Glial cell response to Epstein-Barr Virus infection: A plausible contribution to virus-associated inflammatory reactions in the brain
We reported enhanced expression of IL6 in group-1 and 3 unlike group-2. PBMCs migrated and invaded the matrigel significantly when exposed to group-1 and 3 conditions. Thus, EBV may aid neuroinflammatory reactions through PBMCs infiltration. Also, the exposure of neurons to conditioned supernatant from group-2 caused reduced neuronal healing. Additionally, group-1 milieu contained chemical modulators that induced glial cells death and reduced NF-κB. Conclusively, the three modes of EBV infection can influence glial cells' functions to maneuver the microenvironment distinctly.PMID:33964684 | DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2021.0...
Source: Virology - May 8, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Shweta Jakhmola Hem Chandra Jha Source Type: research

Stress-activated protein kinases are involved in the replication of porcine deltacoronavirus
This study was conducted to examine the role of stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs), including c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), in porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) infection. Results demonstrated the activation of JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK in PDCoV-infected cells, which occurred concomitant with viral biosynthesis and irrespective of cell type. Pharmacological inhibition or knockdown of either SAPK significantly attenuated PDCoV replication, whereas addition of a signaling activator augmented virus infectivity. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of JNK1/2 or p38 MAPK act...
Source: Virology - May 8, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Ji Hyun Jeon Changhee Lee Source Type: research

Glial cell response to Epstein-Barr Virus infection: A plausible contribution to virus-associated inflammatory reactions in the brain
We reported enhanced expression of IL6 in group-1 and 3 unlike group-2. PBMCs migrated and invaded the matrigel significantly when exposed to group-1 and 3 conditions. Thus, EBV may aid neuroinflammatory reactions through PBMCs infiltration. Also, the exposure of neurons to conditioned supernatant from group-2 caused reduced neuronal healing. Additionally, group-1 milieu contained chemical modulators that induced glial cells death and reduced NF-κB. Conclusively, the three modes of EBV infection can influence glial cells' functions to maneuver the microenvironment distinctly.PMID:33964684 | DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2021.0...
Source: Virology - May 8, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Shweta Jakhmola Hem Chandra Jha Source Type: research

Stress-activated protein kinases are involved in the replication of porcine deltacoronavirus
This study was conducted to examine the role of stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs), including c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), in porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) infection. Results demonstrated the activation of JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK in PDCoV-infected cells, which occurred concomitant with viral biosynthesis and irrespective of cell type. Pharmacological inhibition or knockdown of either SAPK significantly attenuated PDCoV replication, whereas addition of a signaling activator augmented virus infectivity. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of JNK1/2 or p38 MAPK act...
Source: Virology - May 8, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Ji Hyun Jeon Changhee Lee Source Type: research

Glial cell response to Epstein-Barr Virus infection: A plausible contribution to virus-associated inflammatory reactions in the brain
We reported enhanced expression of IL6 in group-1 and 3 unlike group-2. PBMCs migrated and invaded the matrigel significantly when exposed to group-1 and 3 conditions. Thus, EBV may aid neuroinflammatory reactions through PBMCs infiltration. Also, the exposure of neurons to conditioned supernatant from group-2 caused reduced neuronal healing. Additionally, group-1 milieu contained chemical modulators that induced glial cells death and reduced NF-κB. Conclusively, the three modes of EBV infection can influence glial cells' functions to maneuver the microenvironment distinctly.PMID:33964684 | DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2021.0...
Source: Virology - May 8, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Shweta Jakhmola Hem Chandra Jha Source Type: research

Stress-activated protein kinases are involved in the replication of porcine deltacoronavirus
This study was conducted to examine the role of stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs), including c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), in porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) infection. Results demonstrated the activation of JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK in PDCoV-infected cells, which occurred concomitant with viral biosynthesis and irrespective of cell type. Pharmacological inhibition or knockdown of either SAPK significantly attenuated PDCoV replication, whereas addition of a signaling activator augmented virus infectivity. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of JNK1/2 or p38 MAPK act...
Source: Virology - May 8, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Ji Hyun Jeon Changhee Lee Source Type: research

Glial cell response to Epstein-Barr Virus infection: A plausible contribution to virus-associated inflammatory reactions in the brain
We reported enhanced expression of IL6 in group-1 and 3 unlike group-2. PBMCs migrated and invaded the matrigel significantly when exposed to group-1 and 3 conditions. Thus, EBV may aid neuroinflammatory reactions through PBMCs infiltration. Also, the exposure of neurons to conditioned supernatant from group-2 caused reduced neuronal healing. Additionally, group-1 milieu contained chemical modulators that induced glial cells death and reduced NF-κB. Conclusively, the three modes of EBV infection can influence glial cells' functions to maneuver the microenvironment distinctly.PMID:33964684 | DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2021.0...
Source: Virology - May 8, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Shweta Jakhmola Hem Chandra Jha Source Type: research

