American Aedes japonicus japonicus, Culex pipiens pipiens, and Culex restuans mosquitoes have limited transmission capacity for a recent isolate of Usutu virus.
lli J Abstract Usutu virus (USUV; Flavivirus) has caused massive die-offs in birds across Europe since the 1950s. Although rare, severe neurologic disease in humans has been reported. USUV is genetically related to West Nile virus (WNV) and shares an ecological niche, suggesting it could spread from Europe to the Americas. USUV's risk of transmission within the United States is currently unknown. To this end, we exposed field-caught Aedes japonicus, Culex pipiens pipiens, and Culex restuans-competent vectors for WNV-to a recent European isolate of USUV. While infection rates for each species varied from 7%-21%, no...
Source: Virology - January 7, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Bates TA, Chuong C, Rai P, Marano J, Waldman A, Klinger A, Reinhold JM, Lahondère C, Weger-Lucarelli J Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Incomplete humoral response including neutralizing antibodies in asymptomatic to mild COVID-19 patients in Japan.
In this study, we enrolled 44 COVID-19 patients with relatively mild disease and 48 pre-pandemic controls. We measured serum antibodies against extracellular domain, S1 domain, and receptor-binding domain of Spike and N protein, examined neutralization titers by authentic virus neutralization assay and newly-developed bead/cell-based Spike-ACE2 inhibition assay, and compared them with clinical features. Most of these antibodies, including neutralizing titers, were mutually correlated, and the production of antibodies were associated with low Ct values of PCR test, disease severity, symptoms especially pneumonia, lymphopeni...
Source: Virology - January 6, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Takeshita M, Nishina N, Moriyama S, Takahashi Y, Uwamino Y, Nagata M, Aoki W, Masaki K, Ishii M, Saya H, Kondo Y, Kaneko Y, Suzuki K, Fukunaga K, Takeuchi T, Keio Donner project Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Sulfonated azo dyes enhance the genome release of enterovirus A71 VP1-98K variants by preventing the virions from being trapped by sulfated glycosaminoglycans at acidic pH.
Abstract Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is a causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease and occasionally causes death in children. Its infectivity and pathogenesis, however, remain to be better understood. Three sulfonated azo dyes, including acid red 88 (Ar88), were identified to enhance the infectivity of EV-A71, especially isolates with VP1-98K, 145E (-KE), by mainly promoting viral genome release in vitro. Enzymatic removal of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) or knockout of xylosyltransferase II (XT2) responsible for biosynthesis of sulfated GAGs weakened the Ar88 enhanced EV-A71 infection. Ar88 is proposed t...
Source: Virology - January 6, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Meng T, Wong SM, Chua KB Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Corrigendum to "Analytical and clinical comparison of Viasure (CerTest Biotec) and 2019-nCoV CDC (IDT) RT-qPCR kits for SARS-CoV2 diagnosis" [Virology volume (2021) 154-156].
Corrigendum to "Analytical and clinical comparison of Viasure (CerTest Biotec) and 2019-nCoV CDC (IDT) RT-qPCR kits for SARS-CoV2 diagnosis" [Virology volume (2021) 154-156]. Virology. 2021 Jan 05;: Authors: Freire-Paspuel B, Vega-Marino P, Velez A, Cruz M, Perez F, Garcia-Bereguiain MA PMID: 33419522 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Virology)
Source: Virology - January 5, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Freire-Paspuel B, Vega-Marino P, Velez A, Cruz M, Perez F, Garcia-Bereguiain MA Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Network analysis and molecular mapping for SARS-CoV-2 to reveal drug targets and repurposing of clinically developed drugs.
We report on the major in-depth molecular and docking analysis by using antiretroviral (Lopinavir and ritonavir), antimalarial (Hydroxychloroquine), antibiotics (Azithromycin), and dietary supplements (Vitamin C and E) to provide new insight into drug repurposing molecular events involved in SARS-CoV-2. We constructed three drug-target-pathways-disease networks to predict the targets and drugs interactions as well as important pathways involved in SARS-CoV-2. The results suggested that by using the combination of Lopinavir, Ritonavir along with Hydroxychloroquine and Vitamin C may turned out to be the effective line of tre...
Source: Virology - December 30, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: More SA, Patil AS, Sakle NS, Mokale SN Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Diverse cressdnaviruses and an anellovirus identified in the fecal samples of yellow-bellied marmots.
Abstract Over that last decade, coupling multiple strand displacement approaches with high throughput sequencing have resulted in the identification of genomes of diverse groups of small circular DNA viruses. Using a similar approach but with recovery of complete genomes by PCR, we identified a diverse group of single-stranded viruses in yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventer) fecal samples. From 13 fecal samples we identified viruses in the family Genomoviridae (n = 7) and Anelloviridae (n = 1), and several others that ware part of the larger Cressdnaviricota phylum but not within establis...
