Next-Generation Sequencing in Equine Genomics
This article discusses the history and development of NGS, details some of the available sequencing platforms, and describes currently available applications in the context of both discovery and clinical settings. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - July 10, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Jessica L. Petersen, Stephen J. Coleman Source Type: research

Genetics of Equine Neurologic Disease
Neurologic disease in horses can be particularly challenging to diagnose and treat. These diseases can result in economic losses, emotional distress to owners, and injury to the horse or handlers. To date, there are 5 neurologic diseases caused by known genetic mutations and several more are suspected to be heritable: lethal white foal syndrome, lavender foal syndrome, cerebellar abiotrophy, occipitoatlantoaxial malformation, and Friesian hydrocephalus. Genetic testing allows owners, breeders, and veterinarians to make informed decisions when selecting dams and sires for breeding or deciding the treatment or prognosis of a...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - July 10, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Lisa Edwards, Carrie J. Finno Source Type: research

Genetics of Immune Disease in the Horse
Host defenses against infection by viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites are critical to survival. It has been estimated that upwards of 7% of the coding genes of mammals function in immunity and inflammation. This high level of genomic investment in defense has resulted in an immune system characterized by extraordinary complexity and many levels of redundancy. Because so many genes are involved with immunity, there are many opportunities for mutations to arise that have negative effects. However, redundancy in the mammalian defense system and the adaptive nature of key immune mechanisms buffer the untoward outcomes of ...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - July 10, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Rebecca L. Tallmadge, Douglas F. Antczak, Maria Julia Bevilaqua Felippe Source Type: research

Genetics of Equine Ocular Disease
This article describes the current knowledge of inherited ocular disorders. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - July 10, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Rebecca R. Bellone Source Type: research

Genetics of Equine Muscle Disease
There are 5 single-gene mutations that are known to cause muscle disease in horses. These mutations alter the amino acid sequence of proteins involved in cell membrane electrical conduction, muscle energy metabolism, muscle contraction, and immunogenicity. The clinical signs depend on the pathway affected. The likelihood that an animal with a mutation will exhibit clinical signs depends on the mode of inheritance, environmental influences, and interactions with other genes. Selection of a genetic test for use in diagnostic or breeding decisions requires a knowledge of clinical signs, mode of inheritance, breeds affected, a...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - July 10, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Stephanie J. Valberg Source Type: research

Genetics and Signaling Pathways of Laminitis
Laminitis is a devastating disease with diverse etiologies and few, if any, effective treatments. Gene expression and hypothesis-generating genomic studies have provided a fresh look at the key molecular players at crucial timepoints in diverse experimental and naturally affected tissues. We summarize findings to date, and propose a unifying model of the laminitis disease process that includes several pathogenesis concepts shared with other diseases of epidermal and epithelial tissues. The value of these new pathways as potential therapeutic targets is exciting but will require careful future work to validate new methods a...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - July 10, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Hannah Galantino-Homer, Samantha A. Brooks Source Type: research

Genetics, Genomics, and Emergent Precision Medicine 12  Years After the Equine Reference Genome Was Published
The first equine reference genome was completed in 2007 and published in 2009. This major accomplishment has enabled equine science to advance in ways that broadly parallel the transformative impact that genomics has had on many animal species including humans. A conceptual overview of reference genomes, genome annotation, and the major implications for equine science is presented. The relationship between genomic sequencing and the accelerating application of precision P4 medicine is discussed in the context of human and equine patients. Emergent technologies built on the foundation of genomic sequencing and rapidly gaini...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - July 10, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: James N. MacLeod, Theodore S. Kalbfleisch Source Type: research

Equine Genetic Diseases
VETERINARY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA: EQUINE PRACTICE (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - July 10, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Carrie J. Finno Source Type: research

Copyright
Elsevier (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - July 10, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Contributors
THOMAS J. DIVERS, DVM (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - July 10, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Contents
Carrie J. Finno (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - July 10, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice
Equine Dentistry and Oral Surgery (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - July 10, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Equine Genotyping Arrays
High-quality genomic tools have been integral in understanding genomic architecture and function in the modern-day horse. The equine genetics community has a long tradition of pooling resources to develop genomic tools. Since the equine genome was sequenced in 2006, several iterations of high throughput genotyping arrays have been developed and released, enabling rapid and cost-effective genotyping. This review highlights the design considerations of each iteration, focusing on data available during development and outlining considerations in selecting the genetic variants included on each array. Additionally, we outline r...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - June 10, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Robert J. Schaefer, Molly E. McCue Source Type: research

Genetic Testing in the Horse
This article describes the genetic tests that are currently available for horses. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - June 10, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Rebecca R. Bellone, Felipe Avila Source Type: research

