Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers have no effect on the outcomes of endovascular revascularization in tibial arterial occlusive disease.
Abstract The effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEI/ARBs) on angiogenesis, myocardial remodeling and intermittent claudication have been studied. Clinical studies have shown reduced re-intervention after cardiac stenting with the use of ACEI/ARBs. We hypothesized that the use of ACEI/ARBs decreases re-interventions after endovascular revascularization in tibial artery disease (TAD) patients. This is a retrospective study comparing the effects of ACEI/ARBs on the outcomes after endovascular revascularization for TAD. We divided all patients that underwent endovas...
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - July 3, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Juneja A, Zia S, Abeysekara A, Shams S, Singh K, Schor J, Deitch J Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Indoxyl sulfate promotes the atherosclerosis through up-regulating the miR-34a expression in endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro.
Abstract Atherosclerosis (AS) is one of the most common cardiovascular events in patients with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI). During the development of CRI, uremic toxins, including indoxyl sulfate (IS), are pivotal risk factors for AS. However, the underlying mechanism between AS and IS has not been fully elucidated. The present study was designed to test our hypothesis that IS promotes the AS by regulating viability, proliferation, migration and apoptosis of endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. In this present study, our date showed that IS inhibited the cell viability of human umbilical vein ...
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - June 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Li X, Lu Z, Zhou F, Jin W, Yang Y, Chen S, Xie Z, Zhao Y Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

4-hydroxy-2-nonenal decreases coronary endothelial cell migration: Potentiation by aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 inhibition.
Abstract 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) is a reactive aldehyde, which is involved in oxidative stress associated pathogenesis. The cellular toxicity of 4HNE is mitigated by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 2. Thus, we hypothesize that ALDH2 inhibition exacerbates 4HNE-induced decrease in coronary endothelial cell (EC) migration in vitro. To test our hypothesis, we pharmacologically inhibited ALDH2 in cultured mouse coronary ECs (MCECs) by disulfiram (DSF) (2.5 μM) before challenging the cells with different doses of 4HNE (25, 50 and 75 μM) for 4, 12, 16 and 24 h. We evaluated MCEC migration by scratch wound migr...
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - June 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Roy B, Sundar K, Palaniyandi SS Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Increased Ephrin-B2 expression in pericytes contributes to retinal vascular death in rodents.
Abstract AIMS: Diabetes-induced retinal vascular cell death aggravates diabetic retinopathy (DR) to the proliferative stage and blindness. Pericytes play a crucial role in retinal capillaries survival, stability, and angiogenesis. Ephrin-B2 is a tyrosine kinase that regulates pericytes/endothelial cells communication during angiogenesis; yet, its role in DR is still unclear. We hypothesize that diabetes increases Ephrin-B2 signaling in pericytes, which contributes to inflammation and retinal vascular cell death. METHODS: Selective inhibition of the Ephrin-B2 expression in the retinal pericytes was achieved us...
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - June 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Coucha M, Barrett AC, Bailey J, Abdelghani M, Abdelsaid M Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Corrigendum to "Chlorogenic acid attenuates diabetic retinopathy by reducing VEGF expression and inhibiting VEGF-mediated retinal neoangiogenesis" [Vascul. Pharmacol. 101(2018) 29-37].
Corrigendum to "Chlorogenic acid attenuates diabetic retinopathy by reducing VEGF expression and inhibiting VEGF-mediated retinal neoangiogenesis" [Vascul. Pharmacol. 101(2018) 29-37]. Vascul Pharmacol. 2020 May 14;:106698 Authors: Mei X, Zhou L, Zhang T, Lu B, Sheng Y, Ji L PMID: 32417323 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - May 14, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mei X, Zhou L, Zhang T, Lu B, Sheng Y, Ji L Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Estrogen increases expression of vascular alpha 2C adrenoceptor through the cAMP/Epac/JNK/AP-1 pathway and potentiates cold-induced vasoconstriction.
Abstract Cutaneous cold-induced vasoconstriction is a normal physiological reaction mediated by alpha 2C-adrenergic receptors (α2C-ARs) expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). When this reaction is exaggerated, Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) ensues. RP is more prevalent in females compared to age-matched men. We previously established that 17-β estradiol (estrogen) upregulates α2C-ARs in human VSMCs via a cAMP/Epac/Rap pathway. We also showed that cAMP acts through JNK to increase α2C-AR expression. However, whether estrogen employs JNK to regulate α2C-AR is not investigated. Kno...
