Endocrine Disorders of the Equine Athlete
This article includes an in-depth discussion of ID and other risk factors for laminitis that are grouped together as equine metabolic syndrome. As horses age, the risk of pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction increases, and this endocrine disorder may exacerbate preexisting ID and further increase the risk of laminitis. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - May 29, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Nicholas Frank Source Type: research

Equine Manual Therapies in Sport Horse Practice
Manual therapies involve the application of the hands to the body, with a diagnostic or therapeutic intent. Touch therapies, massage, joint mobilization, and manipulation are all critical components in the management of muscular, articular, and neurologic components of select injuries in performance horses. Musculoskeletal conditions that are chronic or recurring, not readily diagnosed, or are not responding to conventional veterinary care may be indicators that manual therapy evaluation and treatment is needed. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - May 29, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Kevin K. Haussler Source Type: research

Neck, Back, and Pelvic Pain in Sport Horses
Pain localized to the neck, back, and or pelvis can result in a profound effect on the horse ’s performance. These conditions can present with a varied and nonspecific set of clinical signs. A careful and thorough examination of these areas by means of physical examination, lameness evaluation both in hand and under saddle, diagnostic anesthesia, and the use of multiple imaging modalities in combination is often necessary to have an accurate prognosis. Medical and surgical management where appropriate of the conditions highlighted in this article are discussed as well as their individual prognosis. (Source: Veterinar...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - May 28, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Jos é M. García-López Source Type: research

Muscle Conditions Affecting Sport Horses
Optimal function of skeletal muscle is essential for successful athletic performance. Even minor derangements in locomotor muscle function will impact power output, coordination, stamina, and desire to work during exercise. In this review, the presenting clinical signs, differential diagnoses, approach to diagnostic testing and treatment of muscle atrophy and weakness, focal muscle strain, and exertional myopathies are discussed. Exertional myopathies include polysaccharide storage myopathies, recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis, malignant hyperthermia, and myofibrillar myopathy. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - May 28, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Stephanie J. Valberg Source Type: research

Diagnosis of Soft Tissue Injury in the Sport Horse
This article discusses special ultrasonographic techniques, an overview of MRI image generation, and the use of contrast computed tomography for diagnosis of soft tissue injuries. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - May 28, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Kirstin A. Bubeck, Stacie Aarsvold Source Type: research

Regenerative Medicine and Rehabilitation for Tendinous and Ligamentous Injuries in Sport Horses
Tendon and ligament injuries are a common source of lameness in the athletic horse. Although tendons and ligaments have the ability to spontaneously heal, lesions tend to fill with biomechanically inferior fibrous tissue such that the horse is prone to reinjury. Regenerative medicine is used to improve quality of repair tissue and prevent reinjury. Platelet-rich plasma, stem cells, and autologous conditioned serum are the most commonly used orthobiologics in the horse. A tailored rehabilitation program is key to returning horses to athleticism following injury. The specifics of regenerative medicine and rehabilitation for ...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - May 23, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Kyla F. Ortved Source Type: research

Management and Rehabilitation of Joint Disease in Sport Horses
Joint disease is one of the most common issues effecting sport horses. Because there is no cure for joint disease, treatment goals surround slowing progression of the disease, minimizing pain, increasing function, and optimizing performance. Accomplishing these goals often requires a multimodal approach that combines systemic medications or supplements; intra-articular therapies, such as corticosteroids or biologics; management considerations; and physical therapy exercises. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - May 21, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Erin K. Contino Source Type: research

Upper Airway Conditions Affecting the Equine Athlete
Many abnormalities of the upper airway that can inhibit performance are determined on a critical resting endoscopic evaluation. Some dynamic abnormalities can only be seen during an exercising endoscopic evaluation, which should be performed whenever the history of abnormal noise or performance limitations is not completely consistent with the resting endoscopic findings. Head and neck position may play a critical role in the evaluation process and the exact position during performance should be reproduced during the clinical examination to definitively define the abnormality. Treatments and prognoses are presented. (Sourc...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - May 21, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Eric J. Parente Source Type: research

