The use of the geometric morphometric method to illustrate shape difference in the skulls of different-aged horses
AbstractThe geometric morphometrics method (GMM) is a technique to study scale and shape relationships of structures using Cartesian geometric coordinates rather than linear, areal (of area), or volumetric variables. GMM has been of great value in many biological studies, but does not appear to have been used to examine equine skulls.In this exploratory study, twenty-nine normal equine heads of three different age groups: 16 years old (N = 10) were examined.Computed tomography (CT) bone window DICOM images were reconstructed into isosurfaces (3-dimensional contoured surfaces), onto which landmark...
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - July 23, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Gram-positive bacteriocins: usage as antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine
AbstractAntimicrobial resistance is a worldwide spread phenomenon that affects both human and veterinary medicine. This issue has led to a “One Health” approach in order to coordinate efforts and set back the development of drug-resistant microbes. In the search for alternatives therapies, bacteriocins or antimicrobial peptides have proven to be effective both in vitro and in vivo for multiples pathogens, even those resistant to ma ny classic antibiotics. Gram-positive bacteriocins have been the most studied to the present. The use of bacteriocins as therapeutically active molecules is limited mainly due to dif...
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - July 12, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Infectivity, virulence, pathogenicity, host-pathogen interactions of SARS and SARS-CoV-2 in experimental animals: a systematic review
AbstractThe outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 in mainland China with subsequent human to human transmission worldwide had taken up the shape of a devastating pandemic. The ability of the virus to infect multiple species other than humans has currently been reported in experimental conditions. Non-human primates, felines, ferrets, rodents and host of other animals could previously be infected in experimental conditions with SARS-CoV and recently with SARS-CoV-2, both virus using Angiotensin-converting-enzyme 2 receptor for cellular entry. The variations in sequence homology of ACE2 receptor across species is identified as one of t...
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - July 10, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Post-mortem surveillance of bovine tuberculosis in Ireland: herd-level variation in the probability of herds disclosed with lesions at routine slaughter to have skin test reactors at follow-up test
AbstractPost-mortem surveillance in Ireland discloses skin-test negative cattle with presumptive evidence of infection ofMycobacterium bovis (lesions at routine slaughter (LRS)), the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (bTB). Laboratory confirmation of lesions has impacts on trade restrictions for herds, therefore if laboratory capacity was diminished, how herds are treated would require an informed risk policy. Here we report the proportion of herds with subsequent evidence of within-herd transmission, based on skin-test results. We assess how herd-size, herd-type, and bTB-history affect the probability of additional r...
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - June 24, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Evaluation of the Autonomic Nervous System in a Canine Model of Chronic Embolic Pulmonary Hypertension
ConclusionsFrom the results of the CEPH model dogs, autonomic dysfunction was shown to occur in PH dogs. In addition, the administration of 1 mg/kg of sildenafil to CEPH model dogs may improve autonomic dysfunction. (Source: Veterinary Research Communications)
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - June 5, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Detection and characterization of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida infection in crucian carp Carassius auratus
AbstractAeromonas salmonicida is one of the most important pathogens in salmonids and non-salmonids species. Nevertheless, very little was reported in cyprinids aboutA. salmonicida infection. Hence, a pathogenicA. salmonicida subsp.salmonicida, namely isolate GCA-518, was isolated from diseased crucian carpCarassius auratus. Its optimal growth conditions were at 28 °C, pH 7.0 and 1.5% NaCl. Furthermore, the quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) targeting serine protease (aspA) gene was established for rapid detection of the lowest limit of 5.6 × 102 copies per reaction. The pathogenicity was ...
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - May 29, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
1,25(OH)D vitamin D promotes NOS2 expression in response to bacterial and viral PAMPs in primary bovine salivary gland fibroblasts
The objectives of this study were to develop an in vitro cell model of bovine salivary gland cells and to characterize the role of vitamin D on the expression of innate immune genes induced by stimulation with bacterial and viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs).MethodsSubmandibular glandular tissue was excised post-mortem, processed, cells isolated and cultured until confluency after which cells were incubated with the active form of vitamin D (1,25(OH)D) for 18 h before stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS μg/ml), lipoteichoic acid (LTA μg/ml) or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (po...