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - May 11, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Fardoun MM, Issa K, Maaliki D, Nasser SA, Baydoun E, Eid AH Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Effects of rivaroxaban and dabigatran on local expression of coagulation and inflammatory factors within human aortic stenotic valves.
CONCLUSIONS: NOACs at therapeutic concentrations may inhibit the effects of FXa and thrombin at in vitro level. It might be speculated that long-term treatment with rivaroxaban or dabigatran could attenuate the progression of AS in humans. PMID: 32387621 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - May 6, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Wypasek E, Natorska J, Mazur P, Kopytek M, Gawęda B, Kapusta P, Madeja J, Iwaniec T, Kapelak B, Undas A Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Targeting androgen receptor in macrophages inhibits phosphate-induced vascular smooth muscle cell calcification by decreasing IL-6 expression.
Abstract Vascular calcification (VC) is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, its mechanisms remain unclear. VC, similar to atherosclerosis, is an inflammatory disease. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play a key role in VC progression. The androgen receptor (AR) in monocytes/macrophages plays an important role in inflammatory diseases. Here, we define the role of macrophage (MФ) AR in inorganic phosphate-induced VSMC calcification. Our results show that the conditioning medium (CM) of silencing AR in macrophages inhibits inorganic phosphate-induced human aortic smooth muscle cell (H...
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - May 5, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Pang H, Xiao L, Lu Z, Chen H, Shang Z, Jiang N, Wang X, Wei F, Jiang A, Wang L, Niu Y Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Arg mediates LPS-induced disruption of the pulmonary endothelial barrier.
Abstract Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is a devastating disease process that involves dysregulated inflammation and decreased alveolar-capillary barrier function. Despite increased understanding of the pathophysiology, no effective targeted therapies exist to treat ARDS. Recent preclinical studies suggest that the multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor, imatinib, which targets the Abl kinases c-Abl and Arg, has the potential to restore endothelial dysfunction caused by inflammatory agonists. Prior work demonstrates that imatinib attenuates LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-induced vascular leak and inflammation; howe...
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - March 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Rizzo AN, Belvitch P, Demeritte R, Garcia JGN, Letsiou E, Dudek SM Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Simulated hyperglycemia impairs insulin signaling in endothelial cells through a hyperosmolar mechanism.
CONCLUSIONS: HG impairs the PI3K/AKT/eNOS pathway and shifts insulin signaling towards the activation of mitogenic and pro-inflammatory effectors, such as p38 and ERK1/2. These effects may explain the progression of insulin resistance as a result of endothelial glucotoxicity. PMID: 32229255 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - March 27, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Madonna R, Pieragostino D, Rossi C, Confalone P, Cicalini I, Minnucci I, Zucchelli M, Del Boccio P, De Caterina R Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Increased fractalkine and vascular dysfunction in obesity and in type 2 diabetes. Effects of oral antidiabetic treatment.
Abstract Activation of fractalkine and other chemokines plays an important role in atherogenesis and, in conjunction with endothelial dysfunction, promotes premature vascular damage in obesity and diabetes. We hypothesized that increased circulating fractalkine coexists with impaired vasomotor function in metabolically healthy or unhealthy obesity, and that treatment with antidiabetic drugs may impact these abnormalities in type 2 diabetes. Compared to lean subjects, in both obese groups the vasodilator responses to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside were impaired (both P 
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - March 26, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Schinzari F, Tesauro M, Campia U, Cardillo C Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Maslinic acid suppresses macrophage foam cells formation: Regulation of monocyte recruitment and macrophage lipids homeostasis.
This study elucidates the regulatory effect of MA in monocyte recruitment, macrophage lipid accumulation and cholesterol efflux. Our findings demonstrate that MA inhibits THP-1 monocyte adhesion to HUVEC cells in a TNFα-dependent and independent manner, but it induces trans-endothelial migration marginally at low concentration. MA down-regulates both gene and protein expression on VCAM-1 and MCP-1 in HUVECs. We further showed that MA suppresses macrophage foam cells formation, as indicated from the Oil-Red-O staining and flow cytometric analysis of intracellular lipids accumulation. The effects observed may be attrib...