Source: Virology - December 30, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Khalifeh A, Blumstein DT, Fontenele RS, Schmidlin K, Richet C, Kraberger S, Varsani A Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Programmed -1 Ribosomal Frameshifting in coronaviruses: A therapeutic target.
Abstract Human population growth, climate change, and globalization are accelerating the emergence of novel pathogenic viruses. In the past two decades alone, three such members of the coronavirus family have posed serious threats, spurring intense efforts to understand their biology as a way to identify targetable vulnerabilities. Coronaviruses use a programmed -1 ribosomal frameshift (-1 PRF) mechanism to direct synthesis of their replicase proteins. This is a critical switch in their replication program that can be therapeutically targeted. Here, we discuss how nearly half a century of research into -1 PRF have...
Source: Virology - December 25, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Kelly JA, Woodside MT, Dinman JD Tags: Virology Source Type: research

The phylogeographic history of tomato mosaic virus in Eurasia.
Abstract Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) is a tobamovirus affecting solanaceous crops worldwide. The process of its emergence, however, is poorly understood. Here, Bayesian phylogenetic framework was employed to reconstruct the phylogeography of ToMV in Eurasia. The results showed that the ToMV in Europe, Middle East and East Asia has been evolving at a rate of 4.05 × 10-4 substitutions/site/year (95% credibility interval 2.43 × 10-4 - 5.62 × 10-4). Their most recent common ancestor (MRCA), most probably first appeared in Europe, was dated to around 1757 Common Era. The f...
Source: Virology - December 24, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Xu Y, Zhang S, Shen J, Wu Z, Du Z, Gao F Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Repurposing of renin inhibitors as SARS-COV-2 main protease inhibitors: A computational study.
Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic has urged for the repurposing of existing drugs for rapid management and treatment. Renin inhibitors down regulation of ACE2, which is an essential receptor for SARS-CoV-2 infection that is responsible for COVID-19, in addition to their ability to act as protease inhibitors were encouraging aspects for their investigation as possible inhibitors of main protease of SARS-CoV-2 via computational studies. A Pharmacophore model was generated using the newly released SARS-COV-2 main protease inhibitors. Virtual screening was performed on renin inhibitors, and Drug likeness filter identifie...
Source: Virology - December 24, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Refaey RH, El-Ashrey MK, Nissan YM Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Development and characterization of infectious clones of two strains of Usutu virus.
Abstract Usutu virus (USUV; genus Flavivirus; family Flaviviridae) is a mosquito-borne, positive-sense RNA virus that is currently causing significant die-offs in numerous bird species throughout Europe and has caused infections in humans. Currently, there are no molecular clones for USUV, hence, hindering studies on the pathogenesis and transmission of USUV. Here, we demonstrate the development and characterization of infectious clones for two modern strains of USUV isolated from Europe and Africa. We show that the infectious clone-derived viruses replicated similarly to the parental strains in mammalian and inse...
Source: Virology - December 14, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Bates TA, Chuong C, Hawks SA, Rai P, Duggal NK, Weger-Lucarelli J Tags: Virology Source Type: research

HPV-inactive cell populations arise from HPV16-transformed human keratinocytes after p53 knockout.
Abstract HPV-inactive head and neck and cervical cancers contain HPV DNA but do not express HPV E6/E7. HPV-positive primary head and neck tumors usually express E6/E7, however they may produce HPV-inactive metastases. These observations led to our hypothesis that HPV-inactive cancers begin as HPV-active lesions, losing dependence on E6/E7 expression during progression. Because HPV-inactive cervical cancers often have mutated p53, we investigated whether p53 loss may play a role in the genesis of HPV-inactive cancers. p53 knockout (p53-KO) by CRISPR-Cas9 resulted in a 5-fold reduction of E7 mRNA in differentiation-...
Source: Virology - December 10, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Abboodi F, Buckhaults P, Altomare D, Liu C, Hosseinipour M, Banister CE, Creek KE, Pirisi L Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Vulnerable targets in HIV-1 Pol for attenuation-based vaccine design.
In this study, site-directed mutagenesis experiments were performed to validate the effect of these mutations on RC. Viral reverse transcripts were measured by quantitative PCR and structural modelling was performed to gain further insight into the effect of reverse transcriptase (RT) mutations on reverse transcription. RT-integrase variants in or flanking cytotoxic T cell epitopes in the RT palm (158S), RT thumb (241I and 257V) and integrase catalytic core domain (124N) were confirmed to significantly reduce RC. RT mutants showed a delayed initiation of viral DNA synthesis. Structural models provide insight into how these...
Source: Virology - December 10, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Ojwach DBA, Madlala P, Gordon M, Ndung'u T, Mann JK Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Mycoviral diversity and characteristics of a negative-stranded RNA virus LeNSRV1 in the edible mushroom Lentinula edodes.
