The Equine Sarcoid
This article discusses the main treatments for sarcoid and the specific difficulties of these. It explains to some extent why the frustrations of a condition for which there is no single treatment option have led to the burgeoning of an industry of irrational treatments. The factors that need to be considered before selecting an option for treatment are wider than is the case in most other disease entities as a result of the complexity of the condition, its variable phenotypes, and the individual perceptions and experiences of both veterinarians and owners. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - May 13, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Derek C. Knottenbelt Source Type: research

Equine Neonatal Encephalopathy
Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) and neonatal maladjustment syndrome (NMS) are terms used for newborn foals that develop noninfectious neurologic signs in the immediate postpartum period. Cerebral ischemia, hypoxia, and inflammation leading to neuronal and glial dysfunction and excitotoxicity are considered key mechanisms behind NE/NMS. Attention has been placed on endocrine and paracrine factors that alter brain cell function. Abnormal steroid concentrations (progestogens, neurosteroids) have been measured in critically ill and NE foals. In addition to supportive treatment, antimicrobials should be considered. Controversies r...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - May 11, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Ramiro E. Toribio Source Type: research

What Do We Know About Hepatitis Viruses in Horses?
Theiler disease (serum hepatitis or idiopathic acute hepatic necrosis) has long been suspected to have a viral etiology. Four viruses have been described in association with hepatitis in horses. Further investigation suggests equine pegivirus and Theiler disease –associated virus (a second pegivirus) are neither hepatotropic nor pathogenic. Nonprimate hepacivirus (NPHV) causes subclinical disease in experimental models and has been associated with hepatitis in some clinical cases. Equine parvovirus-hepatitis (EqPV-H) experimentally causes subclinical-to-c linical liver disease and is found in the vast majority of The...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - May 10, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Joy E. Tomlinson, Gerlinde R. Van de Walle, Thomas J. Divers Source Type: research

Exercise-induced Pulmonary Hemorrhage
Exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) occurs commonly in horses undergoing strenuous exercise. Reported risk factors include racing in cold temperatures and wearing of bar shoes. In horses with documented moderate to severe EIPH, increasing the interval between races and adopting a negative race pace strategy may reduce the severity of EIPH in subsequent races. EIPH seems to have an impact on performance only when moderate to severe. This occurs in a small number of starters, approximately 6%. EIPH often is erratic in severity from race to race, although across a population it is weakly progressive over increasing r...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - May 10, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Eleanor J. Crispe, Guy D. Lester Source Type: research

Is There Still a Place for Lidocaine in the (Postoperative) Management of Colics?
Intravenous lidocaine is widely used to prevent or treat postoperative ileus in horses. Clinical studies that support this approach are flawed and contradicted by others. Also, physical obstruction could be more important in causing postoperative reflux than postoperative ileus in the horse. The antiinflammatory properties of lidocaine and the role of inflammation from intestinal handling in the genesis of postoperative reflux are questionable. Because of cost and questionable efficacy of lidocaine, a well-designed clinical trial is required to support its continued use. However, lidocaine could be given to provide or enha...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - May 7, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: David E. Freeman Source Type: research

Diagnostic Testing for Equine Endocrine Diseases
Despite there being only 2 common endocrine diseases in horses, pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) and equine metabolic syndrome (EMS), diagnosis is still confusing. Failing to consider horse factors and treating based on laboratory results only have caused many animals to receive lifelong drug treatment unnecessarily. Increased plasma ACTH, baseline or TRH stimulated, supports a diagnosis of PPID; however, breed, age, thriftiness, illness, coat color, geography, diet, and season also affect ACTH concentration. Insulin dysregulation, the hallmark of EMS, can result from insulin resistance or excessive postprandia...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - May 7, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Dianne McFarlane Source Type: research

Is Electrical Nerve Stimulation the Answer for Management of Equine Headshaking?
Horses with trigeminal mediated headshaking (TMHS) have a decreased activation threshold of the trigeminal nerve and clinical signs are suspected to be a manifestation of trigeminal neuralgia. Electrical nerve stimulation (ENS) is used for management of neuralgia in humans and appears to work via gate control theory. Use of an equine specific percutaneous ENS program in over 130 TMHS horses has resulted in approximately 50% success return to previous work. Electroacupuncture may also be useful in the management TMHS. Optimization of ENS procedures for TMHS is likely to require a greater understanding of the etiopathogenesi...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - April 29, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Kirstie Pickles Source Type: research

Clinical Cardiology
VETERINARY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA: EQUINE PRACTICE (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - March 21, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Colin C. Schwarzwald, Katharyn J. Mitchell Source Type: research