Advances in Diagnostics and Treatments in Horses and Foals with Gastric and Duodenal Ulcers
This article focuses on the current terminology for EGUS, etiologies and pathogenesis for lesions in the nonglandular and glandular stomach, diagnosis, and a comprehensive approach to the treatment and prevention of EGUS in adult horses and foals. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - April 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Pilar Camacho-Luna, Benjamin Buchanan, Frank M. Andrews Source Type: research

Practical Fluid Therapy and Treatment Modalities for Field Conditions for Horses and Foals with Gastrointestinal Problems
This article addresses the practical use of these 3 treatment categories that are essential to field practice. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - April 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: C. Langdon Fielding Source Type: research

Advances in the Diagnosis and Management of Equine Gastrointestinal Diseases
An illustrious group of colleagues has agreed to commit to writing articles for this issue of  Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice. We are very thankful for the excellent work presented here and honored to be the editors. With recent advantages of real-time polymerase chain reaction and next-generation sequencing, a whole new area of research on diagnostic and therapeutic a pproaches to equine gastrointestinal diseases has opened up for the veterinarian working in practice. In addition, “diagnostic tools” originally developed mostly for referral hospitals are continuously improving, gettin...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - April 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Henry St ämpfli, Angelika Schoster Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Recent Advances in the Diagnosis and Management of Equine Gastrointestinal Diseases
VETERINARY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA: EQUINE PRACTICE (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - April 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Henry St ämpfli, Angelika Schoster Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - April 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Contributors
THOMAS J. DIVERS, DVM (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - April 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Contents
Henry St ämpfli and Angelika Schoster (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - April 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Equine Sports Medicine (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - April 1, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Advances in Diagnostics and Treatments in Horses and Foals with Gastric and Duodenal Ulcers
This article focuses on the current terminology for EGUS, etiologies and pathogenesis for lesions in the nonglandular and glandular stomach, diagnosis, and a comprehensive approach to the treatment and prevention of EGUS in adult horses and foals. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - March 11, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Pilar Camacho-Luna, Benjamin Buchanan, Frank M. Andrews Source Type: research

Practical Fluid Therapy and Treatment Modalities for Field Conditions for Horses and Foals with Gastrointestinal Problems
This article addresses the practical use of these 3 treatment categories that are essential to field practice. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - March 11, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: C. Langdon Fielding Source Type: research

Advances in the Diagnosis and Management of Equine Gastrointestinal Diseases
An illustrious group of colleagues has agreed to commit to writing articles for this issue of  Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice. We are very thankful for the excellent work presented here and honored to be the editors. With recent advantages of real-time polymerase chain reaction and next-generation sequencing, a whole new area of research on diagnostic and therapeutic a pproaches to equine gastrointestinal diseases has opened up for the veterinarian working in practice. In addition, “diagnostic tools” originally developed mostly for referral hospitals are continuously improving, gettin...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - March 11, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Henry St ämpfli, Angelika Schoster Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Recent Advances in the Diagnosis and Management of Equine Gastrointestinal Diseases
VETERINARY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA: EQUINE PRACTICE (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - March 11, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Henry St ämpfli, Angelika Schoster Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - March 11, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Contributors
THOMAS J. DIVERS, DVM (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - March 11, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Contents
Henry St ämpfli and Angelika Schoster (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - March 11, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Equine Sports Medicine (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - March 11, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Diagnosis and Treatment of Undifferentiated and Infectious Acute Diarrhea in the Adult Horse
Acute, infectious, diarrhea in adult horses is a major cause of morbidity and is associated with numerous complications. Common causes include salmonellosis, clostridiosis, Coronavirus, and infection with Neorickettsia risticii (Potomac horse fever). Treatment is empirical and supportive until results of specific diagnostic tests are available. Supportive care is aimed at restoring hydration, correcting electrolyte imbalances, and limiting the systemic inflammatory response. The mainstays of therapy are intravenous fluid therapy, electrolyte supplementation where necessary, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, and nutrit...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - February 6, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Sarah D. Shaw, Henry St ämpfli Source Type: research