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - May 22, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Characterization of equine inflammasomes and their regulation
In this study, we observed the effects of well-known inflammasome activators on equine peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs). The NLRP3 inflammasome trigge rs include ATP, nigericin, aluminum crystals, and monosodium urate crystals, and NLRP3 activation induces IL-1β secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Activators of NLRC4 and AIM2 inflammasomes include cytosolic flagellin and dsDNA, and their activation induces IL-1β secretion. The bacterial inflam masome triggersSalmonella Typhimurium andListeria monocytogenes also induce IL- β releases. To elucidate the role of potassium efflux as an upstream signal of NLRP...
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - April 15, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Coronary corium, a new source of equine mesenchymal stromal cells
This study describes for the first time the isolation and characterization of MSCs derived from the equine coronary corium, which may be useful for treating diseases such as laminitis. Seven coronary corium samples were used for isolation of cells (ccMSCs). Adherent cells were characterized for morphology, immunophenotype, proliferation and differentiation potential, in vitro migration and colony-forming capacity. The cells displayed the characteristic fibroblastoid morphology, with population doubling time increasing until passage 7 and reaching a plateau in passage 10. Cells were negative for CD14 and CD45, and positive ...
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - March 4, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Improved filtration method to isolate pure populations of primary bovine endometrial epithelial and stromal cells for immunological studies
AbstractObjectivesIsolation and culture of distinct primary endometrial cells are key to reliable in-vitro models to investigate the uterine immune response and optimse new disease interventions. Details on the isolation method and purity of distinct cell populations is lacking in currently available protocols leading to inconsistent results across laboratories.MethodsBovine endometrial tissue from non-pregnant bovine uteri were collected immediately post-mortem and separated using differential size filtering. Isolations (n = 15) yielded an average of 3.1 × 105 ± 0.7&t...
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - February 21, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Genome-wide identification and characterization of novel long non-coding RNA in Ruminal tissue affected with sub-acute Ruminal acidosis from Holstein cattle
The objective of the present study is to identify and characterize novel long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in Holstein cattle affected by sub-acute ruminal acidosis. Two replicates from six animals were sequenced that bioinformatically analyzed. Results showed 6679 novel lncRNAs among which 12 intergenic lncRNAs showed differential expression (p value ≤0.05). GO and KEGG analysis revealed that calcium signaling and G protein couple-receptor pathways may be involved in regulating metabolic processes during sub-acute ruminal acidosis. Furthermore, other biological processes including transmembrane transport, adult behavior, ...
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - February 11, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Abundance and antibiotic resistance of Aeromonas isolated from the water of three carp ponds
AbstractAbundance and antibiotic resistance of bacteria of the genusAeromonas isolated from the water of three carp ponds were studied. The number of those bacteria differed between the studied ponds, sites and season. The results of the present study showed that planktonicAeromonas inhabiting those ponds strongly differed in the resistance level to tested antibiotics. These microorganisms were the most resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin, clindamycin and penicillin. However, all isolatesAeromonas were susceptible to gentamycin and streptomycin. Majority of bacterial strains were characterized by resistance to 4 –6 ...
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - January 21, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
An in vitro study of the effect of the optimal irrigation solution conditions during canine articular surgery
AbstractObjectivesTo establish whether chondrocyte viability, matrix degradation and the induction of proteolytic gene expression in canine cartilage is independent of irrigation fluid osmolality and time following exposure to the irrigation fluid.MethodsCanine cartilage explants were exposed to one of three different solution types i) Culture medium (270 –280 mOsmol/kg) ii) NaCl 0.9% (302 mOsmol/kg) iii) NaCl 0.9% with sucrose (600 mOsmol/kg). Chondrocyte viability and selected proteolytic gene expression were measured at two time points; immediately following exposure and 24 h following exposure. The media sam...