Copyright
Elsevier (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - March 21, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Contributors
THOMAS J. DIVERS, DVM (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - March 21, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Contents
Colin C. Schwarzwald and Katharyn J. Mitchell (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - March 21, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice
Controversies in Equine Medicine and  Surgery (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - March 21, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Assessment of the Cardiovascular System in Horses During Prepurchase and Insurance Examinations
Arrhythmias detected on prepurchase examination should be confirmed with an ECG. Exercising ECG determines if the arrhythmia is overdriven during exercise or is a safety concern. An echocardiogram is needed in all horses with a grade 3/6 or louder mid to late systolic, holosystolic, or pansystolic murmur or any holodiastolic decrescendo murmur to identify the cardiac abnormality and its hemodynamic impact. Most horses with arrhythmias and murmurs have a normal performance career and life expectancy and are insurable. Risks for sudden death and congestive heart failure associated with the common murmurs and arrhythmias are ...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - March 11, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Virginia B. Reef Source Type: research

Cardiovascular Response to Exercise and Training, Exercise Testing in Horses
The physiology of exercise and training is fascinating, and hundreds of interesting studies have given insight into its mechanisms. Exercise testing is a useful clinical tool that can help veterinarians assess poor performance, fitness, and performance potential and prevent injuries. The clinically applicable aspects of cardiovascular adaptions to training and exercise testing are highlighted in this review. Different exercise tests should be used to evaluate horses performing in different disciplines and levels. Exercise tests that simultaneously assess several body systems can be beneficial when assessing poor performanc...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - March 11, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Cristobal Navas de Solis Source Type: research

Cardiac Therapeutics in Horses
Many cardiac therapeutics lack significant evidence of benefit in the horse, and in many cases their use is based on extrapolation of evidence from other species. In recent years there has been a push to develop a better understanding of both the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of these drugs. Recent data have described the use of antiarrhythmic agents including sotalol, flecainide, and amiodarone. Data about the use of ACE inhibitors in the management of congestive heart failure are encouraging and support their use in certain cases, wheras evidence for other medicines, such as pimobendan, remain speculative. (Sourc...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - March 11, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Adam Redpath, Mark Bowen Source Type: research

Equine Acquired Valvular Disease
Degenerative myxomatous disease is common and is associated with aging. Poor prognostic indicators for equine aortic regurgitation specifically include ventricular ectopy, increased pulse pressure, and hyperkinetic pulses. Valvular prolapse is a functional abnormality diagnosed echocardiographically, about which knowledge is limited. A better understanding of its role in valvular regurgitation is needed. Infective endocarditis presents with fever and other systemic signs accompanying valvular regurgitation. The prognosis is poor, warranting aggressive therapy. Other forms of valvular disease occur rarely, but often present...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - March 11, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Celia M. Marr Source Type: research

Cardiovascular Causes of Poor Performance and Exercise Intolerance and Assessment of Safety in the Equine Athlete
Horses have a high prevalence of resting arrhythmias, cardiac murmurs, and valvular regurgitation, and training can increase the prevalence. This makes it challenging for equine veterinarians who are asked to evaluate horses for poor performance to determine the clinical relevance of some findings. In addition, cardiac disease has the potential to cause collapse or sudden death, putting both the horse and rider at risk. Further diagnostics, such as echocardiograms and resting and exercising ECGs can help to sort out the impact of an abnormality found on resting physical examination. However uncertainty over the importance ...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - March 11, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Mary M. Durando Source Type: research

Cardiac Monitoring in Horses
Monitoring variables of cardiac performance in horses is challenging owing to patient size, temperament, and anatomic peculiarities. Blood pressure is a major determinant of afterload, but it is not a reliable surrogate of cardiac performance and tissue perfusion. Cardiac output, together with arterial and venous oxygen content, provides insight as to the adequacy of delivery of blood and oxygen to the body as a whole and can be used to gauge the fluid responsiveness and cardiovascular status of the patient. Measurement of intracardiac pressures serves to assess cardiac filling pressures, myocardial performance, and vascul...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - March 11, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Andre C. Shih Source Type: research

Cardiac Arrhythmias in Horses
Arrhythmias are common in horses. Sinus arrhythmia and first- and second-degree atrioventricular block are frequently found physiologic arrhythmias, but should immediately disappear after stress or exercise. Atrial premature depolarizations are usually not associated with poor performance, but are a potential trigger for atrial fibrillation. Atrial fibrillation results in an abnormal ventricular response during exercise and poses a risk for collapse in some horses. This arrhythmia can usually be treated by quinidine sulfate or transvenous electrical cardioversion. Ventricular premature depolarizations, especially when asso...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - March 11, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Gunther van Loon Source Type: research