Stress-activated protein kinases are involved in the replication of porcine deltacoronavirus
This study was conducted to examine the role of stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs), including c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), in porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) infection. Results demonstrated the activation of JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK in PDCoV-infected cells, which occurred concomitant with viral biosynthesis and irrespective of cell type. Pharmacological inhibition or knockdown of either SAPK significantly attenuated PDCoV replication, whereas addition of a signaling activator augmented virus infectivity. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of JNK1/2 or p38 MAPK act...
Source: Virology - May 8, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Ji Hyun Jeon Changhee Lee Source Type: research

Glial cell response to Epstein-Barr Virus infection: A plausible contribution to virus-associated inflammatory reactions in the brain
We reported enhanced expression of IL6 in group-1 and 3 unlike group-2. PBMCs migrated and invaded the matrigel significantly when exposed to group-1 and 3 conditions. Thus, EBV may aid neuroinflammatory reactions through PBMCs infiltration. Also, the exposure of neurons to conditioned supernatant from group-2 caused reduced neuronal healing. Additionally, group-1 milieu contained chemical modulators that induced glial cells death and reduced NF-κB. Conclusively, the three modes of EBV infection can influence glial cells' functions to maneuver the microenvironment distinctly.PMID:33964684 | DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2021.0...
Source: Virology - May 8, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Shweta Jakhmola Hem Chandra Jha Source Type: research

Stress-activated protein kinases are involved in the replication of porcine deltacoronavirus
This study was conducted to examine the role of stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs), including c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), in porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) infection. Results demonstrated the activation of JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK in PDCoV-infected cells, which occurred concomitant with viral biosynthesis and irrespective of cell type. Pharmacological inhibition or knockdown of either SAPK significantly attenuated PDCoV replication, whereas addition of a signaling activator augmented virus infectivity. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of JNK1/2 or p38 MAPK act...
Source: Virology - May 8, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Ji Hyun Jeon Changhee Lee Source Type: research

Glial cell response to Epstein-Barr Virus infection: A plausible contribution to virus-associated inflammatory reactions in the brain
We reported enhanced expression of IL6 in group-1 and 3 unlike group-2. PBMCs migrated and invaded the matrigel significantly when exposed to group-1 and 3 conditions. Thus, EBV may aid neuroinflammatory reactions through PBMCs infiltration. Also, the exposure of neurons to conditioned supernatant from group-2 caused reduced neuronal healing. Additionally, group-1 milieu contained chemical modulators that induced glial cells death and reduced NF-κB. Conclusively, the three modes of EBV infection can influence glial cells' functions to maneuver the microenvironment distinctly.PMID:33964684 | DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2021.0...
Source: Virology - May 8, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Shweta Jakhmola Hem Chandra Jha Source Type: research

Stress-activated protein kinases are involved in the replication of porcine deltacoronavirus
This study was conducted to examine the role of stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs), including c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), in porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) infection. Results demonstrated the activation of JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK in PDCoV-infected cells, which occurred concomitant with viral biosynthesis and irrespective of cell type. Pharmacological inhibition or knockdown of either SAPK significantly attenuated PDCoV replication, whereas addition of a signaling activator augmented virus infectivity. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of JNK1/2 or p38 MAPK act...
Source: Virology - May 8, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Ji Hyun Jeon Changhee Lee Source Type: research

Expression of SARS coronavirus 1 spike protein from a herpesviral vector induces innate immune signaling and neutralizing antibody responses
In this study we constructed a herpes simplex virus 1 replication-defective mutant vector expressing SARS-CoV-1 spike protein as a potential vaccine vector and to probe the effects of spike protein on host cells. The spike protein expressed from this vector is functional in that it localizes to the surface of infected cells and induces fusion of ACE2-expressing cells. In immunized mice, the recombinant vector induced antibodies that bind to spike protein in an ELISA assay and that show neutralizing activity. The spike protein expressed from this vector can induce the expression of cytokines in an ACE2-independent, MyD88-de...
Source: Virology - April 30, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Evelyn A Kurt-Jones Timothy E Dudek Daisuke Watanabe Leisa Mandell Jenny Che Shenghua Zhou LuCheng Cao Thomas Greenough Gregory J Babcock Fernando Diaz Hyung Suk Oh Changhong Zhou Robert W Finberg David M Knipe Source Type: research

Loss of p24 from the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus genome results in the formation of cuboidal occlusion bodies
Virology. 2021 Apr 1;559:173-181. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2021.03.017. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTSome insect viruses produce the occlusion body (OB), a large crystalline particle comprising a viral protein that occludes virions to protect them from harsh environments. The shapes and sizes of OBs are diverse depending on baculovirus species, but the detailed molecular mechanism determining them has yet to be totally clarified yet. Here we generated Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) mutants of the p24 gene that encodes a viral capsid protein and found that p24-mutated BmNPVs produced cuboidal OBs with a slightly larg...
Source: Virology - April 30, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Ryuhei Kokusho Susumu Katsuma Source Type: research