Unraveling the Genetics Behind Equid Cardiac Disease
There have been some advances in understanding the genetic contribution to ventricular septal defects in Arabians, sudden death in racehorses, and atrial fibrillation in racehorses. No genetic analyses have been published for aortic rupture in Friesians or atrioventricular block in donkeys despite strong evidence for a genetic cause. To date, no genetic mutation has been identified for any equid cardiac disease. With the advancement of genetic tools and resources, we are moving closer to discoveries that may explain the heritable basis of inherited equid cardiac disease. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - June 10, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Samantha L. Fousse, Joshua A. Stern Source Type: research

Genetics of Equine Respiratory Disease
Genetic factors influence the development of guttural pouch tympany, recurrent laryngeal neuropathy, severe equine asthma, exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage, and possibly also some malformations and infectious diseases of the respiratory tract. The current data suggest that most of these diseases are complex, resulting from the interaction between several genes and environmental factors. To date, no specific genes or causative mutations have been identified that would allow the development of practical genetic tests. In the future, genetic profiling panels, based on multiple genetic markers and environmental risk facto...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - June 10, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Vince Gerber Source Type: research

Genetics of Equine Orthopedic Disease
Orthopedic diseases are a common cause for limited exercise capacity in the horse. They often underlie genetic risk factors, which can affect bone, articular cartilage, tendons, ligaments, and adnexal structures among others. The genetic effects can directly interfere with tissue development and skeletal growth or can trigger degenerative or inflammatory processes. Many of these diseases of the locomotor system like osteochondrosis are complex and can be affected by multifactorial influences. For this reason, it is important for those performing diagnostic procedures to have a comprehensive knowledge of orthopedic diseases...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - June 10, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Julia Metzger, Ottmar Distl Source Type: research

Genetics of Skin Disease in Horses
Equine skin diseases are common, causing increased costs and reduced welfare of affected horses.Genetic testing, if available, can complement early detection, disease diagnosis, and clinical treatment and offers horse breeders the possibility to rule out carrier status. The mechanisms of complex disease can be investigated by using the latest state-of-the-art genomic technologies. Genome-based strategies may also serve as an efficient and cost-effective strategy for the management of the disease severity levels, with particular interest in complex traits such as insect bite hypersensitivity, chronic progressive lymphedema,...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - June 10, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Gabriella Lindgren, Rakan Naboulsi, Rebecka Frey, Marina Sol é Source Type: research

Genetics of Equine Endocrine and Metabolic Disease
A role for a genetic contribution to equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) and pars pituitary intermedia dysfunction (PPID) has been hypothesized. Heritability estimates of EMS biochemical measurements were consistent with moderately to highly heritable traits. Further, genome-wide association analyses have identified hundreds of regions of the genome contributing to EMS and candidate variants have been identified. The genetics of PPID has not yet been proven. Continued research for the specific genetic risk factors for both EMS and PPID is crucial for gaining a better understanding of the pathophysiology of both conditions and ...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - June 10, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Elaine Norton, Molly McCue Source Type: research

Genetics of Equine Reproductive Diseases
Reproductive disorders are genetically heterogeneous and complex; available genetic tests are limited to chromosome analysis and 1 susceptibility gene. Cytogenetic analysis should be the first test to confirm or rule out chromosomal aberrations. No causative genes/mutations are known. The only available genetic test for stallion subfertility is based on a susceptibility gene FKBP6. The ongoing progress in equine genomics will improve the status of genetic testing. However, because subfertile phenotypes do not facilitate collection of large numbers of samples or pedigrees, and clinical causes of many cases remain unknown, f...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - June 10, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Terje Raudsepp Source Type: research

Genetics of Equine Behavioral Traits
This article reviews what is known about the genetics of behavior in horses with an emphasis on the genetic basis for temperament traits, neuroendocrine function, and stereotypic behavior. The importance of using modern molecular genetic techniques to the study of equine behavior and recommendations for future research are also discussed. Ultimately, these studies enhance the understanding of the biology of behavior in the horse, improve handler and rider safety, and benefit horse welfare. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - June 10, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Carissa Wickens, Samantha A. Brooks Source Type: research

Equine Genetic Diseases
The publication of a reference genome sequence of a single domestic horse in 2009 resulted in unprecedented advancements in the field of equine genetics. Subsequent technologies, including the development of high-density single nucleotide polymorphism arrays and affordable next-generation sequencing, provided the tools necessary to fully explore the genetic contribution to equine traits and diseases. Of the 46 equine traits for which a genetic test is available to date, 29 were discovered from 2009 to 2019. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - June 10, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Carrie J. Finno Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Clinical Pathology in the Foal
The dynamic physiologic changes and unique diet during the neonatal period contribute to key differences in clinicopathologic test results of healthy foals relative to healthy adult horses. When reporting results, most diagnostic laboratories only provide reference intervals for mature horses. Thus, failure to recognize the unique differences that occur in foals relative to adult horses can lead to erroneous interpretation of neonatal clinical pathologic values. Thus, the main objective of this article was to review distinct features of common clinicopathologic tests in foals, relative to mature horses. (Source: Veterinary...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - March 5, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Michelle Henry Barton, Kelsey A. Hart Source Type: research