New Perspectives in Equine Intestinal Parasitic Disease
Regular anthelmintic treatment has contributed to anthelmintic resistance in horse helminths. This mass anthelmintic treatment was originally developed owing to a lack of larvicidal drugs against Strongylus vulgaris. The high prevalence of anthelmintic resistance and shortening of strongyle egg reappearance period after avermectins/moxidectins requires epidemiologically appropriate and sustainable measures. Selective anthelmintic treatment is a much-needed deworming approach: More than 50% of adult horses manifest no strongyle egg excretion. In this article, selective anthelmintic treatment procedure is described, with the...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - February 6, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Kurt Pfister, Deborah van Doorn Source Type: research

Diagnostics and Treatments in Chronic Diarrhea and Weight Loss in Horses
Chronic diarrhea in the horse is defined as diarrhea present for more than several days with little if any improvement. The diagnosis and treatment of horses with chronic diarrhea usually present a great challenge to the clinician. There are many limitations to treatment of these patients given the limited numbers in which a final diagnosis can be achieved. The lack of knowledge of the alterations of horse microbiota during chronic diarrhea and the multiplicity of causes also make treatment challenging. A poor prognosis is often attached to chronic diarrhea, particularly in cases with neoplasia and inflammatory bowel disea...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - February 6, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Olimpo Oliver-Espinosa Source Type: research

Enteral/Parenteral Nutrition in Foals and Adult Horses Practical Guidelines for the Practitioner
Nutritional support is an important adjunct to medical therapy in the sick, injured, or debilitated equine patient. What is not clear is the optimal route, composition, or amounts of support. The enteral route should be chosen whenever possible to maximize the benefits to the gastrointestinal tract and the patient as a whole. Complete or partial parenteral nutrition is most useful as a bridge during recovery and transition to enteral feeding in the horse. The reader is encouraged to consider nutritional support whether enteral or parenteral in any anorexic, chronically debilitated, or sick equine patient. (Source: Veterina...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - February 6, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Elizabeth A. Carr Source Type: research

Diagnosis and Treatment of Undifferentiated and Infectious Acute Diarrhea in the Adult Horse
Acute, infectious, diarrhea in adult horses is a major cause of morbidity and is associated with numerous complications. Common causes include salmonellosis, clostridiosis, Coronavirus, and infection with Neorickettsia risticii (Potomac horse fever). Treatment is empirical and supportive until results of specific diagnostic tests are available. Supportive care is aimed at restoring hydration, correcting electrolyte imbalances, and limiting the systemic inflammatory response. The mainstays of therapy are intravenous fluid therapy, electrolyte supplementation where necessary, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, and nutrit...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - February 6, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Sarah D. Shaw, Henry St ämpfli Source Type: research

New Perspectives in Equine Intestinal Parasitic Disease
Regular anthelmintic treatment has contributed to anthelmintic resistance in horse helminths. This mass anthelmintic treatment was originally developed owing to a lack of larvicidal drugs against Strongylus vulgaris. The high prevalence of anthelmintic resistance and shortening of strongyle egg reappearance period after avermectins/moxidectins requires epidemiologically appropriate and sustainable measures. Selective anthelmintic treatment is a much-needed deworming approach: More than 50% of adult horses manifest no strongyle egg excretion. In this article, selective anthelmintic treatment procedure is described, with the...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - February 6, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Kurt Pfister, Deborah van Doorn Source Type: research

Diagnostics and Treatments in Chronic Diarrhea and Weight Loss in Horses
Chronic diarrhea in the horse is defined as diarrhea present for more than several days with little if any improvement. The diagnosis and treatment of horses with chronic diarrhea usually present a great challenge to the clinician. There are many limitations to treatment of these patients given the limited numbers in which a final diagnosis can be achieved. The lack of knowledge of the alterations of horse microbiota during chronic diarrhea and the multiplicity of causes also make treatment challenging. A poor prognosis is often attached to chronic diarrhea, particularly in cases with neoplasia and inflammatory bowel disea...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - February 6, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Olimpo Oliver-Espinosa Source Type: research

Enteral/Parenteral Nutrition in Foals and Adult Horses Practical Guidelines for the Practitioner
Nutritional support is an important adjunct to medical therapy in the sick, injured, or debilitated equine patient. What is not clear is the optimal route, composition, or amounts of support. The enteral route should be chosen whenever possible to maximize the benefits to the gastrointestinal tract and the patient as a whole. Complete or partial parenteral nutrition is most useful as a bridge during recovery and transition to enteral feeding in the horse. The reader is encouraged to consider nutritional support whether enteral or parenteral in any anorexic, chronically debilitated, or sick equine patient. (Source: Veterina...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - February 6, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Elizabeth A. Carr Source Type: research