Expression of SARS coronavirus 1 spike protein from a herpesviral vector induces innate immune signaling and neutralizing antibody responses
In this study we constructed a herpes simplex virus 1 replication-defective mutant vector expressing SARS-CoV-1 spike protein as a potential vaccine vector and to probe the effects of spike protein on host cells. The spike protein expressed from this vector is functional in that it localizes to the surface of infected cells and induces fusion of ACE2-expressing cells. In immunized mice, the recombinant vector induced antibodies that bind to spike protein in an ELISA assay and that show neutralizing activity. The spike protein expressed from this vector can induce the expression of cytokines in an ACE2-independent, MyD88-de...
Source: Virology - April 30, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Evelyn A Kurt-Jones Timothy E Dudek Daisuke Watanabe Leisa Mandell Jenny Che Shenghua Zhou LuCheng Cao Thomas Greenough Gregory J Babcock Fernando Diaz Hyung Suk Oh Changhong Zhou Robert W Finberg David M Knipe Source Type: research

Loss of p24 from the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus genome results in the formation of cuboidal occlusion bodies
Virology. 2021 Apr 1;559:173-181. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2021.03.017. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTSome insect viruses produce the occlusion body (OB), a large crystalline particle comprising a viral protein that occludes virions to protect them from harsh environments. The shapes and sizes of OBs are diverse depending on baculovirus species, but the detailed molecular mechanism determining them has yet to be totally clarified yet. Here we generated Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) mutants of the p24 gene that encodes a viral capsid protein and found that p24-mutated BmNPVs produced cuboidal OBs with a slightly larg...
Source: Virology - April 30, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Ryuhei Kokusho Susumu Katsuma Source Type: research

Expression of SARS coronavirus 1 spike protein from a herpesviral vector induces innate immune signaling and neutralizing antibody responses
In this study we constructed a herpes simplex virus 1 replication-defective mutant vector expressing SARS-CoV-1 spike protein as a potential vaccine vector and to probe the effects of spike protein on host cells. The spike protein expressed from this vector is functional in that it localizes to the surface of infected cells and induces fusion of ACE2-expressing cells. In immunized mice, the recombinant vector induced antibodies that bind to spike protein in an ELISA assay and that show neutralizing activity. The spike protein expressed from this vector can induce the expression of cytokines in an ACE2-independent, MyD88-de...
Source: Virology - April 30, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Evelyn A Kurt-Jones Timothy E Dudek Daisuke Watanabe Leisa Mandell Jenny Che Shenghua Zhou LuCheng Cao Thomas Greenough Gregory J Babcock Fernando Diaz Hyung Suk Oh Changhong Zhou Robert W Finberg David M Knipe Source Type: research

Loss of p24 from the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus genome results in the formation of cuboidal occlusion bodies
Virology. 2021 Apr 1;559:173-181. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2021.03.017. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTSome insect viruses produce the occlusion body (OB), a large crystalline particle comprising a viral protein that occludes virions to protect them from harsh environments. The shapes and sizes of OBs are diverse depending on baculovirus species, but the detailed molecular mechanism determining them has yet to be totally clarified yet. Here we generated Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) mutants of the p24 gene that encodes a viral capsid protein and found that p24-mutated BmNPVs produced cuboidal OBs with a slightly larg...
Source: Virology - April 30, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Ryuhei Kokusho Susumu Katsuma Source Type: research

Expression of SARS coronavirus 1 spike protein from a herpesviral vector induces innate immune signaling and neutralizing antibody responses
In this study we constructed a herpes simplex virus 1 replication-defective mutant vector expressing SARS-CoV-1 spike protein as a potential vaccine vector and to probe the effects of spike protein on host cells. The spike protein expressed from this vector is functional in that it localizes to the surface of infected cells and induces fusion of ACE2-expressing cells. In immunized mice, the recombinant vector induced antibodies that bind to spike protein in an ELISA assay and that show neutralizing activity. The spike protein expressed from this vector can induce the expression of cytokines in an ACE2-independent, MyD88-de...
Source: Virology - April 30, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Evelyn A Kurt-Jones Timothy E Dudek Daisuke Watanabe Leisa Mandell Jenny Che Shenghua Zhou LuCheng Cao Thomas Greenough Gregory J Babcock Fernando Diaz Hyung Suk Oh Changhong Zhou Robert W Finberg David M Knipe Source Type: research

Loss of p24 from the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus genome results in the formation of cuboidal occlusion bodies
Virology. 2021 Apr 1;559:173-181. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2021.03.017. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTSome insect viruses produce the occlusion body (OB), a large crystalline particle comprising a viral protein that occludes virions to protect them from harsh environments. The shapes and sizes of OBs are diverse depending on baculovirus species, but the detailed molecular mechanism determining them has yet to be totally clarified yet. Here we generated Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) mutants of the p24 gene that encodes a viral capsid protein and found that p24-mutated BmNPVs produced cuboidal OBs with a slightly larg...
Source: Virology - April 30, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Ryuhei Kokusho Susumu Katsuma Source Type: research