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - March 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Phang SW, Ooi BK, Ahemad N, Yap WH Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is a full endothelium-derived factor in rats.
ier A Abstract Most of what is known on vascular brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) derived from experiments on cultured endothelial cells. Therefore, the present study compared BDNF levels/localization in artery (aorta) vs vein (vena cava) from a same territory in rats either sedentary (SED) or exposed to treadmill exercise (EX) as a mean to stimulate endogenous endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production. In SED rats, for both artery and vein, BDNF was strongly expressed by endothelial cells, while only a faint and scattered expression was observed throughout the media. Endothelial and muscular BDNF staining ...
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - March 13, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Cefis M, Quirié A, Pernet N, Marie C, Garnier P, Prigent-Tessier A Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Corrigendum to "Wogonin inhibits LPS-induced vascular permeability via suppressing MLCK/MLC pathway" [Vascular pharmacology 72 (2015) 43-52].
Corrigendum to "Wogonin inhibits LPS-induced vascular permeability via suppressing MLCK/MLC pathway" [Vascular pharmacology 72 (2015) 43-52]. Vascul Pharmacol. 2020 Mar 11;:106612 Authors: Huang Y, Luo X, Li X, Song X, Wei L, Li Z, You Q, Guo Q, Lu N PMID: 32171643 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - March 11, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Huang Y, Luo X, Li X, Song X, Wei L, Li Z, You Q, Guo Q, Lu N Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Methylglyoxal-induced miR-223 suppresses rat vascular KATP channel activity by downregulating Kir6.1 mRNA in carbonyl stress.
CONCLUSION: Vascular KATP channel is important for miR-223 targeting. SIGNIFICANCE: Regulation of the miR-223 level may be a novel strategy for clinical treatment of diabetes. PMID: 32151743 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - March 6, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jin X, Wu Y, Cui N, Jiang C, Li SS Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Effects of edoxaban and warfarin on vascular remodeling: Atherosclerotic plaque progression and collateral artery growth.
SH Abstract BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Oral anticoagulation prevents thromboembolism in atrial fibrillation. Factor Xa inhibitors, like edoxaban, are known to reduce inflammation and proliferation of smooth muscle cells, while vitamin K antagonism can cause vascular calcific damage. The influence of edoxaban compared to warfarin on vascular remodeling, atherosclerosis and arteriogenesis is unknown. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE-/-) mice were fed cholesterol-rich diet alone (control, co), with warfarin+vitamin K1 (warf) or with edoxaban (Edo) for 8 weeks. After 6 weeks, femoral arter...
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - February 17, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Millenaar D, Bachmann P, Böhm M, Custodis F, Schirmer SH Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Berberine protects Kawasaki disease-induced human coronary artery endothelial cells dysfunction by inhibiting of oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress.
Abstract Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute febrile illness characterized by systemic vasculitis especially in coronary arteries. Berberine (BBR) shows several beneficial effects on cardiovascular system. The present study is to investigate whether BBR exerts protective effect against KD-induced damage of human coronary artery endothelial cell (HCAECs) and the underlying mechanisms. HCAECs exposed to medium with 15% serum from KD patients or healthy volunteers for 24 h. Stimulated HCAECs were treated with vehicle (without BBR) and BBR (20 μM) for 24 h, the cell apoptosis, cell cycle, induction of intracell...
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - February 15, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Xu M, Qi Q, Men L, Wang S, Li M, Xiao M, Chen X, Wang S, Wang G, Jia H, Liu C Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Melatonin inhibits macrophage infiltration and promotes plaque stabilization by upregulating anti-inflammatory HGF/c-Met system in the atherosclerotic rabbit: USPIO-enhanced MRI assessment.
Abstract Macrophage plays critical roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis (AS), and is an attractive target for detecting and treating vulnerable plaque. Our previous study showed that melatonin (MLT) ameliorated AS by suppressing the pro-inflammatory Toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor kappa B system in high-fat-fed rabbit. However, it is unknown whether the anti-atherosclerotic properties of MLT are associated with the upregulation of anti-inflammatory hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (c-Met) system. In present study, we examined whether MLT could inhibit macrophage i...
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - February 15, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Hu ZP, Fang XL, Sheng B, Guo Y, Yu YQ Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Differential expression of microRNA and arachidonic acid metabolism in aspirin-treated human cardiac and peri-cardiac fat-derived mesenchymal stem cells.
