages, hardcover
Publication date: December 2014 Source:Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, Volume 25, Issue 4 Author(s): Christopher Van Tilburg (Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - December 11, 2014 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Reply to: Is drinking to thirst a prudent guideline to avoid hyponatremia?
Publication date: December 2014 Source:Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, Volume 25, Issue 4 Author(s): Brad L. Bennett , Tamara Hew-Butler , Martin D. Hoffman , Ian R. Rogers , Mitchell H. Rosner (Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - December 11, 2014 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Is Drinking to Thirst a Prudent Guideline to Avoid Hyponatremia?
Publication date: December 2014 Source:Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, Volume 25, Issue 4 Author(s): Bill Aughton (Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - December 11, 2014 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

A Novel Risk Factor for High Altitude Pulmonary Edema?
Publication date: December 2014 Source:Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, Volume 25, Issue 4 Author(s): Andrew M. Luks (Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - December 11, 2014 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

In Response to WMS Pain Management Guidelines
Publication date: December 2014 Source:Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, Volume 25, Issue 4 Author(s): Christopher Van Tilburg (Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - December 11, 2014 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Amitriptyline Use for Acute Pain in Remote Environments
Publication date: December 2014 Source:Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, Volume 25, Issue 4 Author(s): Jeremy Joslin , Robert Worthing , Matthew Ladbrook , Joshua Mularella (Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - December 11, 2014 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Case Reports In Medicine
Publication date: December 2014 Source:Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, Volume 25, Issue 4 (Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - December 11, 2014 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Canadian Journal Of Surgery
Publication date: December 2014 Source:Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, Volume 25, Issue 4 (Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - December 11, 2014 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Journal Of Korean Medical Science
Publication date: December 2014 Source:Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, Volume 25, Issue 4 (Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - December 11, 2014 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Resuscitation
Publication date: December 2014 Source:Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, Volume 25, Issue 4 (Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - December 11, 2014 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Human Death Caused by a Giant Anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) in Brazil
Publication date: December 2014 Source:Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, Volume 25, Issue 4 Author(s): Vidal Haddad Jr , Guilherme C. Reckziegel , Domingos G. Neto , Fábio L. Pimentel The fatal outcome of a defensive attack by a giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) is reported. The attack occurred while the victim was hunting, and his dogs cornered the adult anteater, which assumed an erect, threatening position. The hunter did not fire his rifle because of concern about accidentally shooting his dogs. He approached the animal armed with a knife, but was grabbed by its forelimbs. When his sons freed...
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - December 11, 2014 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Long-Term Monitoring of Oxygen Saturation at Altitude Can Be Useful in Predicting the Subsequent Development of Moderate-to-Severe Acute Mountain Sickness
Conclusions We conclude that AMS+ subjects exhibit a more severe and prolonged oxygen desaturation than do AMS– subjects starting from the beginning of altitude exposure, but the predictive power of Spo 2 is accurate only for AMS++. (Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - December 11, 2014 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Tribute to Jonna Barry
Publication date: December 2014 Source:Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, Volume 25, Issue 4 (Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - December 11, 2014 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Wilderness Medical Society Practice Guidelines for Spine Immobilization in the Austere Environment: 2014 Update
Publication date: December 2014 Source:Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, Volume 25, Issue 4, Supplement Author(s): Robert H. Quinn , Jason Williams , Brad L. Bennett , Gregory Stiller , Arthur A. Islas , Seth McCord In an effort to produce best practice guidelines for spine immobilization in the austere environment, the Wilderness Medical Society convened an expert panel charged with the development of evidence-based guidelines for management of the injured or potentially injured spine in an austere (dangerous or compromised) environment. Recommendations are made regarding several parameters related to spinal ...
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - December 9, 2014 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Wilderness Medical Society Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Acute Pain in Remote Environments: 2014 Update
Publication date: December 2014 Source:Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, Volume 25, Issue 4, Supplement Author(s): Katie W. Russell , Courtney L. Scaife , David C. Weber , Jeremy S. Windsor , Albert R. Wheeler , William R. Smith , Ian Wedmore , Scott E. McIntosh , James R. Lieberman The Wilderness Medical Society convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based guidelines for the management of pain in austere environments. Recommendations are graded on the basis of the quality of supporting evidence as defined by criteria put forth by the American College of Chest Physicians. This is an updated version of th...
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - December 9, 2014 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Wilderness Medical Society Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Lightning Injuries: 2014 Update