Airway Diagnostics
Indications for bronchoalveolar lavage, tracheal wash, and thoracocentesis for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases are discussed. Each technique is described in detail and illustrated by videos. Sample handling, preparation and evaluation are reviewed. The advantages and limitations of bronchoalveolar lavage and tracheal wash procedures as well as a critical comparison between the 2 techniques for equine asthma diagnosis are presented. Finally, validated cut-off values for equine asthma diagnosis are reviewed. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - March 5, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Laurent L. Couetil, Craig A. Thompson Source Type: research

Point-of-Care Diagnostics in Equine Practice
This article discusses commercially available equine POCT. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - March 5, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Nathan M. Slovis, Nimet Browne, Rana Bozorgmanesh Source Type: research

Clinical Pathology for the Equine Practitioner
VETERINARY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA: EQUINE PRACTICE (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - March 5, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: SallyAnne L. DeNotta, Tracy Stokol Source Type: research

Copyright
Elsevier (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - March 5, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Contributors
THOMAS J. DIVERS, DVM (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - March 5, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Contents
SallyAnne L. DeNotta and Tracy Stokol (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - March 5, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Equine Genetic Diseases (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - March 5, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The Sick Adult Horse
Clinicopathologic evaluation of renal function and renal disease in sick adult horses remains grounded in detection of azotemia, assessment of serum and urine electrolyte concentrations, and evaluation of urinalysis findings, including specific gravity, reagent strip analysis, and sediment examination. Because increases in serum or plasma urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations are insensitive indicators of a decreased glomerular filtration rate, there is considerable interest in identifying novel biomarkers of renal function or injury in blood and urine, with serum symmetric dimethylarginine concentration being the mo...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - February 6, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Harold C. Schott, Melissa M. Esser Source Type: research

A Word of Thanks from the Editors
Clinical pathology is an integral component of veterinary medicine, and we hope this issue of Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice will serve as a source of valuable and practical information for our equine veterinarian friends, colleagues, and equine-oriented students and trainees. We would like to thank Dr Tom Divers, as well as Don Mumford and Colleen Dietzler at Elsevier, for the opportunity to serve as coeditors of this issue. Most importantly, this project would not have been possible without our contributing authors, and for their time, expertise, and tremendous effort, we are so grateful. (Source: V...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - February 6, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: SallyAnne L. DeNotta, Tracy Stokol Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Equine Inflammatory Markers in the Twenty-First Century
Serum amyloid A (SAA) is a marker of inflammation and infection in the horse that can be assessed in the field, with rapid and marked changes seen following initiation of an inflammatory stimulus. This quality of SAA also makes its clinical use challenging, because even small inflammatory conditions can cause large changes in SAA levels. Review of the current literature provides guidelines for responses of SAA to various conditions, which can be applied to specific clinical cases. The practitioner is encouraged to use SAA in conjunction with physical examination and other diagnostic modalities to guide treatment and monito...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - January 29, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Alicia Long, Rose Nolen-Walston Source Type: research

Clinical Pathology of the Racehorse
This article discusses hematologic and biochemical tests that are important in the evaluation of performance and health in racehorses. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - January 25, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Samuel D.A. Hurcombe Source Type: research

Coagulation Assessment in the Equine Patient
This article provides an overview of preliminary screening and definitive tests to assess coagulation and identify hemostatic defects in horses, as well as a review of the hemostatic disorders most frequently encountered in clinical practice. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - January 24, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: SallyAnne L. DeNotta, Marjory B. Brooks Source Type: research

Practical Tips on Sample Handling for Hematology, Chemistry, and Cytology Testing for Equine Patients:
This article discusses preanalytical errors that commonly affect the accuracy of hematology, chemistry, and cytology testing, and offers practical tips for preventing these errors and maximizing diagnostic yield. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - January 24, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Ashleigh W. Newman Source Type: research

Clinical Pathology in the Adult Sick Horse
This article details hematologic and biochemical tests that are important in the evaluation of intestinal and hepatic diseases and reviews bloodwork trends frequently observed in adult horses affected by enteropathy or hepatopathy. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - January 22, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: SallyAnne L. DeNotta, Thomas J. Divers Source Type: research