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - December 2, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
LPS-induced sickness behavior is not affected by selenium but is switched off by psychogenic stress in rats
The objective of this study was to evaluate if selenium could ameliorate symptoms of SB and if stress would affect these responses. We induced SB in rats using lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We choose selenium based on our findings of LPS-exposure decreasing selenium levels in rats. We exposed these rats to a psychogenic stress and studied motivational modulation paradigms, such as cure of the organism, preservation of the species, and fight or flight. We studied ultrasonic vocalizations, open-field behaviors, body weight, and IL-1 beta and IFN-gamma serum levels. LPS-induced SB was evidenced by decreased motor/exploratory acti...
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - November 23, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Expression patterns of natriuretic peptides in pre-hibernating and hibernating Anatolian ground squirrel ( Spermophilus xanthoprymnus ) kidney
AbstractHibernation is characterized by marked suppression of renal function. Natriuretic peptides (NPs) are involved in the regulation of renal function. However, the role of NPs in the renal function during hibernation remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the distribution patterns of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) in Anatolian ground squirrel (Spermophilus xanthoprymnus) kidneys during pre-hibernation and hibernation periods. Cortical proximal tubules showed weak ANP immunoreactivity, with moderate staining on the brush border during the pr...
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - November 21, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Evaluation of blood adiponectin levels as an index for subacute ruminal acidosis in cows: a preliminary study
The objective of this study was to evaluate blood levels of various hormones and compounds related to energy metabolism in cows with subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). We investigated 11 lactating cows presumed to have SARA based on duration of ruminal pH
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - September 5, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Expression of blood hepatocyte-derived microRNA-122 in canine multicentric lymphoma with hepatic involvement
This study was performed to evaluate the hepatocyte-derived microRNA (miR)-122 as novel diagnostic biomarker in canine lymphoma. Fifteen dogs were enrolled in this study. Dogs presented at Small Animal Teaching Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University. Dogs were divided into 8 clinically healthy dogs act as control and 7 clinically ill dogs. All dogs were subjected to clinical, ultrasonographic, hemato-biochemical and ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy for cytological and histopathological investigations. On the basis of these results, 7 dogs were found to be suffering from multicentric lymphoma involvi...
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - August 31, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Co-administration of toll-like receptor (TLR)-3 and 4 ligands augments immune response to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine in chicken
AbstractToll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that mediate first line of host defence to pathogens. TLR agonists are potent immunostimulatory agents that help to prime a robust adaptive immune response. In the present study, adjuvant potential of Poly I:C and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were evaluated with live Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine. Cornish chickens were immunized with live Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine (R2B-mesogenic strain) adjuvanted either with Poly I:C (TLR3 agonist) or LPS-TLR4 agonist and both. Humoral Immune response to ND vaccine was evaluated through haemaggluti...
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - August 24, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Genetic characteristics and polymorphisms in the chicken interferon-induced transmembrane protein ( IFITM3 ) gene
AbstractThe interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) gene is classified as a small interferon-stimulated gene and is associated with a broad spectrum of antiviral functions against several fatal enveloped viruses, including influenza A viruses (IAVs). The rs12252 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of theIFITM3 gene in humans was associated with susceptibility to H1N1 influenza in a 2009 pandemic. In addition, overexpression of the IFITM3 protein potently inhibits the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus in ducks and chickens. Although chickens are a major host of influenza viruses and theIFITM3 gene pa...
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - August 13, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Differential expression of endometrial toll-like receptors (TLRs) and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in the buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis) with endometritis
AbstractToll like receptors (TLRs) and β-defensins expressed in the endometrium are part of the innate uterine defense mechanism (UDM). In the present study, transcriptional profile of TLRs (1–3, 6–8, 10, and) and β-defensins such as lingual antimicrobial peptide (LAP), tracheal antimicrobial peptide (TAP) and bovine neutrophil bet a-defensin 4 (BNBD4) were studied. Bubaline genitalia were collected from abattoir and the endometrium was categorized into one of the following seven groups (n = 7/group) based on cyclicity and endometritis: follicular non-endometritis (FNE), luteal non-endom...