In conclusion, MSCs from human myocardium and peri-myocardial fat tissue have respond differentially to aspirin treatment by alterations in miR expression and AA metabolism. The study further raises an intriguing issue as to whether the copious amounts of aspirin taken worldwide by patients with cardiovascular disease may have direct impacts on their heart repair processes by regulation of stromal cell miR expression and AA metabolism. PMID: 32044414 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - February 7, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ruan DT, Gao S, Shelat H, King B, Geng YJ Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Beta-blocker therapy and risk of vascular dementia: A population-based prospective study.
i A Abstract There are a few studies that report cognitive impairment as a complication of treatment with beta- blockers. We aimed to evaluate the longitudinal association between use of beta-blockers, as a class, and incident risk of all-cause dementia, vascular dementia, Alzheimer's and mixed dementia in the prospective population-based Malmö Preventive Project. We included 18,063 individuals (mean age 68.2, males 63.4%) followed up for 84,506 person-years. Dementia cases were retrieved from the Swedish National Patient Register and validated by review of medical records and neuroimaging data. We performed ...
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - January 17, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Holm H, Ricci F, Di Martino G, Bachus E, Nilsson ED, Ballerini P, Melander O, Hansson O, Nägga K, Magnusson M, Fedorowski A Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Association of the European Society of Cardiology echocardiographic probability grading for pulmonary hypertension with short and mid-term clinical outcomes after heart valve surgery.
CONCLUSION: The high PH probability as evaluated by the ESC PH echocardiographic probability model, is associated with increased short- and mid-term mortality and morbidity and reduced right ventricular systolic function after cardiac surgery, Thus, additional echocardiographic parameters assessing PH probability are valuable tools to stratify risk in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. PMID: 31904543 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - January 2, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Madonna R, Bonitatibus G, Vitulli P, Pierdomenico SD, Galiè N, De Caterina R Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Fibroblast growth factor 21; review on its participation in vascular calcification pathology.
Abstract Vascular calcification (VC) is an independent cardiovascular event and also a complication commonly found in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetic patients. The mechanisms underpinning pathophysiology of VC is yet to be fully understood. Nevertheless, certain processes are generally believed to participate in its onset and progression. VC pathology is characterized by disequilibrium in the amount of natural inhibitors and active inducers of VC process. The imbalance may favor ectopic deposition of calcium-phosphate in form of hydroxyapatite in media or intima tunica compartments of blood vessels. This...
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - December 24, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Olapoju Samuel O, Isaiah AO, Xoan LT Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

LIM-only protein FHL2 attenuates inflammation in vascular smooth muscle cells through inhibition of the NF κB pathway.
LIM-only protein FHL2 attenuates inflammation in vascular smooth muscle cells through inhibition of the NFκB pathway. Vascul Pharmacol. 2019 Dec 19;:106634 Authors: van de Pol V, Vos M, DeRuiter MC, Goumans MJ, de Vries CJM, Kurakula K Abstract Despite the advent of new-generation drug-eluting stents, in-stent restenosis remains a significant problem in patients with coronary artery disease. In- stent restenosis is defined as the gradual re-narrowing of a stented coronary artery lesion due to arterial damage with subsequent local inflammation of the vessel wall and excessive growth of the vascul...
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - December 19, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: van de Pol V, Vos M, DeRuiter MC, Goumans MJ, de Vries CJM, Kurakula K Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Aspirin antiplatelet effects are associated with body weight.
CONCLUSION: Insufficient pharmacodynamic response to aspirin is associated with body weight. This finding may play a role in the impaired clinical efficacy of aspirin in patients>70 kg. An optimal aspirin regime in these patients needs to be evaluated in large scale trials. PMID: 31862488 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - December 17, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mourikis P, Zako S, Dannenberg L, Helten C, Naguib D, Hohlfeld T, Petzold T, Levkau B, Zeus T, Kelm M, Polzin A Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Microbiota are critical for vascular physiology: Germ-free status weakens contractility and induces sex-specific vascular remodeling in mice.
In conclusion, these observations indicate that commensal microbiota of a holobiont are central to maintain proper vascular function and structure homeostasis, especially in males. PMID: 31843471 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - December 13, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Edwards JM, Roy S, Tomcho JC, Schreckenberger ZJ, Chakraborty S, Bearss NR, Saha P, McCarthy CG, Vijay-Kumar M, Joe B, Wenceslau CF Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Thrombin inhibition by dabigatran attenuates endothelial dysfunction in diabetic mice.