Publication date: December 2014 Source:Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, Volume 25, Issue 4, Supplement Author(s): Chris Davis , Anna Engeln , Eric L. Johnson , Scott E. McIntosh , Ken Zafren , Arthur A. Islas , Christopher McStay , William R. Smith , Tracy Cushing To provide guidance to clinicians about best practices, the Wilderness Medical Society (WMS) convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based guidelines for the treatment and prevention of lightning injuries. These guidelines include a review of the epidemiology of lightning and recommendations for the prevention of lightning strikes, along with t...
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - December 9, 2014 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Wilderness Medical Society Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Heat-Related Illness: 2014 Update
We present a review of the classifications, pathophysiology, and evidence-based guidelines for planning and preventive measures as well as best practice recommendations for both field and hospital-based therapeutic management of heat illness. These recommendations are graded on the basis of the quality of supporting evidence, and balance between the benefits and risks or burdens for each modality. This is an updated version of the original WMS Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Heat-Related Illness published in Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 2013;24(4):351–361. (Source: Wilderness an...
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - December 9, 2014 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Wilderness Medical Society Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Frostbite: 2014 Update
We present a review of pertinent pathophysiology. We then discuss primary and secondary prevention measures and therapeutic management. Recommendations are made regarding each treatment and its role in management. These recommendations are graded on the basis of the quality of supporting evidence and balance between the benefits and risks or burdens for each modality according to methodology stipulated by the American College of Chest Physicians. This is an updated version of the original guidelines published in Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 2011;22(2):156–166. (Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - December 9, 2014 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Wilderness Medical Society Practice Guidelines for Treatment of Exercise-Associated Hyponatremia: 2014 Update
Publication date: December 2014 Source:Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, Volume 25, Issue 4, Supplement Author(s): Brad L. Bennett , Tamara Hew-Butler , Martin D. Hoffman , Ian R. Rogers , Mitchell H. Rosner Exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) is defined by a serum or plasma sodium concentration below the normal reference range of 135 mmol/L that occurs during or up to 24 hours after prolonged physical activity. It is reported to occur in individual physical activities or during organized endurance events conducted in austere environments in which medical care is limited and often not available, and patient...
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - December 9, 2014 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Wilderness Medical Society Practice Guidelines for Treatment of Eye Injuries and Illnesses in the Wilderness: 2014 Update
Publication date: December 2014 Source:Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, Volume 25, Issue 4, Supplement Author(s): Ryan Paterson , Brandy Drake , Geoffrey Tabin , Frank K. Butler Jr , Tracy Cushing A panel convened to develop an evidence-based set of guidelines for the recognition and treatment of eye injuries and illnesses that may occur in the wilderness. These guidelines are meant to serve as a tool to help wilderness providers accurately identify and subsequently treat or evacuate for a variety of ophthalmologic complaints. Recommendations are graded on the basis of the quality of their supporting evidence...
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - December 9, 2014 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Wilderness Medical Society Practice Guidelines for the Use of Epinephrine in Outdoor Education and Wilderness Settings: 2014 Update
Publication date: December 2014 Source:Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, Volume 25, Issue 4, Supplement Author(s): Flavio G. Gaudio , Jay Lemery , David E. Johnson The Epinephrine Roundtable took place on July 27, 2008, during the 25th Annual Meeting of the Wilderness Medical Society (WMS) in Snowmass, CO. The WMS convened this roundtable to explore areas of consensus and uncertainty in the field treatment of anaphylaxis. Panelists were selected on the basis of their relevant academic or professional experience. There is a paucity of data that address the treatment of anaphylaxis in the wilderness. Anaphylaxis...
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - December 9, 2014 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Wilderness Medical Society Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Acute Altitude Illness: 2014 Update
Publication date: December 2014 Source:Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, Volume 25, Issue 4, Supplement Author(s): Andrew M. Luks , Scott E. McIntosh , Colin K. Grissom , Paul S. Auerbach , George W. Rodway , Robert B. Schoene , Ken Zafren , Peter H. Hackett To provide guidance to clinicians about best practices, the Wilderness Medical Society convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based guidelines for prevention and treatment of acute mountain sickness, high altitude cerebral edema, and high altitude pulmonary edema. These guidelines present the main prophylactic and therapeutic modalities for each diso...
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - December 9, 2014 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

An Introduction from the Co-Chairs of the WMS Practice Guidelines Committee
Publication date: December 2014 Source:Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, Volume 25, Issue 4, Supplement Author(s): Tracy Cushing , Robert H. Quinn (Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - December 9, 2014 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Mt Everest Base Camp Medical Clinic “Everest ER”: Epidemiology of Medical Events During the First 10 Years of Operation
Conclusions Medical professionals treating patients at extreme altitude should have a broad scope of practice and be well prepared to deal with serious trauma from falls, cold exposure injuries, and altitude illness. (Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - November 27, 2014 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research