Abstract Bioinformatics and RT-PCR analysis of RNA from four Lentinula edodes samples identified 22 different virus-like contigs comprising 15 novel and 3 previously reported viruses. We further investigated the Lentinula edodes negative-stranded RNA virus 1 (LeNSRV1) isolated from a symptomatic sample, whose virion is a filamentous particle with a diameter of ~15 nm and a length of ~1200 nm. RT-PCR analysis detected LeNSRV1 in 10 of the 56 Chinese L. edodes core collection strains and 6 of the 22 monokaryotic strains from the L. edodes strain HNZMD. Genetic variation analysis showed that the sequences e...
Source: Virology - December 4, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Guo M, Shen G, Wang J, Liu M, Bian Y, Xu Z Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Effect of SARS-CoV-2 coinfection was not apparent on the dynamics of chronic hepatitis B infection.
Abstract In patients coinfected with SARS-CoV-2 and HBV, liver injury was common. However, the interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and HBV coinfection remained unknown. Sixty-seven COVID-19 patients from the previous cohort were enrolled and classified into 2 groups (7 with HBsAg+ and 60 with HBsAg-). The association of HBV- and SARS-CoV-2-related markers were analyzed. During the acute course of SARS-CoV-2 infection, markers of HBV replication did not extensively fluctuate during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Coinfection with HBV did not extend the viral shedding cycle or incubation periods of SARS-CoV-2. Effects of SARS-CoV...
Source: Virology - November 28, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Yu R, Tan S, Dan Y, Lu Y, Zhang J, Tan Z, He X, Xiang X, Zhou Y, Guo Y, Deng G, Chen Y, Tan W Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Complete genome reconstruction and genetic analysis of Taura syndrome virus of shrimp from archival Davidson's-fixed paraffin embedded tissue.
In this study, next generation sequencing (NGS) was used to reconstruct the complete genome of three geographical isolates (Belize, Venezuela and Hawaii) of a ~10 kb length RNA virus of shrimp, Taura syndrome virus (TSV), from DFPE tissues that have been archived for 15 years. Phylogenetic analyses showed that TSV isolates from Belize, Venezuela and Hawaii formed well supported clusters with homologous isolates from the corresponding regions submitted in the GenBank database. This is the first study to demonstrate the utility of archived tissue samples for identification of RNA viruses and evolutionary studies involvi...
Source: Virology - November 24, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Cruz-Flores R, Mai HN, Dhar AK Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Characterization of a novel genomovirus in the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea.
This study characterized a single-stranded circular DNA virus in Botrytis cinerea-namely, Botrytis cinerea genomovirus 1 (BcGV1). The genome of BcGV1 was 1710 nucleotides (nts) long, possessing two ORFs, encoding a putative replication initiation protein (Rep) and a hypothetical protein. The Rep contained seven conserved motifs. The two ORFs were separated by two intergenic regions; the large intergenic region (LIR) contained 259 nts while the small intergenic region (SIR) contained 95 nts. A nonanucleotide, TAACAGTAC, in the LIR was predicted to be associated with the initiation of viral replication. Based on th...
Source: Virology - November 24, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Hao F, Wu M, Li G Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Characterization of contemporary 2010.1 H3N2 swine influenza A viruses circulating in United States pigs.
Abstract In 2012, swine influenza surveillance detected a novel reassorted influenza A virus (IAV) strain containing human-seasonal hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). Subsequently, these viruses reassorted, maintaining only the human-origin H3, which resulted in a new lineage of viruses that became the most frequently detected H3 clade in US swine (2010.1 HA clade). Here, we assessed the antigenic phenotype, virulence, and transmission characteristics of this virus lineage following its introduction to swine. Relative to 2010.1 viruses from 2012 and 2014, recent 2010.1 contemporary strains from 2015 to 201...
Source: Virology - November 21, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Powell JD, Abente EJ, Chang J, Souza CK, Rajao DS, Anderson TK, Zeller MA, Gauger PC, Lewis NS, Vincent AL Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Dantrolene hinders dengue virus-induced upregulation and translocation of calmodulin to cardiac cell nuclei.
l Ángel R, Sánchez JA Abstract Dengue virus (DENV) infection elevates intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), but it is unknown whether Ca2+ and calmodulin (CaM) are involved in DENV infection. We conducted immunofluorescence and western blot experiments and measured [Ca2+]i examining the effects of DENV infection and drugs that alter Ca2+/CaM functions on CaM translocation, DENV2 infection, protein expression, virus-inducible STAT2 protein abundance, and CREB phosphorylation in H9c2 cells. DENV infection increased CaM expression, its nuclear translocation and NS3 and E viral proteins expression ...
Source: Virology - November 21, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Tammineni ER, Hurtado-Monzón AM, García MC, Carrillo ED, Hernández A, María Del Ángel R, Sánchez JA Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Genetic signatures for lineage/sublineage classification of HPV16, 18, 52 and 58 variants.