Abstract Diabetic patients have coagulation abnormalities, in which thrombin plays a key role. Whereas accumulating evidence suggests that it also contributes to the development of vascular dysfunction through the activation of protease-activated receptors (PARs). Here we investigated whether the blockade of thrombin attenuates endothelial dysfunction in diabetic mice. Induction of diabetes by streptozotocin (STZ) increased the expression of PAR1, PAR3, and PAR4 in the aorta. STZ-induced diabetic mice showed impairment of endothelial function, while the administration of dabigatran etexilate, a direct thrombin inh...
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - November 20, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Rahadian A, Fukuda D, Salim HM, Yagi S, Kusunose K, Yamada H, Soeki T, Shimabukuro M, Sata M Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Sildenafil reduces aortic endothelial dysfunction and structural damage in spontaneously hypertensive rats: Role of NO, NADPH and COX-1 pathways.
In conclusion, sildenafil reverses endothelial dysfunction in SHR by improving vascular relaxation to acetylcholine with increased NO bioavailability, reducing the oxidative stress and COX-1 prostanoids, and improving cGMP/PKG signaling. Also, sildenafil reduces structural endothelial damage. Thus, sildenafil is a promising novel pharmacologic strategy to treat endothelial dysfunction in hypertensive states reinforcing its potential role as adjuvant in the pharmacotherapy of cardiovascular diseases. PMID: 31689530 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - November 2, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Leal MAS, Aires R, Pandolfi T, Marques VB, Campagnaro BP, Pereira TMC, Meyrelles SS, Campos-Toimil M, Vasquez EC Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Metformin inhibited homocysteine-induced upregulation of endothelin receptors through the Sirt1/NF- κB signaling pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells.
In conclusion, these data demonstrated that Met inhibited the Hcy-induced increase in endothelin receptor expression by activating Sirt1 and then inhibiting NF-κB in VSMCs. These findings may provide insights into the mechanism underlying of Met-treated cardiovascular diseases induced by Hcy. PMID: 31678650 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - October 31, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Chen Y, Su X, Qin Q, Yu Y, Jia M, Kong L, Zhang H, Li H Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Low prevalence of Post-thrombotic syndrome in patients treated with rivaroxaban.
This study aimed to compare the prevalence of PTS and RVT, in patients with previous DVT treated with rivaroxaban or enoxaparin/warfarin. A total of 129 patients with previous proximal lower limb DVT and treated with rivaroxaban (n = 71) or enoxaparin/warfarin (n = 58) for at least 3 months were included. The Villalta scale for PTS was performed after treatment. The median duration of the DVT symptoms before anticoagulation was 7 days for both groups. The rate of PTS was 50.7% in the patients treated with rivaroxaban and 69% in the enoxaparin/warfarin group. Enoxaparin/warfarin showed an increased prevalence of...
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - October 30, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ferreira T, Huber SC, de Moraes Martinelli B, Junior AL, Menezes FH, Orsi FA, Bittar LF, de Oliveira LFG, Sodre LR, Mello TT, Rielli G, Colella MP, de Paula EV, Yamaguti-Hayakawa GG, Montalvão S, Annichino-Bizzacchi JM Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Rapid effects of aldosterone on platelets, coagulation, and fibrinolysis lead to experimental thrombosis augmentation.
Abstract An increase in aldosterone levels positively correlates with an increased risk of acute cardiovascular thrombotic events. The aim of the study was to determine the mechanism of action of prothrombotic aldosterone focusing on the rapid effects of the hormone on platelets, coagulation, and fibrinolysis. A wide panel of advanced ex vivo and in vitro techniques was used for the evaluation of coagulation and fibrinolysis in aldosterone-treated rats. Additionally, two experimental mice models of thrombosis, which allowed for the intravital observation of the first stage of thrombus formation in real time, were ...
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - October 23, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Gromotowicz-Poplawska A, Marcinczyk N, Misztal T, Golaszewska A, Aleksiejczuk M, Rusak T, Chabielska E Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

The hypertensive potential of estrogen: An untold story.
Abstract Cardiovascular disease (CVD) are the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The implication of estrogen in these diseases has been extensively studied. While the vast majority of argue for a cardioprotective role of estrogen in vascular inflammation such as in atherosclerosis, the role of estrogen in hypertension remains far from being resolved. The vasorelaxant effect of estrogen has already been well-established. However, emerging evidence supports a vasoconstrictive potential of the hormone. It has been proposed that estrogen-induced type 1 nitric oxide synthase-1 (nNOS) microenvironment acc...