Expression of SARS coronavirus 1 spike protein from a herpesviral vector induces innate immune signaling and neutralizing antibody responses
In this study we constructed a herpes simplex virus 1 replication-defective mutant vector expressing SARS-CoV-1 spike protein as a potential vaccine vector and to probe the effects of spike protein on host cells. The spike protein expressed from this vector is functional in that it localizes to the surface of infected cells and induces fusion of ACE2-expressing cells. In immunized mice, the recombinant vector induced antibodies that bind to spike protein in an ELISA assay and that show neutralizing activity. The spike protein expressed from this vector can induce the expression of cytokines in an ACE2-independent, MyD88-de...
Source: Virology - April 30, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Evelyn A Kurt-Jones Timothy E Dudek Daisuke Watanabe Leisa Mandell Jenny Che Shenghua Zhou LuCheng Cao Thomas Greenough Gregory J Babcock Fernando Diaz Hyung Suk Oh Changhong Zhou Robert W Finberg David M Knipe Source Type: research

Loss of p24 from the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus genome results in the formation of cuboidal occlusion bodies
Virology. 2021 Apr 1;559:173-181. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2021.03.017. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTSome insect viruses produce the occlusion body (OB), a large crystalline particle comprising a viral protein that occludes virions to protect them from harsh environments. The shapes and sizes of OBs are diverse depending on baculovirus species, but the detailed molecular mechanism determining them has yet to be totally clarified yet. Here we generated Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) mutants of the p24 gene that encodes a viral capsid protein and found that p24-mutated BmNPVs produced cuboidal OBs with a slightly larg...
Source: Virology - April 30, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Ryuhei Kokusho Susumu Katsuma Source Type: research

Expression of SARS coronavirus 1 spike protein from a herpesviral vector induces innate immune signaling and neutralizing antibody responses
In this study we constructed a herpes simplex virus 1 replication-defective mutant vector expressing SARS-CoV-1 spike protein as a potential vaccine vector and to probe the effects of spike protein on host cells. The spike protein expressed from this vector is functional in that it localizes to the surface of infected cells and induces fusion of ACE2-expressing cells. In immunized mice, the recombinant vector induced antibodies that bind to spike protein in an ELISA assay and that show neutralizing activity. The spike protein expressed from this vector can induce the expression of cytokines in an ACE2-independent, MyD88-de...
Source: Virology - April 30, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Evelyn A Kurt-Jones Timothy E Dudek Daisuke Watanabe Leisa Mandell Jenny Che Shenghua Zhou LuCheng Cao Thomas Greenough Gregory J Babcock Fernando Diaz Hyung Suk Oh Changhong Zhou Robert W Finberg David M Knipe Source Type: research

Loss of p24 from the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus genome results in the formation of cuboidal occlusion bodies
Virology. 2021 Apr 1;559:173-181. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2021.03.017. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTSome insect viruses produce the occlusion body (OB), a large crystalline particle comprising a viral protein that occludes virions to protect them from harsh environments. The shapes and sizes of OBs are diverse depending on baculovirus species, but the detailed molecular mechanism determining them has yet to be totally clarified yet. Here we generated Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) mutants of the p24 gene that encodes a viral capsid protein and found that p24-mutated BmNPVs produced cuboidal OBs with a slightly larg...
Source: Virology - April 30, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Ryuhei Kokusho Susumu Katsuma Source Type: research

Expression of SARS coronavirus 1 spike protein from a herpesviral vector induces innate immune signaling and neutralizing antibody responses
In this study we constructed a herpes simplex virus 1 replication-defective mutant vector expressing SARS-CoV-1 spike protein as a potential vaccine vector and to probe the effects of spike protein on host cells. The spike protein expressed from this vector is functional in that it localizes to the surface of infected cells and induces fusion of ACE2-expressing cells. In immunized mice, the recombinant vector induced antibodies that bind to spike protein in an ELISA assay and that show neutralizing activity. The spike protein expressed from this vector can induce the expression of cytokines in an ACE2-independent, MyD88-de...
Source: Virology - April 30, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Evelyn A Kurt-Jones Timothy E Dudek Daisuke Watanabe Leisa Mandell Jenny Che Shenghua Zhou LuCheng Cao Thomas Greenough Gregory J Babcock Fernando Diaz Hyung Suk Oh Changhong Zhou Robert W Finberg David M Knipe Source Type: research

Loss of p24 from the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus genome results in the formation of cuboidal occlusion bodies
Virology. 2021 Apr 1;559:173-181. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2021.03.017. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTSome insect viruses produce the occlusion body (OB), a large crystalline particle comprising a viral protein that occludes virions to protect them from harsh environments. The shapes and sizes of OBs are diverse depending on baculovirus species, but the detailed molecular mechanism determining them has yet to be totally clarified yet. Here we generated Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) mutants of the p24 gene that encodes a viral capsid protein and found that p24-mutated BmNPVs produced cuboidal OBs with a slightly larg...
Source: Virology - April 30, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Ryuhei Kokusho Susumu Katsuma Source Type: research