Abstract Increasing evidences indicate that high-risk HPV variants are heterogeneous in carcinogenicity and ethnic dispersion. In this work, we identified genetic signatures for convenient determination of lineage/sublineage of HPV16, 18, 52 and 58 variants. Using publicly available genomes, we found that E2 of HPV16, L2 of HPV18, L1 and LCR of HPV52, and L2, LCR and E1 of HPV58 contain the proper genetic signature for lineage/sublineage classification. Sets of hierarchical signature nucleotide positions were further confirmed for high accuracy (>95%) by classifying HPV genomes obtained from Chinese females, wh...
Source: Virology - November 16, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Ou Z, Chen Z, Zhao Y, Lu H, Liu W, Li W, Ren P, Geng C, Xiao M, Hu G, Wu D, Wang X, Liu N, Zhu S, Lu L, Li J Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Virome characterization of Cryphonectria parasitica isolates from Azerbaijan unveiled a new mymonavirus and a putative new RNA virus unrelated to described viral sequences.
Abstract Cryphonectria parasitica, the causal agent of chestnut blight is controlled in Europe through natural spread of Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV1), a mycovirus able to induce hypovirulence to the host. In recent years C. parasitica was reported infecting Azerbaijani population of chestnut, but the presence of CHV1 still needs to be confirmed. Aim of this work was to investigate fifty-five C. parasitica isolates collected in Azerbaijan to describe the associated viruses. Our work found i) the first negative-sense ssRNA virus known to infect C. parasitica naturally for which we propose the name Cryphonectria ...
Source: Virology - November 13, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Forgia M, Isgandarli E, Aghayeva DN, Huseynova I, Turina M Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Development and utilization of an infectious clone for porcine deltacoronavirus strain USA/IL/2014/026.
We report the generation of a full-length infectious cDNA clone for porcine deltacoronavirus strain USA/IL/2014/026. Similar to the parental strain, the infectious clone virus (icPDCoV) replicated efficiently in cell culture and caused mild clinical symptoms in piglets. To investigate putative viral interferon (IFN) antagonists, we generated two mutant viruses: a nonstructural protein 15 mutant virus that encodes a catalytically-inactive endoribonuclease (icEnUmut), and an accessory gene NS6-deletion virus in which the NS6 gene was replaced with the mNeonGreen sequence (icDelNS6/nG). By infecting PK1 cells with these recom...
Source: Virology - November 13, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Deng X, Buckley AC, Pillatzki A, Lager KM, Baker SC, Faaberg KS Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Rapid generation of inoculum of a plant RNA virus using overlap PCR.
Abstract We have developed an efficient method to rapidly generate infectious inoculum of a plant RNA virus and confirmed its infectivity by mechanical inoculation. The method takes advantage of overlap PCR to bypass the cloning steps, which makes it relatively simple, rapid, and inexpensive compared to the traditional methods. Using this approach, inoculum of a tobamovirus, Turnip vein clearing virus (TVCV), was generated. PCR products specific for the 35S promoter and TVCV genome were used as templates for overlap PCR to form a single product containing the full-length TVCV cDNA under the control of the double 3...
Source: Virology - November 13, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Tran PT, Zhang CF, Citovsky V Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Immunization with a recombinant fusion of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus modified GP5 and ferritin elicits enhanced protective immunity in pigs.
Abstract Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has caused huge economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. Live and inactivated vaccines have only been partially successful in generating protective immune responses. The PRRS virus (PRRSV) glycoprotein 5 (GP5) is a major viral antigenic target and is thus suitable for development of genetically engineered PRRSV vaccines. Here, a modified GP5 and ferritin were fused and expressed using a baculovirus system to generate a GP5m-ferritin nanoparticle vaccine. We demonstrated that the GP5m-ferritin vaccine elicited higher serum antibody titers in pigs...
Source: Virology - October 31, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Ma H, Li X, Li J, Zhao Z, Zhang H, Hao G, Chen H, Qian P Tags: Virology Source Type: research

A natural food preservative peptide nisin can interact with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor human ACE2.
Abstract Nisin, a food-grade antimicrobial peptide produced by lactic acid bacteria has been examined for its probable interaction with the human ACE2 (hACE2) receptor, the site where spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 binds. Among the eight nisin variants examined, nisin H, nisin Z, nisin U and nisin A showed a significant binding affinity towards hACE2, higher than that of the RBD (receptor binding domain) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. The molecular interaction of nisin with hACE2 was investigated by homology modeling and docking studies. Further, binding efficiency of the most potent nisin H was evaluated through t...
Source: Virology - October 28, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Bhattacharya R, Gupta AM, Mitra S, Mandal S, Biswas SR Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus F-like protein Bm14 is a factor for viral-induced cytopathic effects via regulating oxidative phosphorylation and cellular ROS levels.