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - October 17, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Fardoun M, Dehaini H, Shaito A, Mesmar J, El-Yazbi A, Badran A, Beydoun E, Eid AH Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Effects of masitinib compared with tadalafil for the treatment of monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats.
Abstract Targeting vascular remodeling in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains a challenge given the lack of potent anti-remodeling abilities of the therapeutic drugs. Although sildenafil has been shown to ameliorate cardiopulmonary remodeling, that of tadalafil is questionable. Masitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor appears safer and more potent than imatinib for treatment of malignancies, but its efficacy on PAH is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the anti-remodeling properties of masitinib (5, 15, 50 mg/kg) and tadalafil (5, 10 mg/kg) using a monocrotaline-induced rat model of PAH. The 14-day tr...
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - October 17, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Leong ZP, Hikasa Y Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Negative regulation of eNOS-NO signaling by over-SUMOylation of PPAR γ contributes to insulin resistance and dysfunction of vascular endothelium in rats.
Negative regulation of eNOS-NO signaling by over-SUMOylation of PPARγ contributes to insulin resistance and dysfunction of vascular endothelium in rats. Vascul Pharmacol. 2019 Aug 31;:106597 Authors: Yuan W, Ma C, Zhou Y, Wang M, Zeng G, Huang Q Abstract SUMOylation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ) plays important regulatory role in its transcriptional activity. Our recent studies in vitro found that over-SUMOylation of PPARγ, like high glucose and high fat (HG/HF), induced endothelial insulin resistance (IR). However, whether such an event occurs in rats ...
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - August 31, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yuan W, Ma C, Zhou Y, Wang M, Zeng G, Huang Q Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Elevated luteinizing hormone contributes to atherosclerosis formation by inhibiting nitric oxide synthesis via PI3K/Akt pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: Elevated LH promotes atherosclerosis formation in OVX ApoE-/- female mice. This effect may be mediated by inhibiting endothelial NO synthesis via PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. PMID: 31437529 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - August 19, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Meng X, Li X, Xu X, Li P, Chen Y, Fu X, Xu X Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

SNF472, a novel anti-crystallization agent, inhibits induced calcification in an in vitro model of human aortic valve calcification.
acute; J, Vaage J Abstract The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether SNF472, the hexasodium salt of myo-inositol hexaphosphate (IP6 or phytate): 1. Inhibits induced calcification in cultured aortic valve interstitial cells (VIC) as an in vitro model of aortic valve stenosis and 2. Whether inhibition is different in VIC obtained from healthy and calcified aortic valves. VIC from healthy (n = 5) and calcified (n = 7) human aortic valves were seeded in basic growth medium, osteogenic differentiation medium alone, or in osteogenic medium with SNF472 (3, 10, and 30 μM) and cultivated for ...
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - August 19, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Zabirnyk A, Ferrer MD, Bogdanova M, Pérez MM, Salcedo C, Kaljusto ML, Kvitting JE, Stensløkken KO, Perelló J, Vaage J Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Vitamin K2-MK-7 improves nitric oxide-dependent endothelial function in ApoE/LDLR-/- mice.
In conclusion, K2-MK-7 improves NO-dependent endothelial function in ApoE/LDLR-/- mice. This study, identifies the endothelial profile of the pharmacological activity of vitamin K2, which had not been previously described. PMID: 31421222 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - August 14, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Bar A, Kuś K, Manterys A, Proniewski B, Sternak M, Przyborowski K, Moorlag M, Sitek B, Marczyk B, Jasztal A, Skórka T, Franczyk-Żarów M, Kostogrys R, Chlopicki S Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Modulation of vascular responses of guinea-pig aorta by non-endothelial nitric oxide: A minor role for the endothelium.
Abstract Acetylcholine (Ach) causes vasodilatation by nitric oxide (NO) release from the vascular endothelium. Vasoconstrictors such as α-adrenoceptor agonists (phenylephrine) or thromboxane TxA2 mimetics (U46619) also release endothelial NO. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) with Nω-nitro-L-arginine (L-NAME) potentiates vasoconstriction by phenylephrine and the trace amine, β-phenylethylamine (PEA), indicating underlying opposing vasodilatation. However, the roles of the endothelium and NO in vasodilator and constrictor responses of guinea-pig aorta have not been examined and are the subj...