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - August 12, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
First detection and molecular characterization of avian polyomavirus in young parrots in Pakistan
AbstractAvian polyomavirus (APV) infection, also called as budgerigar fledgling disease (BFD) causes various health problems in many psittacine species which may cause untimely death. The aims of this study were to investigate, for the first time, the detection, molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of avian polyomavirus (APV) in Pakistani psittacine birds. In an aviary a disease similar to APV was found and 90% of the nestlings died within a few weeks. Seven to ten-day-old parrot nestlings (n = 3) from the aviary were presented with feather abnormalities, plumage defect and were clinically dep...
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - July 11, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis infection in traditionally managed cattle at the wildlife-livestock interface in South Africa in the absence of control measures
AbstractCattle are the domestic animal reservoir forMycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) which also affects other domestic animals, several wildlife species and humans leading to tuberculosis. The study area is in a resource-poor community that is surrounded by several game parks, whereM. bovis infection has been previously diagnosed in wildlife. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence ofM. bovis infection in 659 cattle from a total of 192 traditionally managed herds using the BOVIGAM ® interferon gamma assay (IFN-γ). Infection was confirmed by post mortem examination andM. bovis isolation f...
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - June 20, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Comparative analysis of in vitro proliferative, migratory and pro-angiogenic potentials of bovine fetal mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow and adipose tissue
AbstractMesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are found in virtually all tissues, where they self-renew and differentiate into multiple cell types. Cumulative data indicate that MSCs secrete paracrine factors that may play key roles in the treatment of various acute and chronic pathological conditions in diverse animal species including cattle. The aim of the present study was to compare the potentials for proliferation, migration and pro-angiogenesis of bovine fetal BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs under in vitro conditions. Growth curves and population doubling time (PDT) were determined for BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs in order to compare in vitro c...
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - June 14, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Functional expression of the free fatty acids receptor-1 and -4 (FFA1/GPR40 and FFA4/GPR120) in bovine endometrial cells
In conclusion, endometrial cells express FFA4 and FFA1 receptors, and DHA induces intracellular calcium release via FFA4 and FFA1 receptors. DHA reduces PGE2, but this response was not mediated by FFA4 or FFA1 receptors. (Source: Veterinary Research Communications)
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - June 11, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Kinetics of the expression of CD163 and CD107a in the lung and tonsil of pigs after infection with PRRSV-1 strains of different virulence
This study assesses the expression, distribution and kinetics of PRRSV N-protein, CD163 and CD107a in the lung and tonsil from experimentally-infected piglets with three different PRRSV-1 strains: a virulent PRRSV-1 subtype 3 strain (SU1-bel) and two low-virulent subtype 1 strains, Lelystad virus (LV) and 215 –06. SU1-bel replicated more efficiently in the lungs and tonsils. The number of CD163+ cells decreased in both tissues from all infected groups at 7 dpi, followed by an increase at the end of the study, highlighting a negative correlation with the number of N-protein+-infected cells. A significant increase in C...
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - May 18, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
RNA-Seq-based transcriptomic profiling of primary interstitial cells of Cajal in response to bovine viral diarrhea virus infection
This study is the first to establish a new infection model for investigating GI inflammatory lesions induced by BVDV infection. RNA-Seq-based transcriptomic profiling can provide a basis for study on BVDV-associated inflammatory lesions. (Source: Veterinary Research Communications)
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - May 18, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Intestinal gene expressions in broiler chickens infected with Escherichia coli and dietary supplemented with probiotic, acidifier and synbiotic
In this study, we investigated the effects of probiotic, acidifier and synbiotic supplementation on growth performance, mortality rate, intestinal gene expressions, fecal shedding, and organs colonization induced byEscherichia coli in broiler chickens. Six experimental groups were included; negative control group (NC), positive control group (PC), probiotic group (PR), acidifier group (AC), synbiotic group (SY) and colistin sulfate group (CS). Chickens in groups NC and PC were fed a basal diet, while chickens in groups PR, AC, SY, and CS were fed a basal diet containing probiotic, acidifier, synbiotic and colistin sulfate,...