Abstract Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is highly pathogenic to Bombyx mori, silkworm, which causes serious cytopathic effects (CPEs) during infection. However, the role of viral protein in the virus-induced CPEs remains unclear. Here, we discovered that BmNPV infection induced severe CPEs including titer-dependent cell floating and changes in cellular surface morphology. Further explorations revealed the involvement of F-like protein (Bm14), a viral envelope protein, in inducing cytotoxicity and detachment of adherent BmN cells, and its disruption significantly impaired the virus infection-mediated CPEs...
Source: Virology - October 22, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Kong X, Xu W, Chen N, Li Y, Shen Y, Wu X Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition of absorptive enterocytes and depletion of Peyer's patch M cells after PEDV infection.
This study focused on intestinal restitution including phenotype switching of absorptive enterocytes and the abundance of different enterocyte subtypes in weaned pigs after porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection. At 10 days post-PEDV-inoculation, the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in both jejunum and ileum had restored, and the PEDV antigen was not detectable. However, enterocytes at the villus tips revealed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the jejunum in which E-cadherin expression decreased while expression of N-cadherin, vimentin, and Snail increased. Additionally, there was reduced expression...
Source: Virology - October 11, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Chen YM, Helm ET, Groeltz-Thrush JM, Gabler NK, Burrough ER Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Cooperative activation of bovine herpesvirus 1 productive infection and viral regulatory promoters by androgen receptor and Kr üppel-like transcription factors 4 and 15.
Cooperative activation of bovine herpesvirus 1 productive infection and viral regulatory promoters by androgen receptor and Krüppel-like transcription factors 4 and 15. Virology. 2020 Oct 07;552:63-72 Authors: Sawant L, Thunuguntla P, Jones C Abstract Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), a significant viral pathogen, establishes latency in sensory neurons. The viral genome contains more than 100 consensus glucocorticoid receptor (GR) regulatory elements (GREs): consequently, stress stimulates viral replication and reactivation from latency. The immediate early transcription unit 1 (IEtu1) and bICP0 ear...
Source: Virology - October 7, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Sawant L, Thunuguntla P, Jones C Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Host gene expression modulated by Zika virus infection of human-293 cells.
In this study, we tested the hypothesis whether Zika virus (ZIKV), a neurotropic virus, is able to infect and replicate in the HEK-293 cells. We show that the HEK-293 cells infected with ZIKV support viral replication as shown by indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) and quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (qRT-PCR). We performed RNA-seq analysis on the ZIKV-infected and the control uninfected HEK-293 cells and find 659 genes that are differentially transcribed in ZIKV-infected HEK-293 cells as compared to uninfected cells. The results show that the top 10 differentially transcribed and upregulated genes are involved in ant...
Source: Virology - October 6, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Horibata S, Teramoto T, Vijayarangan N, Kuhn S, Padmanabhan R, Vasudevan S, Gottesman M, Padmanabhan R Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Construction and characterization of an infectious clone generated from Chikungunya virus SL11131 strain.
In this study, we generated two DNA-based CHIKV infectious clones derived from an Indian Ocean Lineage SL11131 strain and a prototype Ross strain. When the replication capabilities of the infectious CHIKV in various cell lines were evaluated, the SL11131 strain was found to replicate more efficiently than the Ross strain in Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells, whereas SL11131 underwent limited replication in a BHK-21-derivative cell line named BHK-DRV. Infection experiments using chimeric CHIKV between SL11131 and Ross revealed that these different replication activities of SL11131 in C6/36 and BHK-DRV cells were determined ...
Source: Virology - October 6, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Suzuki Y, Tanaka A, Maeda Y, Emi A, Fujioka Y, Sakaguchi S, Vasudevan SG, Kobayashi T, Lim CK, Takasaki T, Wu H, Nakano T Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Comparative analysis of the course of infection and the immune response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) infected with the 5 genotypes of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus.
In this study, we aimed to characterize virus behavior and defense mechanisms developed in rainbow trout (RT, Oncorhynchus mykiss) experimentally infected with isolates belonging to the five described genotypes of IHNV, i.e. L, U, M, E and J. Mortality was monitored for two months, and blood and target organs were sampled at different times post-infection to assess viral load and cellular and humoral immune responses. Profiles of virulence were highly linked to precocious viral replication but also to the innate and specific immunity elicited in the host. Seroneutralization test (SNT) used for specific antibodies detection...
Source: Virology - October 6, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Louboutin L, Cabon J, Vigouroux E, Morin T, Danion M Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Novel and diverse mycoviruses co-inhabiting the hypogeous ectomycorrhizal fungus Picoa juniperi.