Circular DNA viruses identified in short-finned pilot whale and orca tissue samples
Virology. 2021 Apr 19;559:156-164. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2021.04.004. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTMembers of the Delphinidae family are widely distributed across the world's oceans. We used a viral metagenomic approach to identify viruses in orca (Orcinus orca) and short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus) muscle, kidney, and liver samples from deceased animals. From orca tissue samples (muscle, kidney, and liver), we identified a novel polyomavirus (Polyomaviridae), three cressdnaviruses, and two genomoviruses (Genomoviridae). In the short-finned pilot whale we were able to identify one genomovirus in a kidne...
Source: Virology - April 23, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Kendal Smith Russell Fielding Kelsie Schiavone Katharine R Hall Vincent S Reid Diallo Boyea Emma L Smith Kara Schmidlin Rafaela S Fontenele Simona Kraberger Arvind Varsani Source Type: research

Circular DNA viruses identified in short-finned pilot whale and orca tissue samples
Virology. 2021 Apr 19;559:156-164. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2021.04.004. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTMembers of the Delphinidae family are widely distributed across the world's oceans. We used a viral metagenomic approach to identify viruses in orca (Orcinus orca) and short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus) muscle, kidney, and liver samples from deceased animals. From orca tissue samples (muscle, kidney, and liver), we identified a novel polyomavirus (Polyomaviridae), three cressdnaviruses, and two genomoviruses (Genomoviridae). In the short-finned pilot whale we were able to identify one genomovirus in a kidne...
Source: Virology - April 23, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Kendal Smith Russell Fielding Kelsie Schiavone Katharine R Hall Vincent S Reid Diallo Boyea Emma L Smith Kara Schmidlin Rafaela S Fontenele Simona Kraberger Arvind Varsani Source Type: research

Circular DNA viruses identified in short-finned pilot whale and orca tissue samples
Virology. 2021 Apr 19;559:156-164. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2021.04.004. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTMembers of the Delphinidae family are widely distributed across the world's oceans. We used a viral metagenomic approach to identify viruses in orca (Orcinus orca) and short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus) muscle, kidney, and liver samples from deceased animals. From orca tissue samples (muscle, kidney, and liver), we identified a novel polyomavirus (Polyomaviridae), three cressdnaviruses, and two genomoviruses (Genomoviridae). In the short-finned pilot whale we were able to identify one genomovirus in a kidne...
Source: Virology - April 23, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Kendal Smith Russell Fielding Kelsie Schiavone Katharine R Hall Vincent S Reid Diallo Boyea Emma L Smith Kara Schmidlin Rafaela S Fontenele Simona Kraberger Arvind Varsani Source Type: research

Circular DNA viruses identified in short-finned pilot whale and orca tissue samples
Virology. 2021 Apr 19;559:156-164. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2021.04.004. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTMembers of the Delphinidae family are widely distributed across the world's oceans. We used a viral metagenomic approach to identify viruses in orca (Orcinus orca) and short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus) muscle, kidney, and liver samples from deceased animals. From orca tissue samples (muscle, kidney, and liver), we identified a novel polyomavirus (Polyomaviridae), three cressdnaviruses, and two genomoviruses (Genomoviridae). In the short-finned pilot whale we were able to identify one genomovirus in a kidne...
Source: Virology - April 23, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Kendal Smith Russell Fielding Kelsie Schiavone Katharine R Hall Vincent S Reid Diallo Boyea Emma L Smith Kara Schmidlin Rafaela S Fontenele Simona Kraberger Arvind Varsani Source Type: research

Circular DNA viruses identified in short-finned pilot whale and orca tissue samples
Virology. 2021 Apr 19;559:156-164. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2021.04.004. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTMembers of the Delphinidae family are widely distributed across the world's oceans. We used a viral metagenomic approach to identify viruses in orca (Orcinus orca) and short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus) muscle, kidney, and liver samples from deceased animals. From orca tissue samples (muscle, kidney, and liver), we identified a novel polyomavirus (Polyomaviridae), three cressdnaviruses, and two genomoviruses (Genomoviridae). In the short-finned pilot whale we were able to identify one genomovirus in a kidne...
Source: Virology - April 23, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Kendal Smith Russell Fielding Kelsie Schiavone Katharine R Hall Vincent S Reid Diallo Boyea Emma L Smith Kara Schmidlin Rafaela S Fontenele Simona Kraberger Arvind Varsani Source Type: research

Variations outside the conserved motifs of PB1 catalytic active site may affect replication efficiency of the RNP complex of influenza A virus
Virology. 2021 Apr 9;559:145-155. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2021.04.001. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPB1 functions as the catalytic subunit of influenza virus RNA polymerase complex and plays an essential role in viral RNA transcription and replication. To determine plasticity in the PB1 enzymatic site and map catalytically important residues, 658 mutants were constructed, each with one to seven mutations in the enzymatic site of PB1. The polymerase activities of these mutants were quantified using a minigenome assay, and polymerase activity-associated residues were identified using sparse learning. Results showed that polyme...
Source: Virology - April 22, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Kaitlyn Waters Hamilton J Wan Lei Han Jianli Xue Matthew Ykema Yizhi J Tao Xiu-Feng Wan Source Type: research