Pericardial Disease, Myocardial Disease, and Great Vessel Abnormalities in Horses
This article focuses on the etiology, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of pericarditis, pericardial mass lesions, myocarditis, cardiomyopathy, and great vessel aneurysm or rupture. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - March 11, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Annelies Decloedt Source Type: research

Examination of Horses with Cardiac Disease
This article summarizes the approach to the cardiac examination at rest, highlighting key areas for the clinician to assess, and stressing the importance of context for assessing the significance of any abnormalities detected. Ancillary techniques, such as blood pressure measurement and the laboratory assessment of cardiac disease in the horse, are also introduced. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - March 11, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: John A. Keen Source Type: research

Equine Electrocardiography
Analyzing electrocardiographic (ECG) recordings, making a diagnosis and assessment of any arrhythmias present, is an important part of the workup of many equine cases. Accurate analysis requires a good-quality recording, free of as many artifacts as possible, with clear P-QRS-T complex morphology. For sustained arrhythmias, short-term recordings are sufficient to make the appropriate diagnosis before instigating treatment. Longer-term recordings are essential for arrhythmias that are paroxysmal, intermittent, or occurring infrequently, while exercising ECGs are required for arrhythmias associated with physical activity. A ...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - March 11, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Katharyn J. Mitchell Source Type: research

Overview of Equine Cardiac Disease
Equine heart diseases can be categorized with morphologic, etiologic, and physiologic diagnoses and classified anatomically as diseases of the pericardium, myocardium, valves (endocardium), and great vessels. An appreciation of normal and pathologic physiology is a key to understanding diagnosis and therapy of heart disease. Pathophysiologic diagnoses include arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, and pulmonary hypertension. Heart rhythm disturbances can occur in isolation or with structural disease. Heart failure stems from arterial filling owing to insufficient cardiac output. Pulmonary hypertension is associated with st...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - March 11, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: John D. Bonagura Source Type: research

Equine Congenital Heart Disease
This article reviews cardiac development and the fetal circulation, describes the morphologic method and the sequential segmental approach to CHD analysis, presents a summary of CHD in horses, and offers an overview of lesions that should be considered during evaluation of horses suspected to have CHD. For many forms of equine CHD, therapies are limited because cardiac interventions and cardiac surgery are not routinely pursued in this species. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - February 27, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Brian A. Scansen Source Type: research

Equine Echocardiography
This article provides an overview on the principles of transthoracic echocardiography in horses. Indications for echocardiography, equipment, and technical considerations are discussed and a systematic approach for a complete echocardiographic examination in horses is described. Methods for assessment of chamber dimensions, allometric scaling of measurements, assessment of systolic and diastolic ventricular function, assessment of atrial function, hemodynamic assessment, and evaluation of valvular regurgitation are explained, focusing on traditional 2-dimensional (2D), motion-mode, and Doppler echocardiographic methods. Se...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - February 27, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Colin C. Schwarzwald Source Type: research

Equine Cardiology in the Twenty-First Century
In the 34 years since the first Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice issue focused on cardiology was published, there have been tremendous advances made in the field of equine cardiology. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - February 27, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Colin C. Schwarzwald, Katharyn J. Mitchell Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Diagnostic Approaches to Understanding Equine Limb Wounds
An accurate and timely diagnosis of the systemic and local tissue influences of a wound are essential to target successful treatment measures and reach the best result for an affected horse. A complete physical examination should be completed for any wounded horse and appropriate systemic therapies instituted. Visual and manipulative examinations aid in the complete understanding of wounded tissues. Imaging and invasive diagnostic techniques also have value in determining the extent of a wound. Considering what tissues are involved from an inside –out perspective can assist in developing a complete diagnosis. (Source...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - November 15, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Earl M. Gaughan Source Type: research

Equine Wounds over Synovial Structures
Equine septic synovitis commonly occurs secondary to traumatic wounds. The distal limbs of horses have minimal soft tissue protection, thus wounds in these areas are more likely to involve adjacent synovial structures. Synovial sepsis can be debilitating due to difficulties clearing established infections and the degenerative changes that result from ongoing inflammation. Prompt diagnosis allows for immediate treatment, improving the prognosis. Goals for successful treatment of infected synovial structures due to wounds include early and accurate recognition of the condition, rapid resolution of pain and inflammation, comp...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - November 15, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Elsa K. Ludwig, Philip D. van Harreveld Source Type: research