In this study, we detected eight new fungal viruses co-infecting a single isolate of the hypogeous ectomycorrhizal fungus Picoa juniperi using high-throughput sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of one identified virus abbreviated as PjMTV1 revealed its closest relatives as members of the newly proposed family "Megatotiviridae". Phylogenetic analyses of two identified viruses abbreviated as PjV1 and PjV2 showed that these viruses are associated with members of the proposed family "Fusagraviridae". Phylogenetic analysis of the identified one another virus abbreviated as PjYV1 demonstrated that this virus i...
Source: Virology - October 3, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Sahin E, Keskin E, Akata I Tags: Virology Source Type: research

A plate of viruses: Viral metagenomics of supermarket chicken, pork and beef from Brazil.
Abstract A viral metagenomics study was conducted in beef, pork, and chicken sold in supermarkets from Southern Brazil. From chicken, six distinct gyroviruses (GyV) were detected, including GyV3 and GyV6, which for the first time were detected in samples from avian species, plus a novel smacovirus species and two highly divergent circular Rep-encoding ssDNA (CRESS-DNA) viruses. From pork, genomes of numerous anelloviruses, porcine parvovirus 5 (PPV5) and 6 (PPV6), two new genomoviruses and two new CRESS-DNA viruses were found. Finally, two new CRESS-DNA genomes were recovered from beef. Although none of these viru...
Source: Virology - September 28, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Cibulski S, Alves de Lima D, Fernandes Dos Santos H, Teixeira TF, Tochetto C, Mayer FQ, Roehe PM Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Rolling circle amplification: A high fidelity and efficient alternative to plasmid preparation for the rescue of infectious clones.
Abstract Alphaviruses (genus Alphavirus; family Togaviridae) are a medically relevant family of viruses that include chikungunya virus and Mayaro virus. Infectious cDNA clones of these viruses are necessary molecular tools to understand viral biology. Traditionally, rescuing virus from an infectious cDNA clone requires propagating plasmids in bacteria, which can result in mutations in the viral genome due to bacterial toxicity or recombination and requires specialized equipment and knowledge to propagate the bacteria. Here, we present an alternative- rolling circle amplification (RCA), an in vitro technology. We d...
Source: Virology - September 28, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Marano JM, Chuong C, Weger-Lucarelli J Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Molecular and serological characterization of SARS-CoV-2 infection among COVID-19 patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate rapid clearance or self-elimination of viral RNA in about half of the COVID-19 patients upon admission. Viral RNA shedding of SARS-CoV-2 occurred in multiple tissues including the respiratory system, blood, and intestine. Variable levels of specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody may be associated with disease severity. These findings have shed light on viral kinetics and antibody response in COVID-19 patients and provide scientific evidence for infection control and patient management. PMID: 33011520 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Virology)
Source: Virology - September 27, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Li L, Liang Y, Hu F, Yan H, Li Y, Xie Z, Huang L, Zhao J, Wan Z, Wang H, Shui J, Cai W, Tang S Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Structural and antigenic investigation of Usutu virus envelope protein domain III.
Abstract The mosquito-borne flavivirus Usutu virus (USUV) has recently emerged in birds and humans in Europe. Symptoms of a USUV infection resemble those of West Nile virus (WNV); further, the close antigenic relationship of domain III (DIII) of the USUV and WNV envelope (E) proteins has prevented the development of a reliable serological test to distinguish USUV from WNV. To begin to address this deficiency, we identified ten different sequence groups of DIII from 253 complete and 80 partial USUV genome sequences. We solved the DIII structures of four groups, including that of the outlying CAR-1969 strain, which ...
Source: Virology - September 27, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Josephine Schoenenwald AK, Pletzer M, Skern T Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Characteristics of HIV-1 env genes from Chinese chronically infected donors with highly broad cross-neutralizing activity.
Abstract Knowledge about the special characteristics of HIV-1 envelope (env) glycoproteins in rare individuals developing>90% neutralization breadth in Chinese subtype B' slow progressors may provide insights for vaccine design against local viruses. We performed a cross-sectional analysis on 7 samples. We tested the neutralization breadth and geometric mean ID50 titers (GMTs) of these samples, and divided them into hBCN+ and hBCN- group according to whether their neutralization breadth>90%. We obtained env sequences in these samples through single genome amplification (SGA) assay. By comparing with hBCN-, s...
Source: Virology - September 27, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Sha SS, Dai Z, Wei QZ, Tao HX, Yuan HY, Li R, Ying L, Li Ying M, Ming SY, Xue HK Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Influenza C and D viral load in cattle correlates with bovine respiratory disease (BRD): Emerging role of orthomyxoviruses in the pathogenesis of BRD.
Abstract Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the costliest disease affecting the cattle industry globally. Orthomyxoviruses, influenza C virus (ICV) and influenza D virus (IDV) have recently been implicated to play a role in BRD. However, there are contradicting reports about the association of IDV and ICV to BRD. Using the largest cohort study (cattle, n = 599) to date we investigated the association of influenza viruses in cattle with BRD. Cattle were scored for respiratory symptoms and pooled nasal and pharyngeal swabs were tested for bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine respirato...