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - May 4, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Quantification of EGFR family in canine mammary ductal carcinomas in situ: implications on the histological graduation
AbstractThe epithelial growth factor receptors are transmembrane proteins with an important role in the neoplastic progression of tumors, and in this context, DCIS is an important phase in the progression of canine mammary tumors. Studies on the molecular profile and its relationship to a progression of canine mammary tumors are important to improve the treatment of patients and for a better understanding of canine mammary carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine, by immunohistochemistry, the relation between the expression of EGFR, ErbB-2, ErbB-3, and ErbB-4 in 52 canine mammary gland DCIS with high and low ...
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - April 24, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
CD205-positive, Sepharose-induced peritoneal exudate cells: a new resource for DC research in the chicken
This study reports the development of new anti-CD205 monoclonal antibodies as a reagent for chicken DC research, as well as PEC as a potential source of CD205+ DC for ex vivo studies in the chicken. (Source: Veterinary Research Communications)
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - April 16, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Genetic association of polymorphisms in bovine TLR2 and TLR4 genes with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in Indian cattle population
AbstractToll like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition molecules involved in cellular recognition ofMycobacterium avium subspeciesparatuberculosis (MAP), the infectious agent causing Paratuberculosis (PTB), a notified disease of domestic and wild ruminants. The present study was undertaken to investigate the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) inTLR2 andTLR4 gene and to evaluate association of these SNPs with occurrence of PTB in Indian cattle. A total of 213 cattle, were subjected to multiple diagnostic tests viz. Johnin PPD, ELISA test (Indigenous and Parachek kit method), fecal microscopy and fecal cu...
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - March 28, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Ov2 is a modulator of OvHV-2 RTA mediated gene expression
AbstractOvine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) is the causative agent of the sheep-associated form of malignant catarrhal fever, a usually fatal lymphoproliferative disease of bison, deer and cattle. Malignant catarrhal fever is a major cause of cattle loss in Africa with approximately 7% affected annually; and in North America has significant impact on bison farming. Research into the mechanisms by which OvHV-2 induces disease in susceptible species has been hampered by a lack of a cell culture system for the virus. Ov2 is a bZIP protein encoded by OvHV-2. Proteins with bZIP domains in other herpesviruses, such as the Kaposi &rsquo...
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - March 21, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Regulation of Ov2 by virus encoded microRNAs
AbstractHerpesviruses encode miRNAs that target both virus and host genes; however their role in herpesvirus biology is still poorly understood. We previously identified thirty five miRNAs encoded by OvHV-2; the causative agent of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) and are investigating the role of these miRNAs in regulating expression of OvHV-2 genes that play important roles in virus biology. Analysis, using RNAHybrid predicted that two OvHV-2 encoded miRNAs, ovhv2-miR-17-10 and ovhv2-miR-61-1, target transcripts coding for the OvHV-2 bZIP protein Ov2. In other herpesvirus bZIP proteins are known to play important roles in ...
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - March 19, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Saccharomyces cerevisiae β-glucan-induced SBD-1 expression in ovine ruminal epithelial cells is mediated through the TLR-2-MyD88-NF-κB/MAPK pathway
AbstractOvine ruminal epithelial cells (ORECs) not only have a physical barrier function but also can secrete host defence peptides (HDPs), such as sheep β-defensin-1 (SBD-1). As a feed additive,Saccharomyces cerevisiae can enhance the host ’s innate immunity. β-glucan, a cell wall component ofSaccharomyces cerevisiae, can stimulate innate immune responses and trigger the up-regulation of SBD-1 in ORECs. The signaling mechanisms involved in β-glucan-induced SBD-1 expression are not completely understood. The aim of this study was to identify the receptors and intracellular pathways involved in the up-r...
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - March 12, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Unique genetic features of canine adenovirus type 1 (CAdV-1) infecting red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes ) in northern Norway and arctic foxes ( Vulpes lagopus ) in Svalbard
AbstractCanine adenovirus type 1 (CAdV-1) is the aetiological agent of infectious canine hepatitis (ICH) in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). In spite of the widespread use of vaccination, CAdV-1 continues to circulate in the dog population. Although a high number of serological screenings have indicated that CAdV-1 is widespread in fox species, little is known about the potential role of foxes as reservoirs of CAdV-1. Furthermore, very little data exist on the molecular features of this virus in foxes. To add to existing knowledge on CAdV-1 circulating in wild carnivores, tissue samples from CAdV-seropositive red foxes (V...