Foal Diarrhea
This article reviews these aspects and recent developments in the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - February 3, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Olimpo Oliver-Espinosa Source Type: research

Toxic Causes of Intestinal Disease in Horses
The objective of this work is to review several common toxins and poisonous plants that produce primarily gastrointestinal disease. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - February 3, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Bryan L. Stegelmeier, T. Zane Davis Source Type: research

Foal Diarrhea
This article reviews these aspects and recent developments in the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - February 3, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Olimpo Oliver-Espinosa Source Type: research

Toxic Causes of Intestinal Disease in Horses
The objective of this work is to review several common toxins and poisonous plants that produce primarily gastrointestinal disease. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - February 3, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Bryan L. Stegelmeier, T. Zane Davis Source Type: research

Techniques and Accuracy of Abdominal Ultrasound in Gastrointestinal Diseases of Horses and Foals
Diagnostic ultrasonography has been used as a test to determine the presence or absence of gastrointestinal disease in horses and foals. General techniques and anatomic landmarks are reviewed. Many clinical reports that have included diagnostic ultrasound as part of their diagnostic process and accuracy studies are necessary to determine the usefulness of diagnostic ultrasound in clinical practice. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - February 2, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Nicola C. Cribb, Luis G. Arroyo Source Type: research

Probiotic Use in Equine Gastrointestinal Disease
Probiotics are commonly used in human and veterinary medicine due to their postulated positive effects on overall and specifically gastrointestinal health. Although some beneficial effects have been shown in several human diseases, a general beneficial effect of probiotics is currently not supported. In horses, well-designed studies to date are few, results are conflicting, and the effects of probiotics are questionable. Adverse effects are rare; however, intestinal adverse effects (diarrhea) have been reported in foals. Quality control of over-the-counter probiotics is not tightly regulated, and labels often do not reflec...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - February 2, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Angelika Schoster Source Type: research

Understanding the Intestinal Microbiome in Health and Disease
This article provides readers with the basic concepts necessary to understand studies using recent molecular methods performed in intestinal microbiome assessment, with special emphasis on the high throughput sequencing. This review also summarizes the current knowledge on this topic and discusses future insights on the interaction between the intestinal microbiome and equine health. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - February 2, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Marcio Carvalho Costa, Jeffrey Scott Weese Source Type: research

Advances in Diagnostics and Treatments in Horses with Acute Colic and Postoperative Ileus
Differentiating between medical and surgical causes of colic is one of the primary goals of the colic workup, because early surgical intervention improves prognosis in horses requiring surgery. Despite the increasing availability of advanced diagnostics (hematologic analyses, abdominal ultrasound imaging, etc), the most accurate indicators of the need for surgery remain the presence of moderate to severe signs of abdominal pain, recurrence of pain after appropriate analgesic therapy, and the absence of intestinal borborygmi. Investigation of novel biomarkers, which may help to differentiate surgical lesions from those that...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - February 2, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Megan Burke, Anthony Blikslager Source Type: research

Equine Dysautonomia
Equine dysautonomia (ED; also known as equine grass sickness) is a neurological disease of unknown cause, which primarily affects grazing adult horses. The clinical signs reflect degeneration of specific neuronal populations, predominantly within the autonomic and enteric nervous systems, with disease severity and prognosis determined by the extent of neuronal loss. This review is primarily focused on the major clinical decision-making processes in relation to ED, namely, (1) clinical diagnosis, (2) selection of appropriate ancillary diagnostic tests, (3) obtaining diagnostic confirmation, (4) selection of treatment candid...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - February 2, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Bruce C. McGorum, R. Scott Pirie Source Type: research

Techniques and Accuracy of Abdominal Ultrasound in Gastrointestinal Diseases of Horses and Foals
Diagnostic ultrasonography has been used as a test to determine the presence or absence of gastrointestinal disease in horses and foals. General techniques and anatomic landmarks are reviewed. Many clinical reports that have included diagnostic ultrasound as part of their diagnostic process and accuracy studies are necessary to determine the usefulness of diagnostic ultrasound in clinical practice. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - February 2, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Nicola C. Cribb, Luis G. Arroyo Source Type: research