Wound Management
Distal limb wounds in horses heal substantially different than trunk wounds, commonly resulting in exuberant granulation tissue and exposed and sequestered bone. Surgical intervention of severe rectovaginal lacerations in the mare should be delayed until the tissues have heeled and scar tissue has remodeled. Wounds resulting in severe hemorrhage require appropriate emergent fluid therapy and potentially transfusion therapy. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - November 15, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Randy B. Eggleston Source Type: research

Equine Practice on Wound Management
The goal of wound cleansing and care is the control or removal of tissue infection to allow healing in the most functional, cosmetic, fastest, and least expensive manner possible. This is accomplished through the removal of debris and necrotic tissue while reducing the bacterial load via careful use of mechanical techniques and cleaning agents, accepting that some level of tissue trauma will result. Keep in mind that the benefit of a clean wound must be weighed against the trauma inflicted in the process of cleansing. Veterinary health care professionals should take steps to reduce hospital-acquired infections and zoonotic...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - November 15, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Karl E. Frees Source Type: research

Topical Wound Medications
Topical therapies are used in equine wound healing to clean and decontaminate the wound environment after acute injury and to promote healing and decrease the risk of infection once the wound has initially been treated. Evolving antibiotic resistance has prompted judicious use of systemic antimicrobials, particularly in the treatment of local infections, such as wounds. The use of topical antiseptics to disinfect acute wounds and topical antimicrobials to manage chronic wounds is necessary to achieve successful healing. In addition, many topical medications can alter the wound environment to promote rapid and effective wou...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - November 15, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Britta S. Leise Source Type: research

Nonhealing Wounds of the Equine Limb
Nonhealing wounds present a common challenge to the equine practitioner. An underlying source of inflammation and infection is almost always present and needs to be resolved for healing to proceed. Wound d ébridement is the mainstay for this resolution. In addition, wound closure, wound dressings, and skin grafts can be used to achieve successful wound healing. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - November 15, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Michael Maher, Leann Kuebelbeck Source Type: research

Regenerative Medicine Therapies for Equine Wound Management
Wound management in horses can strike fear in some and passion in others. Wounds are common injuries in horses of all descriptions and requires exceptional knowledge and care to achieve a successful outcome. New treatments to overcome the critical challenges with equine wounds are always desired: managing dehisced and/or nonhealing wounds, managing exuberant granulation tissue, and ultimately achieving a functional tissue coverage. Regenerative medicine represents a broad set of tools with great promise to manipulate the deficiencies recognized in equine wound healing and improve the outcome. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - November 15, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Linda A. Dahlgren Source Type: research

Wound Management in the Horse
VETERINARY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA: EQUINE PRACTICE (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - November 15, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Earl M. Gaughan Source Type: research

Copyright
Elsevier (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - November 15, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Contributors
THOMAS J. DIVERS, DVM (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - November 15, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Contents
Earl M. Gaughan (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - November 15, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Clinical Cardiology (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - November 15, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Choosing the Best Approach to Wound Management and Closure
This article aims to help the practitioner by providing the tools to decide which type of closure or healing is best in a given situation. An overview of the main criteria and the different approaches to wound closure is presented. Each wound must be considered as a unique problem that requires a clinician to take into account all of its characteristics and limits to determine the best management approach. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - October 17, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Louis Kamus, Christine Theoret Source Type: research

Medical Therapy in Equine Wound Management
Suitable use of prophylactic antimicrobial drugs for wounds depends on the accurate selection of appropriate antibiotics, dosing regimen, and duration of use. Regional intravenous delivery and intraosseous infusion of antibiotics are pivotal to a successful outcome for deep-rooted infections, inadequately perfused tissue, and infected wounds containing biofilm. Antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads are predominantly helpful for wounds that have a poor blood supply and for those containing surgical implants that must remain in place. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - October 17, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: R. Reid Hanson Source Type: research

Equine Wound Management
Successful management of equine wounds relies on knowledge of the stages of wound healing, factors that can alter those stages, how healing stages can be manipulated, and adherence to the principles of wound healing. Challenges that complicate wound management include the inability to immobilize and/or confine equine patients, and maintain a clean environment during the critical initial stages of healing. Because of these challenges, the equine practitioner relies heavily on bandaging and external coaptation techniques to successfully treat and manage wounds. The type of bandage used is dictated by the region of the body t...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - October 17, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Randy B. Eggleston Source Type: research