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - March 2, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Localization profiles of natriuretic peptides in hearts of pre-hibernating and hibernating Anatolian ground squirrels ( Spermophilus xanthoprymnus )
AbstractThe Anatolian ground squirrel (Spermophilus xanthoprymnus) is a typical example of true mammalian hibernators. In order to adapt to extreme external and internal environments during hibernation, they lower their body temperatures, heart rates and oxygen consumption; however, pathological events such as ischemia and ventricular fibrillation do not occur in their cardiovascular systems. During the hibernation, maintenance of cardiac function is very important for survival of ground squirrels. Natriuretic peptides (NPs) are key factors in the regulation of cardiovascular hemostasis. Since NPs ’ role on the prote...
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - January 28, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Stem cells on regenerative and reproductive science in domestic animals
AbstractStem cells are undifferentiated and self-renewable cells that present new possibilities for both regenerative medicine and the understanding of early mammalian development. Adult multipotent stem cells are already widely used worldwide in human and veterinary medicine, and their therapeutic signalling, particularly with respect to immunomodulation, and their trophic properties have been intensively studied. The derivation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) from domestic species, however, has been challenging, and the poor results do not reflect the successes obtained in mouse and human experiments. More recently, the g...
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - January 17, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
The influence of Dermanyssus gallinae and different lighting regimens on selected blood proteins, corticosterone levels and egg production in layer hens
AbstractEgg production in battery cage systems in commercial poultry farms promotes uncontrolled growth of poultry ectoparasiteDermanyssus gallinae. Intermittent lighting regimens provided a promising alternative for controllingD. gallinae invasions. The study analysed the influence ofD. gallinae invasions on selected blood protein fractions (albumin, α-, β-, γ-globulin), corticosterone levels and egg production in Hy-Line Brown layer hens exposed to two lighting regimens: A (16 L:8D) and B (intermittent (4 L:2D); L-light, D-dark). Blood samples were collected from a total of 48 hens (divided int...
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - January 5, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Acinetobacter baumannii – a neglected pathogen in veterinary and environmental health in Germany
AbstractThe emergence and global spread of drug resistantAcinetobacter (A.) baumannii is a cause of great concern. The current knowledge on antibiotic resistance inA. baumannii from animal origin is mostly based on few internationally published case reports, investigations of strain collections and several whole genome analyses. This lack of data results in a somewhat sketchy picture on how to assess the possible impact of drug resistantA. baumannii strains on veterinary and public health in Germany. Consequently, there is an urgent need to intensify the surveillance ofA. baumannii in pet animals, the farm animal populatio...
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - December 27, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Impacts on performance of growing-finishing pigs under heat stress conditions: a meta-analysis
In conclusion, high ambient temperatures negatively influence performance parameters of growing-finishing pigs when compared with those in thermoneutral conditions. (Source: Veterinary Research Communications)
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - December 19, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Correction to: Optimised isolation method for RNA extraction suitable for RNA sequencing from feline teeth collected in a clinical setting and at post mortem
The authors regret that the original version of the above article contained errors in the Figs. 3, 4 and Tables 3 legends. The errors has been corrected. (Source: Veterinary Research Communications)
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - November 27, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Optimised isolation method for RNA extraction suitable for RNA sequencing from feline teeth collected in a clinical setting and at post mortem
AbstractAdvanced next generation sequencing approaches have started to reveal the cellular and molecular complexity of the microenvironment in many tissues. It is challenging to obtain high quality RNA from mineralised tissues. We developed an optimised method of RNA extraction from feline teeth collected in a clinical setting and at post mortem. Teeth were homogenised in phenol-guanidinium solution at near-freezing temperatures and followed by solid-phase nucleic acid extraction utilising a commercially available kit. This method produced good RNA yields and improved RNA quality based on RNA integrity numbers equivalent (...