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - July 23, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Broadley KJ, Broadley HD Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

FNDC5 inhibits foam cell formation and monocyte adhesion in vascular smooth muscle cells via suppressing NF κB-mediated NLRP3 upregulation.
FNDC5 inhibits foam cell formation and monocyte adhesion in vascular smooth muscle cells via suppressing NFκB-mediated NLRP3 upregulation. Vascul Pharmacol. 2019 Jul 15;:106579 Authors: Zang YH, Chen D, Zhou B, Chen AD, Wang JJ, Gao XY, Chen Q, Li YH, Kang YM, Zhu GQ Abstract Foam cell formation and monocytes adhesion are key events in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are an important origin of foam cells besides macrophages. Fibronectin type III domain containing protein 5 (FNDC5) is a protein, which induces browning of fat and attenuates glucose/lipid metab...
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - July 15, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Zang YH, Chen D, Zhou B, Chen AD, Wang JJ, Gao XY, Chen Q, Li YH, Kang YM, Zhu GQ Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Antiretroviral drug-induced endothelial dysfunction is improved by dual PPAR α/γ stimulation in obesity.
Antiretroviral drug-induced endothelial dysfunction is improved by dual PPARα/γ stimulation in obesity. Vascul Pharmacol. 2019 Jul 05;:106577 Authors: Kamau F, Strijdom H, Mwangi P, Blackhurst D, Imperial E, Salie R Abstract Obesity rates are rising in HIV-infected populations; however, the putative role of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the development of endothelial and cardiovascular derangements in the presence of pre-existing overweight/obesity is unclear. Although dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-alpha/gamma (PPARα/γ) stimulation mitigates...
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - July 5, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kamau F, Strijdom H, Mwangi P, Blackhurst D, Imperial E, Salie R Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Benzo[a]pyrene alters vascular function in rat aortas ex vivo and in vivo.
Abstract Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke and air pollution products. BaP exposure has been recently suggested to be a risk factor for hypertension in coke oven workers. The mechanisms of BaP on vascular smooth muscle function remain unclear. Here, we examined the influence and possible mechanism of BaP on vasoconstriction in rat thoracic aortas ex vivo and in vivo. In vivo exposure of rats to BaP (20 mg/kg) for 8 weeks caused a significant enhancement in the systolic blood pressure and enhanced aortic hyperreactivity to α1-adrenoceptor selective agonist ph...
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - July 4, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tzeng HP, Yang TH, Wu CT, Chiu HC, Liu SH, Lan KC Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Hemodynamic and autonomic effects of low-dose glyceryl trinitrate used to test endothelium-independent vasodilation of the brachial artery.
This study compared the hemodynamic and autonomic effects of the two most often used GTN dosages. In 80 essential hypertensive patients (HT) and 60 normotensive subjects (NT), FMD of the brachial artery and endothelium-independent response to sublingual GTN (25 μg and 400 μg) were evaluated by high-resolution ultrasound and automated image analysis. In 10 HT, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was also assessed by microneurography. HT showed significantly (p 
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - July 3, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ghiadoni L, Francesconi M, Taddei S, Bruno RM Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Cost effectiveness of lifelong therapy with PCSK9 inhibitors for lowering cardiovascular events in patients with stable coronary artery disease: Insights from the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health cohort.
z W Abstract Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors (PCSK9i) reduce cardiovascular events in coronary artery disease (CAD). Their costs exceed that of established oral lipid-lowering agents. Previous cost-effectiveness assessments have been inconsistent. Markov cohort state transitions models for stable CAD patients were calculated using information from 1530 participants of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study (LURIC) with known causes of deaths. Non-fatal to fatal event rates, drug prices, direct treatment costs, and utility weights were from public sources. At an assumed relat...
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - June 14, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Dressel A, Schmidt B, Schmidt N, Laufs U, Fath F, Chapman MJ, Grammer TB, März W Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Stox1 induced the proliferation and cell cycle arrest in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells via AKT signaling pathway.