Wound Management
Wounds, of many origins and conformations, are common for horses and show no bias by age, breed, sex, or athletic pursuit. Veterinarians develop preferences in diagnostic and treatment methods through education, experience, and discussion. So much of wound management evolves from the basic tenets of “First, do no harm.” With this in mind, the authors of this issue of Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice have used known medical science combined with their wealth of hands-on experience to offer practical, usable information for the diagnosis and management of equine wounds. (Source: Veterinary Cli...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - October 17, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Earl M. Gaughan Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Cardiac/Cardiovascular Conditions Affecting Sport Horses
This article discusses commonly encountered cardiac conditions in the sport horse. Physical examination, diagnostic approach, valvular disease, and arrhythmias with an impact on performance or ridden safety are discussed. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - July 12, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Katherine B. Chope Source Type: research

Neurologic Conditions Affecting the Equine Athlete
EPM, CVSM, and EDM are currently recognized as the 3 most common neurologic diseases in US horses, with the latter 2 conditions being most prevalent in young animals. Moreover, horses competing at shows and performance events are at greater risk for exposure to highly contagious, neurologic EHV-1 outbreaks. A clinical diagnosis of any neurologic disease should be based on a careful history, complete neurologic examination, and appropriate diagnostic testing and interpretation. However, mild or early neurologic signs can often mimic or be mistaken for an orthopedic condition when horses present for performance-related conce...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - July 12, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Daniela Bedenice, Amy L. Johnson Source Type: research

Lower Airway Disease in the Athletic Horse
The airways are the first part of the pathway in the oxygen transport chain that is critical to excellent athletic performance, and the lower airways are considered the final gatekeeper before oxygen enters the blood and carbon dioxide exits. Horses are blessed with large airways and lungs that allow them to be superb athletes, but the down side of this largesse on the part of evolution is that unless they are truly elite athletes they may withstand noninfectious disease of the lower respiratory tract for months to years before the owner or trainer notices. The two conditions of the lower respiratory tract that affect the ...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - July 12, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Melissa R. Mazan Source Type: research

Borreliosis in Sport Horse Practice
Given the variable clinical signs attributed to Borrelia burgdorferi, including infectious arthritis, neurologic disease, and behavioral changes, B burgdorferi is an important differential for decreased performance in sport horses. The primary vectors (Ixodes tick species) are expanding their range and thus Borrelia species are located in a wider area, making exposure more likely. Due to regionally high seroprevalence and vague clinical signs, diagnosis of Lyme disease in the horse is believed overestimated. Antibiotics are first-line treatment of confirmed Lyme disease. A single positive serologic test, by itself, is not ...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - July 12, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Eric Lockwood Swinebroad Source Type: research

Lameness Evaluation of the Athletic Horse
Lameness examination is commonly performed in the athletic horse. A skilled lameness diagnostician must have keen clinical and observational skills. Evaluation starts with a detailed history and thorough physical examination. Next, gait evaluation in the moving horse is performed. Lame horses have asymmetrical body movement due to unconscious shift of body weight. Recognition of the resultant head nod and pelvic hike is the basis for lameness diagnosis. Lameness identification is enhanced by circling, limb flexions, and riding. Most lame horses do not exhibit pathognomonic gait characteristics, and therefore, diagnostic an...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - July 12, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Elizabeth J. Davidson Source Type: research

Diagnosis of Skeletal Injury in the Sport Horse
This article discusses the basis of image formation of radiography, scintigraphy, PET, computed tomography (fan beam and cone beam), and magnetic resonance as it relates to imaging of musculoskeletal injury in the sport horse. The benefits and drawbacks of each modality are discussed with particular emphasis on sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of identification of subchondral bone injury. Examples of straightforward as well as confounding lesions are provided, emphasizing the need for appropriate clinical workup and diagnostic analgesia, where appropriate. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - July 12, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Kathryn B. Wulster Source Type: research

Understanding the Basic Principles of Podiatry
Foot-related lameness is one of the most frequently encountered problems in the equine industry. Therapeutic shoeing is a frequently used preventative discipline for the treatment of many causes of lameness. The primary goal for therapeutic applications is to offset the mechanical limitations and enhance the healing environment. Equine podiatry is a blend of the 2 highly respected professions each contributing to the task at hand, but neither formally educated and trained as collaborative team members with a common thread of podiatry principles. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - July 12, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Raul J. Bras, Ric Redden Source Type: research

Equine Sports Medicine: Our Daily Challenge
The equine athlete is a display of finesse, endurance, grace, power, ability, and fragility. The field of equine sports medicine has seen a dramatic and desperately needed influx of new information and research, which continues to expand our knowledge and abilities when evaluating, diagnosing, managing, and rehabilitating these amazing athletes. Those of us who have the fortune to work daily with sport horses are all too aware of the challenges that we encounter when evaluating and treating these athletes. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - July 12, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Jos é M. García-López Tags: Preface Source Type: research