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - November 6, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Could hypoxia influence basic biological properties and ultrastructural features of adult canine mesenchymal stem /stromal cells?
AbstractThe aim of the present study was to compare canine adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells cultured under normoxic (20% O2) and not severe hypoxic (7% O2) conditions in terms of marker expression, proliferation rate, differentiation potential and cell morphology. Intra-abdominal fat tissue samples were recovered from 4 dogs and cells isolated from each sample were cultured under hypoxic and normoxic conditions. Proliferation rate and adhesion ability were determined, differentiation towards chondrogenic, osteogenic and adipogenic lineages was induced; the expression of CD44, CD34, DLA-DQA1, DLA-DRA1 was determined by...
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - September 20, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Isolation and characterization of two lytic bacteriophages against Staphylococcus aureus from India: newer therapeutic agents against Bovine mastitis
AbstractBovine mastitis causes severe economic losses to dairy farmers.Staphylococcus aureus, is one of the most important pathogen implicated in etiology of clinical and subclinical mastitis in bovines. In view of increasing antimicrobial resistance alternatives to antibiotic therapy are much needed. The present decade has witnessed a renewed interest in phage based therapeutics and diagnostics. The present study, describes isolation and characterization of two lytic phages SAJK-IND and MSP againstStaphylococcus aureus having a potential to be used in therapy against mastitis. SAJK-IND and MSP phages belonged toMyoviridae...
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - September 15, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Melanocortin 2 receptor antagonists in canine pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism: in vitro studies
In this study we investigated whether two peptide compounds, BIM-22776 (#776) and BIM-22A299 (#299), are effective MC2R antagonists in vitro. Their effects on cortisol production and mRNA expression of steroidogenic enzymes, MC2R and melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein (MRAP) were evaluated in primary adrenocortical cell cultures (n = 8) of normal canine adrenal glands. Cortisol production stimulated by 50 nM ACTH was dose-dependently inhibited by #299 (inhibition 90.7 ± 2.3% at 5 μM) and by #776 (inhibition 38.0 ± 5.2% at 5 μM). The ACTH-st...
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - September 5, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from subclinical bovine mastitis cases and in vitro efficacy of bacteriophage
AbstractStaphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that may cause severe infections in livestock, and represents the major cause of mastitis in dairy cows. Currently, instead of using antibiotics, new strategies are sought to reduce this clinical health problem. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of phage therapy to killS. aureus strains obtained from farms located at the State of Guanajuato, M éxico. Thirty-sixS. aureus strains from cow milk with subclinical mastitis were isolated and identified, and the susceptibility to antibiotics and four phages also isolated in this work was tested. It...
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - September 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Effects of three-dimensional spheroid culture on equine mesenchymal stem cell plasticity
AbstractMesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are useful candidates for tissue engineering and cell therapy fields. We optimize culture conditions of equine adipose tissue-derived MSCs (eAD-MSCs) for treatment of horse fractures. To investigate enhancing properties of three-dimensional (3D) culture system in eAD-MSCs, we performed various sized spheroid formation and determined changes in gene expression levels to obtain different sized spheroid for cell therapy. eAD-MSCs were successfully isolated from horse tailhead. Using hanging drop method, spheroid formation was generated for three days. Quantitative real-time PCR was perfor...
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - September 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
A comparison of the effects of antibiotics, probiotics, synbiotics and prebiotics on the performance and carcass characteristics of broilers
AbstractRoutine use of the antibiotic flavomycin in broiler production may lead to resistance, and alternative growth promoters are used to enhance performance. Two hundred day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks were allocated to five dietary supplements included from d 1 –42: flavomycin, three possible alternatives, a probiotic, prebiotic and a synbiotic, as well as a control treatment. There were four replicate cages of 10 birds each in each treatment. Compared with the control and antibiotics treatments, the probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic treatments increase d (p = 0.001) weight gain (64, 66, 73, 7...
Source: Veterinary Research Communications - September 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research