Variations outside the conserved motifs of PB1 catalytic active site may affect replication efficiency of the RNP complex of influenza A virus
Virology. 2021 Apr 9;559:145-155. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2021.04.001. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPB1 functions as the catalytic subunit of influenza virus RNA polymerase complex and plays an essential role in viral RNA transcription and replication. To determine plasticity in the PB1 enzymatic site and map catalytically important residues, 658 mutants were constructed, each with one to seven mutations in the enzymatic site of PB1. The polymerase activities of these mutants were quantified using a minigenome assay, and polymerase activity-associated residues were identified using sparse learning. Results showed that polyme...
Source: Virology - April 22, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Kaitlyn Waters Hamilton J Wan Lei Han Jianli Xue Matthew Ykema Yizhi J Tao Xiu-Feng Wan Source Type: research

Nuclear localisation of West Nile virus NS5 protein modulates host gene expression
In this study, we interrogated the potential nuclear functions of WNVKUN NS5 has on the host transcriptome, by means of RNA sequencing (RNAseq). In a direct comparison between wild type and mutant NS5, it can also be determined that the nuclear translocation of NS5 results in a significant down-regulation of host genes involved in the innate immune response. When compared to published RNAseq data from WNV infection, many of these genes were overlapping indicting the role of NS5 induced transcription during infection.PMID:33866234 | DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2021.03.018 (Source: Virology)
Source: Virology - April 18, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Adam J L ópez-Denman Daniel E Tuipulotu Jessica B Ross Alice M Trenerry Peter A White Jason M Mackenzie Source Type: research

Nuclear localisation of West Nile virus NS5 protein modulates host gene expression
In this study, we interrogated the potential nuclear functions of WNVKUN NS5 has on the host transcriptome, by means of RNA sequencing (RNAseq). In a direct comparison between wild type and mutant NS5, it can also be determined that the nuclear translocation of NS5 results in a significant down-regulation of host genes involved in the innate immune response. When compared to published RNAseq data from WNV infection, many of these genes were overlapping indicting the role of NS5 induced transcription during infection.PMID:33866234 | DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2021.03.018 (Source: Virology)
Source: Virology - April 18, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Adam J L ópez-Denman Daniel E Tuipulotu Jessica B Ross Alice M Trenerry Peter A White Jason M Mackenzie Source Type: research

Nuclear localisation of West Nile virus NS5 protein modulates host gene expression
In this study, we interrogated the potential nuclear functions of WNVKUN NS5 has on the host transcriptome, by means of RNA sequencing (RNAseq). In a direct comparison between wild type and mutant NS5, it can also be determined that the nuclear translocation of NS5 results in a significant down-regulation of host genes involved in the innate immune response. When compared to published RNAseq data from WNV infection, many of these genes were overlapping indicting the role of NS5 induced transcription during infection.PMID:33866234 | DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2021.03.018 (Source: Virology)
Source: Virology - April 18, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Adam J L ópez-Denman Daniel E Tuipulotu Jessica B Ross Alice M Trenerry Peter A White Jason M Mackenzie Source Type: research

Nuclear localisation of West Nile virus NS5 protein modulates host gene expression
In this study, we interrogated the potential nuclear functions of WNVKUN NS5 has on the host transcriptome, by means of RNA sequencing (RNAseq). In a direct comparison between wild type and mutant NS5, it can also be determined that the nuclear translocation of NS5 results in a significant down-regulation of host genes involved in the innate immune response. When compared to published RNAseq data from WNV infection, many of these genes were overlapping indicting the role of NS5 induced transcription during infection.PMID:33866234 | DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2021.03.018 (Source: Virology)
Source: Virology - April 18, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Adam J L ópez-Denman Daniel E Tuipulotu Jessica B Ross Alice M Trenerry Peter A White Jason M Mackenzie Source Type: research

Zika virus infection during pregnancy protects against secondary infection in the absence of CD8 < sup > + < /sup > cells
Virology. 2021 Apr 9;559:100-110. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2021.03.019. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTWhile T cell immunity is an important component of the immune response to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection generally, the efficacy of these responses during pregnancy remains unknown. Here, we tested the capacity of CD8 lymphocytes to protect from secondary challenge in four macaques, two of which were depleted of CD8+ cells prior to rechallenge with a heterologous ZIKV isolate. The initial challenge during pregnancy produced transcriptional signatures suggesting complex patterns of immune modulation as well as neutralizing antibod...
Source: Virology - April 17, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Blake Schouest Brandon J Beddingfield Margaret H Gilbert Rudolf P Bohm Faith Schiro Pyone P Aye Antonito T Panganiban Diogo M Magnani Nicholas J Maness Source Type: research