Source: Virology - September 25, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Nissly RH, Zaman N, Ibrahim PAS, McDaniel K, Lim L, Kiser JN, Bird I, Chothe SK, Bhushan GL, Vandegrift K, Neibergs HL, Kuchipudi SV Tags: Virology Source Type: research

The novel coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19): Mechanism of action, detection and recent therapeutic strategies.
Abstract Novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, designated as COVID-19 by the World Health Organization (WHO) on the February 11, 2020, is one of the highly pathogenic β-coronaviruses which infects human. Early diagnosis of COVID-19 is the most critical step to treat infection. The diagnostic tools are generally molecular methods, serology and viral culture. Recently CRISPR-based method has been investigated to diagnose and treat coronavirus infection. The emergence of 2019-nCoV during the influenza season, has led to the extensive use of antibiotics and neuraminidase enzyme inhibitors, taken orally and intravenously....
Source: Virology - September 23, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Seyed Hosseini E, Riahi Kashani N, Nikzad H, Azadbakht J, Hassani Bafrani H, Haddad Kashani H Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Selection and immune recognition of HIV-1 MPER mimotopes.
In this study, we identified novel MPER peptide mimotopes and evaluated their reactivity with HIV + plasma antibodies to characterize the diversity of the immune responses to MPER during natural infection. We utilized phage display technology to generate novel mimotopes that fit antigen-binding sites of MPER NAbs 4E10, 2F5 and Z13. Plasma antibodies from 10 HIV + patients were mapped by phage immunoprecipitation, to identify unique patient MPER binding profiles that were distinct from, and overlapping with, those of MPER NAbs. 4E10 mimotope binding profiles correlated with plasma neutralization of HIV-2...
Source: Virology - September 18, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Wieczorek L, Peachman K, Steers N, Schoen J, Rao M, Polonis V, Rao V Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Natural killer cell counts in primary HIV infection predicts disease progression and immune restoration after treatment.
In conclusion, NK cell counts during primary infection represents a potential predictive biomarker to predict HIV disease prognosis in the clinic. PMID: 32920454 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Virology)
Source: Virology - August 31, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Wang Y, Zhang Y, Tang T, Zhao W, Fu S, Zhang Z, Fu Y, Xu J, Ding H, Han X, Jiang Y Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Viral metagenomics in Brazilian Pekin ducks identifies two gyrovirus, including a new species, and the potentially pathogenic duck circovirus.
This study is expected to contribute to the knowledge of the viral diversity in Pekin ducks. PMID: 32838930 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Virology)
Source: Virology - August 27, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Cibulski S, Weber MN, de Sales Lima FE, Lima DA, Fernandes Dos Santos H, Teixeira TF, Varela APM, Tochetto C, Mayer FQ, Roehe PM Tags: Virology Source Type: research

OvirusTdb: A database of oncolytic viruses for the advancement of therapeutics in cancer.
Abstract One of the emerging technologies to fight against cancer is oncolytic virus-based immunotherapy. Recently, the FDA approved an oncolytic virus T-vec for the treatment of melanoma. To facilitate the scientific community, we build a manually-curated repository of oncolytic viruses called OvirusTdb (https://webs.iiitd.edu.in/raghava/ovirustdb/). The repository maintains comprehensive information on therapeutically important oncolytic viruses with 5927 records where each record has 25 fields such as the virus species, cancer cell line, synergism with anti-cancer drugs, and many more. It stores information on ...
Source: Virology - August 27, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Lathwal A, Kumar R, Raghava GPS Tags: Virology Source Type: research

The VSV matrix protein inhibits NF- κB and the interferon response independently in mouse L929 cells.
The VSV matrix protein inhibits NF-κB and the interferon response independently in mouse L929 cells. Virology. 2020 Sep;548:117-123 Authors: Marquis KA, Becker RL, Weiss AN, Morris MC, Ferran MC Abstract The matrix (M) protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) plays a key role in immune evasion. While VSV has been thought to suppress the interferon (IFN) response primarily by inhibiting host cell transcription and translation, our recent findings indicate that the M protein also targets NF-κB activation. Therefore, the M protein may utilize two distinct mechanisms to limit expressio...
Source: Virology - August 27, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Marquis KA, Becker RL, Weiss AN, Morris MC, Ferran MC Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Differential SP1 interactions in SV40 chromatin from virions and minichromosomes.
Abstract SP1 binding in SV40 chromatin in vitro and in vivo was characterized in order to better understand its role during the initiation of early transcription. We observed that chromatin from disrupted virions, but not minichromosomes, was efficiently bound by HIS-tagged SP1 in vitro, while the opposite was true for the presence of endogenous SP1 introduced in vivo. Using ChIP-Seq to compare the location of SP1 to nucleosomes carrying modified histones, we found that SP1 could occupy its whole binding site in virion chromatin but only the early side of its binding site in most of the minichromosomes carrying mo...