CONCLUSION: These findings indicated that Stox1 induced proliferation of PASMCs and the effect is, at least in part, mediated through AKT signaling pathway. PMID: 31207359 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - June 14, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Xu Y, Sun Z, Wang Q, Wang T, Liu Y, Yu F Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Vitamin D levels and platelet reactivity in diabetic patients receiving dual antiplatelet therapy.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Hypovitaminosis D represents an emerging cardiovascular risk factor, and especially among higher-risk subsets of patients, such as in those with diabetes mellitus. The anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic properties of vitamin D, in fact, could be even more beneficial among diabetics, where platelet hyperreactivity and suboptimal response to antiplatelet drugs has been associated with poorer outcomes. However, no study has so far evaluated the impact of vitamin D levels on platelet reactivity and high-on treatment platelet reactivity (HRPR) among diabetic patients receiving dial antiplatelet ...
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - June 6, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Verdoia M, Pergolini P, Nardin M, Rolla R, Negro F, Kedhi E, Suryapranata H, Marcolongo M, Carriero A, De Luca G, Novara Atherosclerosis Study Group (NAS) Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Extended treatment with non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants versus low-molecular-weight heparins in cancer patients following venous thromboembolism. A pilot study.
CONCLUSIONS: In patients following CAT, extended treatment with NOAC, compared with LMWH, appears to be associated with similar effectiveness and safety. PMID: 31158568 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - May 31, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Stepien K, Nowak K, Zalewski J, Pac A, Undas A Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Uric acid: from a biological advantage to a potential danger. A focus on cardiovascular effects.
Abstract Non-communicable diseases represent nowadays the most common cause of death worldwide, having largely overcome infectious diseases. Among them, cardiovascular diseases constitute the majority. Given these premise, great efforts have been made by scientific societies to emphasize the fundamental role of cardiovascular prevention and risk factors control. In addition to classical cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking, arterial hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and male gender, new risk factors are emerging from international literature. Among them, uric acid is the protagonist. Several evidences show...
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - May 29, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Cortese F, Giordano P, Scicchitano P, Faienza MF, De Pergola G, Calculli G, Meliota G, Ciccone MM Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Effects of sildenafil on maximum walking time in patients with arterial claudication: The ARTERIOFIL study.
te; G Abstract BACKGROUND: Patients with lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) frequently experience claudication, a clinical symptom indicative of reduced walking capacity. Recommended care consists of exercise rehabilitation combined with optimal medical treatment and surgery. The effects of a single oral dose of sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor, on patients with claudication are discussed. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a single 100 mg dose of sildenafil compared to placebo in terms of maximal walking time (MWT) in patients with claudication. METHODS: The ARTE...
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - May 29, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Omarjee L, Le Pabic E, Custaud MA, Fontaine C, Locher C, Renault A, Jaquinandi V, Azzola V, Barbeau-Terrier C, Laporte I, Ripoche M, Onillon Y, Chretien JM, Daniel V, de la Barca JC, Homedan C, Reynier P, Abraham P, Mahé G Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Inflammation in pulmonary artery hypertension.
PMID: 31112745 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - May 18, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sakuma M, Toyoda S, Inoue T, Node K Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Nitric oxide donor molsidomine favors features of atherosclerotic plaque stability and reduces myocardial infarction in mice.
Abstract Nitric oxide (NO) donors are commonly used for the prevention and treatment of ischemic heart disease. Besides their effects on the heart, NO donors may also prevent hypoxic brain damage and exert beneficial effects on atherosclerosis by favoring features of plaque stability. We recently described that apolipoprotein E (ApoE) deficient mice with a mutation in the fibrillin-1 (Fbn1) gene (ApoE-/-Fbn1C1039G+/-) develop accelerated atherosclerosis, plaque rupture, myocardial infarction, cerebral hypoxia and sudden death. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of chronic treatment with the NO donor mo...
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - May 11, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Roth L, der Donckt CV, Veseli BE, Van Dam D, De Deyn PP, Martinet W, Herman AG, De Meyer GRY Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Compromised cardiovascular function in aged rats corresponds with increased expression and activity of calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II δ in aortic endothelium.
Compromised cardiovascular function in aged rats corresponds with increased expression and activity of calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase IIδ in aortic endothelium. Vascul Pharmacol. 2019 Apr 30;: Authors: McCluskey C, Mooney L, Paul A, Currie S Abstract Ageing is the greatest risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase IIδ (CaMKIIδ) plays a fundamental role in the pathology of heart disease yet a potential role for CaMKIIδ in cardiovascular pathology associated with ageing remains unclear. Taking a combined in vivo and in vitro ...
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - April 30, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: McCluskey C, Mooney L, Paul A, Currie S Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research