Metabolic shifts modulate lung injury caused by infection with H1N1 influenza A virus
Virology. 2021 Apr 6;559:111-119. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2021.03.008. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTInfluenza A virus (IAV) infection alters lung epithelial cell metabolism in vitro by promoting a glycolytic shift. We hypothesized that this shift benefits the virus rather than the host and that inhibition of glycolysis would improve infection outcomes. A/WSN/33 IAV-inoculated C57BL/6 mice were treated daily from 1 day post-inoculation (d.p.i.) with 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) to inhibit glycolysis and with the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) inhibitor dichloroacetate (DCA) to promote flux through the TCA cycle. To block OXP...
Source: Virology - April 17, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Katherine E Nolan Lisa A Baer Priyanka Karekar Andrew M Nelson Kristin I Stanford Lauren M Doolittle Lucia E Rosas Judy M Hickman-Davis Harpreet Singh Ian C Davis Source Type: research

Isolation and characterization of hirame aquareovirus (HAqRV): A new Aquareovirus isolated from diseased hirame Paralichthys olivaceus
Virology. 2021 Apr 10;559:120-130. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2021.04.002. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTWe isolated a novel Aquareovirus (hirame aquareovirus: HAqRV) from Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus suffering from reovirus-like infection. In electron microscopy, the spherical virion (75 nm in diameter) was observed with multi-layered capsid structure. The viral genome consisted of 11 segments and regions encoding 7 virion structural proteins and 5 non-structural proteins were predicted. The deduced amino acid sequences of those proteins were highly similar to those of the aquareoviruses. However, the similarity of ...
Source: Virology - April 17, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Yasuhiko Kawato Tohru Mekata Toyohiro Nishioka Ikunari Kiryu Takamitsu Sakai Maeda Tomoki Satoshi Miwa Kanae Koike Masahiro Sadakane Koh-Ichiro Mori Source Type: research

Zika virus infection during pregnancy protects against secondary infection in the absence of CD8 < sup > + < /sup > cells
Virology. 2021 Apr 9;559:100-110. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2021.03.019. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTWhile T cell immunity is an important component of the immune response to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection generally, the efficacy of these responses during pregnancy remains unknown. Here, we tested the capacity of CD8 lymphocytes to protect from secondary challenge in four macaques, two of which were depleted of CD8+ cells prior to rechallenge with a heterologous ZIKV isolate. The initial challenge during pregnancy produced transcriptional signatures suggesting complex patterns of immune modulation as well as neutralizing antibod...
Source: Virology - April 17, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Blake Schouest Brandon J Beddingfield Margaret H Gilbert Rudolf P Bohm Faith Schiro Pyone P Aye Antonito T Panganiban Diogo M Magnani Nicholas J Maness Source Type: research

Metabolic shifts modulate lung injury caused by infection with H1N1 influenza A virus
Virology. 2021 Apr 6;559:111-119. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2021.03.008. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTInfluenza A virus (IAV) infection alters lung epithelial cell metabolism in vitro by promoting a glycolytic shift. We hypothesized that this shift benefits the virus rather than the host and that inhibition of glycolysis would improve infection outcomes. A/WSN/33 IAV-inoculated C57BL/6 mice were treated daily from 1 day post-inoculation (d.p.i.) with 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) to inhibit glycolysis and with the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) inhibitor dichloroacetate (DCA) to promote flux through the TCA cycle. To block OXP...
Source: Virology - April 17, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Katherine E Nolan Lisa A Baer Priyanka Karekar Andrew M Nelson Kristin I Stanford Lauren M Doolittle Lucia E Rosas Judy M Hickman-Davis Harpreet Singh Ian C Davis Source Type: research

Isolation and characterization of hirame aquareovirus (HAqRV): A new Aquareovirus isolated from diseased hirame Paralichthys olivaceus
Virology. 2021 Apr 10;559:120-130. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2021.04.002. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTWe isolated a novel Aquareovirus (hirame aquareovirus: HAqRV) from Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus suffering from reovirus-like infection. In electron microscopy, the spherical virion (75 nm in diameter) was observed with multi-layered capsid structure. The viral genome consisted of 11 segments and regions encoding 7 virion structural proteins and 5 non-structural proteins were predicted. The deduced amino acid sequences of those proteins were highly similar to those of the aquareoviruses. However, the similarity of ...
Source: Virology - April 17, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Yasuhiko Kawato Tohru Mekata Toyohiro Nishioka Ikunari Kiryu Takamitsu Sakai Maeda Tomoki Satoshi Miwa Kanae Koike Masahiro Sadakane Koh-Ichiro Mori Source Type: research

Isolation and development of bovine primary respiratory cells as model to study influenza D virus infection
Virology. 2021 Apr 11;559:89-99. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2021.04.003. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTInfluenza D virus (IDV) is a novel type of influenza virus that infects and causes respiratory illness in bovines. Lack of host-specific in vitro model that can recapitulate morphology and physiology of in vivo airway epithelial cells has impeded the study of IDV infection. Here, we established and characterized bovine primary respiratory epithelial cells from nasal turbinate, soft palate, and trachea of the same calf. All three cell types showed characteristics peculiar of epithelial cells, polarized into apical-basolateral me...
Source: Virology - April 16, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Tirth Uprety Chithra C Sreenivasan Shaurav Bhattarai Dan Wang Radhey S Kaushik Feng Li Source Type: research