Source: Virology - August 27, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Rowbotham K, Haugen J, Milavetz B Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Novel Gyrovirus genomes recovered from free-living pigeons in Southern Brazil.
Abstract Wild birds carry a number of infectious agents, some of which may have pathogenic potential for the host and others species, including humans. Domestic pigeons (Columba livia) are important targets of study since these increasingly cohabit urban spaces, being possible spillover sources of pathogens to humans. In the present study, two genomes (PiGyV_Tq/RS/Br and PiGyV_RG/RS/Br), representative of Gyrovirus genus, family Anelloviridae, were detected in sera of free-living pigeons collected in Southern Brazil. The genomes exhibit less than 50% identity to previously described members of Gyrovirus genus, sug...
Source: Virology - August 27, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Loiko MR, Varela APM, Tochetto C, Lopes BC, Scheffer CM, Morel AP, Vidaletti MR, Lima DA, Cerva C, Mayer FQ, Roehe PM Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) envelope protein gE subcellular trafficking is contributed by two separate YXXL/ Φ motifs within the cytoplasmic tail which together promote efficient virus cell-to-cell spread.
In this study, our goal was to map the gE CT sub-domains that contribute to virus cell-to-cell spread property. A panel of gE-CT specific mutant viruses was constructed and characterized, in vitro, with respect to their plaque phenotypes, gE recycling and gE basolateral membrane targeting. The results revealed that disruption of the tyrosine-based motifs, 467YTSL470 and 563YTVV566, individually produced smaller plaque phenotypes than the wild type. However, they were slightly larger than the gE CT-null virus plaques. The Y467A mutation affected the gE endocytosis, gE trans-Golgi network (TGN) recycling, and gE virion incor...
Source: Virology - August 27, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Yezid H, Pannhorst K, Wei H, Chowdhury SI Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Evaluation of HIV-1 neutralizing and binding antibodies in maternal-infant transmission in Thailand.
This study further emphasizes the complex role of Env-specific antibodies in MTCT of CRF01_AE HIV. PMID: 32838936 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Virology)
Source: Virology - August 27, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Wieczorek L, Peachman K, Adams DJ, Barrows B, Molnar S, Schoen J, Dawson P, Bryant C, Chenine AL, Sanders-Buell E, Srithanaviboonchai K, Pathipvanich P, Michael NL, Robb ML, Tovanabutra S, Rao M, Polonis VR Tags: Virology Source Type: research

XerD-dependent integration of a novel filamentous phage Cf2 into the Xanthomonas citri genome.
Abstract Filamentous Inoviridae phages integrate into the chromosome of plant pathogens Xanthomonas as prophages, but their diversity and integrative mechanism are not completely understood. A proviral Cf2 sequence of 6454 bases from Xanthomonas citri genome was revived as infectious virions able to lysogenize its host. Unlike other Xanthomonas phages (Cf1c, φLf, Xf109, XacF1), Cf2 phage has RstA/RstB replication protein, and its attP has XerD binding arm and dif central region but lacks XerC binding arm. XerC+/Xf109 and XerD+/Cf2 attPs are in the opposite direction in phage genomes. Moreover, XerCD binding an...
Source: Virology - August 27, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Yeh TY Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B and N genotypes in pediatric recipients of the hematopoietic stem cell transplant.
Abstract Clinical significance of the cytomegalovirus (CMV) genotypes in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) has been evaluated mostly in adults. The studies of diverse CMV glycoprotein B (gB) and N (gN) genotype variants in transplanted children and adolescents are lacking. We analyzed the investment of gB and gN genotype variants in the HSCTed children and their relation to clinical complications and disease outcome. The cohort included forty two pediatric recipients of the HSCT. Patients positive for CMV DNAemia (24/42, 57.1%) were genotyped. The gB4 and gN1 genotype variant...
Source: Virology - August 27, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Janković M, Ćupić M, Knežević A, Vujić D, Soldatović I, Zečević Ž, Gobeljić B, Jovanović T Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Adipocyte Plasma Membrane Protein (APMAP) promotes JC Virus (JCPyV) infection in human glial cells.
Abstract The demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is caused by the human polyomavirus, JCPyV, under conditions of prolonged immunosuppression. Initial infection is asymptomatic, and the virus establishes lifelong persistence in the host. Following the loss of immune surveillance, the virus can traffic to the central nervous system and infect oligodendrocytes to cause demyelination and PML. The mechanisms involved in glial cell infection are not completely understood. In a screen for N-glycosylated proteins that influence JCPyV pathology, we identified Adipocyte Plasma Membrane Ass...
Source: Virology - August 27, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Haley SA, O'Hara BA, Atwood WJ Tags: Virology Source Type: research