Probiotic Use in Equine Gastrointestinal Disease
Probiotics are commonly used in human and veterinary medicine due to their postulated positive effects on overall and specifically gastrointestinal health. Although some beneficial effects have been shown in several human diseases, a general beneficial effect of probiotics is currently not supported. In horses, well-designed studies to date are few, results are conflicting, and the effects of probiotics are questionable. Adverse effects are rare; however, intestinal adverse effects (diarrhea) have been reported in foals. Quality control of over-the-counter probiotics is not tightly regulated, and labels often do not reflec...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - February 2, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Angelika Schoster Source Type: research

Understanding the Intestinal Microbiome in Health and Disease
This article provides readers with the basic concepts necessary to understand studies using recent molecular methods performed in intestinal microbiome assessment, with special emphasis on the high throughput sequencing. This review also summarizes the current knowledge on this topic and discusses future insights on the interaction between the intestinal microbiome and equine health. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - February 2, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Marcio Carvalho Costa, Jeffrey Scott Weese Source Type: research

Advances in Diagnostics and Treatments in Horses with Acute Colic and Postoperative Ileus
Differentiating between medical and surgical causes of colic is one of the primary goals of the colic workup, because early surgical intervention improves prognosis in horses requiring surgery. Despite the increasing availability of advanced diagnostics (hematologic analyses, abdominal ultrasound imaging, etc), the most accurate indicators of the need for surgery remain the presence of moderate to severe signs of abdominal pain, recurrence of pain after appropriate analgesic therapy, and the absence of intestinal borborygmi. Investigation of novel biomarkers, which may help to differentiate surgical lesions from those that...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - February 2, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Megan Burke, Anthony Blikslager Source Type: research

Equine Dysautonomia
Equine dysautonomia (ED; also known as equine grass sickness) is a neurological disease of unknown cause, which primarily affects grazing adult horses. The clinical signs reflect degeneration of specific neuronal populations, predominantly within the autonomic and enteric nervous systems, with disease severity and prognosis determined by the extent of neuronal loss. This review is primarily focused on the major clinical decision-making processes in relation to ED, namely, (1) clinical diagnosis, (2) selection of appropriate ancillary diagnostic tests, (3) obtaining diagnostic confirmation, (4) selection of treatment candid...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - February 2, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Bruce C. McGorum, R. Scott Pirie Source Type: research

Disease and Surgery of the Equine Lens
Examination of the lens is critical, particularly when evaluating horses with visual impairment or performing prepurchase examinations. To adequately evaluate the lens, the pupil must be pharmacologically dilated. A cataract is any lens opacity. The size, density, and position of a cataract determine the impact on vision. Cataracts may be congenital or inherited or occur secondary to trauma or equine recurrent uveitis. Surgical removal is the only treatment option for vision impairing cataracts, but careful selection of surgical candidates is critical for successful outcomes. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - November 3, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Wendy M. Townsend Source Type: research

Equine Glaucoma
Glaucoma is a multifactorial neurodegenerative ocular disease leading to progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells and their axons that form the optic nerve, causing blindness. Knowledge of the pathogenesis and development of equine glaucoma is in its infancy compared with human glaucoma. Glaucoma occurs most commonly secondary to uveitis and may be underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed in horses suffering from uveitis. Recognition and clinical diagnosis of glaucoma in the horse is improved with clinician awareness and the availability of handheld tonometers. Therapy for glaucoma is aimed at decreasing aqueous humor production t...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - November 3, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Tammy Miller Michau Source Type: research

Ocular Manifestations of Systemic Disease in the Horse
This article provides practitioners with information regarding the most common systemic diseases of horses in North America that have ocular manifestations, organized by ocular signs. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - November 3, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Kathryn L. Wotman, Amy L. Johnson Source Type: research

The Equine Fundus
This article reviews the normal anatomy and appearance of the equine fundus and discusses basic and advanced examination techniques. It also discusses common findings in the equine fundus and their interpretation. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - November 3, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Gil Ben-Shlomo Source Type: research