Hematology Red Flags
This article uses a case-based approach, complemented with diagnostic algorithms and images, to highlight hematologic changes of pathologic relevance in horses, namely, marked erythrocytosis, anemia or leukocytosis, inflammatory leukograms, lymphocytosis in adult horses, thrombocytopenia, and pancytopenia. These hematologic abnormalities occur with certain diseases and their identification can help clinicians narrow to down differential diagnostic lists. This article highlights the importance of blood smear examination, particularly, but not only, when numerical red flags are identified on automated blood counts. (Source: ...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - January 18, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Tracy Stokol Source Type: research

Bone Marrow Examination
This article describes the indications for sampling of bone marrow, the technical aspects of obtaining marrow core biopsies and aspirates, and the preparation of marrow smears. All aspects are illustrated with clinical cases. The information that can be expected from the pathologist ’s report of marrow samples is outlined, and the clinical features and prognosis of different types of leukemia are detailed. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - January 16, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Dorothee Bienzle Source Type: research

Clinical Pathology of Donkeys and Mules
This article presents considerations for sample collection, storage, analysis, and interpretation strategies for clinical pathology testing of donkeys and their hybrids based on the limited information available in the literature. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - October 29, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Erin L. Goodrich, Erica Behling-Kelly Source Type: research

Genetics, Evolution, and Physiology of Donkeys and Mules
The genus Equus is made up of donkeys, horses, and zebras. Despite significant variation in chromosome number across these species, interspecies breeding results in healthy, although infertile, hybrid offspring. Most notable among these are the horse –donkey hybrids, the mule and hinny. Donkeys presently are used for everything from companion animals to beasts of burden. Although closely related from an evolutionary standpoint, differences in anatomy and physiology preclude the assumption that they can be treated identically to the domestic ho rse. Veterinarians should be aware of these differences and adjust their p...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - October 29, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Margaret M. Brosnahan Source Type: research

Donkey and Mule Welfare
Donkeys and mules have been critical to the development of human civilization, since being domesticated some 6000  years ago. However, they suffer from being undervalued or ignored by development agencies and animal protection nongovernmental organizations. Where they are recognized as affecting agriculture and the economy it is often because they are seen as being either invasive pests or an anachronism in th e developing countries of the twenty-first century. Even in the wealthier societies of the world, donkeys suffer from ignorance about their proper management or a booming industry in health care products based o...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - October 29, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Eric Davis Source Type: research

Skin Disorders of the Donkey and Mule
This article outlines the main disease entities that the author has encountered, although there are many other diseases and disorders that occur in different parts of the world that are not yet appreciated. When investigating a skin disease, a logical and comprehensive clinical approach should always be made; many conditions are similar in clinical presentation or are complicated by comorbidity or secondary infection, infestation, or self-trauma. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - October 29, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Derek C. Knottenbelt Source Type: research

Donkey and Mule Behavior
Donkeys and mules often are misunderstood because of their behavioral differences compared with horses. Working with these animals requires more patience and ability to notice the slightest changes in behavior to diagnose disease. Mules and donkeys form strong bonds and trust with familiar people and other equids. Training mules and hinnies from an early age is key to modifying behavior and acceptance of unfamiliar people. Reproductive behavior is different from that of horses and requires more patience when collecting jacks. Practitioners working with mules and donkeys should take a methodological approach and get to know...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - October 29, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Amy Katherine McLean, Francisco Javier Navas Gonz ález, Igor Federico Canisso Source Type: research

Clinical Evaluation and Preventative Care in Donkeys
Clinical evaluation and preventative care in donkeys should follow similar guidelines as for horses. There are species-specific differences due to the desert-adapted physiology of the donkey. Donkeys are mainly used as pack animals, companions and for production of meat or milk - they may be kept well into old age. Diseases often present late or may go unrecognized leading to poor welfare and quality of life. Basic knowledge of nutrition, blood values, pharmacology and common disease recognition will help veterinarians improve the health and welfare of donkeys. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - October 29, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Elena Barrio, Karen J. Rickards, Alexandra K. Thiemann Source Type: research

Key Aspects of Donkey and Mule Reproduction
This article reviews key aspects of donkey and mule reproductive physiology, reproductive medicine, and assisted reproductive techniques that are useful for practitioners offering assisted reproductive techniques, and also for practitioners with the occasional client with a basic reproductive question. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - October 29, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Igor Federico Canisso, Duccio Panzani, Jordi Mir ó, Robyn E. Ellerbrock Source Type: research

Diseases of Donkeys and Mules
VETERINARY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA: EQUINE PRACTICE (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - October 29, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Ramiro E. Toribio Source Type: research

Copyright
Elsevier (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - October 29, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Contributors
THOMAS J. DIVERS, DVM (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - October 29, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Contents
Ramiro E. Toribio (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - October 29, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research