The cleavage of spike protein НА0→НА1/HA2 by trypsin permits activation of the M2 channel without its proteolytic cleavage in the influenza A virus
Virology. 2021 Apr 1;559:86-88. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2021.03.016. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTM2 plays numerous regulatory roles in influenza A virus infection confirming the old adage: "a little body often harbors a great sense". The comment here demonstrates that a small viral protein M2, having 14 kD m.w. and situating in the virion at a minor amount of only about 40 molecules per virus particle is resistant to trypsin at concentrations initiating the HA0 cleavage and virus infectivity activation. A mechanism involving a programmed disassembly by cascade-type transmembrane signaling of the HA-M2-M1-RNP coope...
Source: Virology - April 12, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: O P Zhirnov P Chlanda Source Type: research

The cleavage of spike protein НА0→НА1/HA2 by trypsin permits activation of the M2 channel without its proteolytic cleavage in the influenza A virus
Virology. 2021 Apr 1;559:86-88. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2021.03.016. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTM2 plays numerous regulatory roles in influenza A virus infection confirming the old adage: "a little body often harbors a great sense". The comment here demonstrates that a small viral protein M2, having 14 kD m.w. and situating in the virion at a minor amount of only about 40 molecules per virus particle is resistant to trypsin at concentrations initiating the HA0 cleavage and virus infectivity activation. A mechanism involving a programmed disassembly by cascade-type transmembrane signaling of the HA-M2-M1-RNP coope...
Source: Virology - April 12, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: O P Zhirnov P Chlanda Source Type: research

The cleavage of spike protein НА0→НА1/HA2 by trypsin permits activation of the M2 channel without its proteolytic cleavage in the influenza A virus
Virology. 2021 Apr 1;559:86-88. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2021.03.016. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTM2 plays numerous regulatory roles in influenza A virus infection confirming the old adage: "a little body often harbors a great sense". The comment here demonstrates that a small viral protein M2, having 14 kD m.w. and situating in the virion at a minor amount of only about 40 molecules per virus particle is resistant to trypsin at concentrations initiating the HA0 cleavage and virus infectivity activation. A mechanism involving a programmed disassembly by cascade-type transmembrane signaling of the HA-M2-M1-RNP coope...
Source: Virology - April 12, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: O P Zhirnov P Chlanda Source Type: research

The cleavage of spike protein НА0→НА1/HA2 by trypsin permits activation of the M2 channel without its proteolytic cleavage in the influenza A virus
Virology. 2021 Apr 1;559:86-88. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2021.03.016. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTM2 plays numerous regulatory roles in influenza A virus infection confirming the old adage: "a little body often harbors a great sense". The comment here demonstrates that a small viral protein M2, having 14 kD m.w. and situating in the virion at a minor amount of only about 40 molecules per virus particle is resistant to trypsin at concentrations initiating the HA0 cleavage and virus infectivity activation. A mechanism involving a programmed disassembly by cascade-type transmembrane signaling of the HA-M2-M1-RNP coope...
Source: Virology - April 12, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: O P Zhirnov P Chlanda Source Type: research

Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N6 (clade 2.3.4.4b) has a preferable host tropism for waterfowl reflected in its inefficient transmission to terrestrial poultry
Virology. 2021 Mar 25;559:74-85. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2021.03.010. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHighly-pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N6 (clade 2.3.4.4b) incurred into Europe in late 2017 and was predominantly detected in wild birds, with very few terrestrial poultry cases. Pekin ducks directly-infected with a UK virus (H5N6-2017) were donors of infection to investigate contact transmission to three recipient species: Ducks, chickens and turkeys. H5N6-2017 transmission to ducks was 100% efficient, but transmission to in-contact galliforme species was infrequent and unpredictable, thereby reflecting the Europea...
Source: Virology - April 11, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: A H Seekings C J Warren S S Thomas S Mahmood J James A M P Byrne S Watson C Bianco A Nunez I H Brown S M Brookes M J Slomka Source Type: research

Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N6 (clade 2.3.4.4b) has a preferable host tropism for waterfowl reflected in its inefficient transmission to terrestrial poultry
Virology. 2021 Mar 25;559:74-85. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2021.03.010. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHighly-pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N6 (clade 2.3.4.4b) incurred into Europe in late 2017 and was predominantly detected in wild birds, with very few terrestrial poultry cases. Pekin ducks directly-infected with a UK virus (H5N6-2017) were donors of infection to investigate contact transmission to three recipient species: Ducks, chickens and turkeys. H5N6-2017 transmission to ducks was 100% efficient, but transmission to in-contact galliforme species was infrequent and unpredictable, thereby reflecting the Europea...
Source: Virology - April 11, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: A H Seekings C J Warren S S Thomas S Mahmood J James A M P Byrne S Watson C Bianco A Nunez I H Brown S M Brookes M J Slomka Source Type: research