Reconciling the Seemingly Irreconcilable: How Much Are We Spending on Drugs?
Estimates of drug spending are often central to the public policy debate on how to manage healthcare spending in the United States. Nevertheless, common estimates of prescription drug spending vary substantially by source, which can inhibit productive policy dialogue. (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - January 11, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Michael Kleinrock, Kimberly Westrich, Lisabeth Buelt, Murray Aitken, Robert W. Dubois Source Type: research

Uncertainty and Coverage With Evidence Development: Does Practice Meet Theory?
In theory, a successful coverage with evidence development (CED) scheme is one that addresses the most important uncertainties in a given assessment. We investigated the following: (1) which uncertainties were present during the initial assessment of 3 Dutch CED cases, (2) how these uncertainties were integrated in the initial assessments, (3) whether CED research plans included the identified uncertainties, and (4) issues with managing uncertainty in CED research and ways forward from these issues. (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - January 10, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Xavier G.L.V. Pouwels, Janneke P.C. Grutters, Jill Bindels, Bram L.T. Ramaekers, Manuela A. Joore Source Type: research

Early Assessment of Proof-of-Problem to Guide Health Innovation
Although the relevance of both push and pull factors is acknowledged in models of innovation, needs, broadly defined, are rarely considered, whereas supply-driven innovation in publicly funded health systems carries the risk that it may not match the underlying problems experienced by patients and consumers. (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - January 10, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Anouck Kluytmans, Marcia Tummers, Gert Jan van der Wilt, Janneke Grutters Source Type: research

Overview, Update, and Lessons Learned From the International EQ-5D-5L Valuation Work: Version 2 of the EQ-5D-5L Valuation Protocol
A standardized 5-level EuroQol 5-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L) valuation protocol was first used in national studies in the period 2012 to 2013. A set of problems encountered in this initial wave of valuation studies led to the subsequent refinement of the valuation protocol. To clarify lessons learned and how the protocol was updated when moving from version 1.0 to the current version 2.1 and 2.0, this article will (1) present the challenges faced in EQ-5D-5L valuation since 2012 and how these were resolved and (2) describe in depth a set of new challenges that have become central in currently ongoing research on h...
Source: Value in Health - January 2, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Elly Stolk, Kristina Ludwig, Kim Rand, Ben van Hout, Juan Manuel Ramos-Go ñi Source Type: research

Perspectives of Patients with Cancer on the Quality-Adjusted Life Year as a Measure of Value in Healthcare
This study explores awareness and understanding of patients with cancer about the quality-adjusted life year (QALY), as well as their perspectives regarding the use of the QALY to measure value in healthcare. (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - December 29, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Elizabeth F. Franklin, Helen M. Nichols, Ellyn Charap, Joanne S. Buzaglo, Alexandra K. Zaleta, Linda House Source Type: research

Cost Effectiveness of Reclassifying Triptans in Australia: Application of an Economic Evaluation Approach to Regulatory Decisions
Migraine is a common, chronic, disabling headache disorder. Triptans, used as an acute treatment for migraine, are available via prescription in Australia. An Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) committee rejected reclassifying sumatriptan and zolmitriptan from prescription medicine to pharmacist-only between 2005 and 2009, largely on the basis of concerns about patient risk. Nevertheless, pharmacist-only triptans may reduce migraine duration and free up healthcare resources. (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - December 24, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Bonny Parkinson, Mutsa Gumbie, Henry Cutler, Natalie Gauld, Virginia Mumford, Philip Haywood Source Type: research

Broadening the Perspective of Cost-Effectiveness Modeling in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A New Patient-Level Simulation Model Suitable to Evaluate Stratified Medicine
To develop a health economic model that included a great diversity of patient characteristics and outcomes for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which can be used to inform decisions about stratified medicine in COPD. (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - December 20, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Martine Hoogendoorn, Isaac Corro Ramos, Michael Baldwin, Nuria Gonzalez-Rojas Guix, Maureen P.M.H. Rutten-van M ölken Source Type: research

Physical Activity and Risk of Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of 38 Cohort Studies in 45 Study Reports
To evaluate and quantify the association between physical activity (PA) and risk of breast cancer. (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - December 14, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Xuyu Chen, Qiru Wang, Yanan Zhang, Qian Xie, Xiaodong Tan Tags: Systematic Literature Review Source Type: research

Challenges with Forecasting Budget Impact: A Case Study of Six ICER Reports
Payers frequently rely on budget impact model (BIM) results to help determine drug coverage policy and its effect on their bottom line. It is unclear whether BIMs typically overestimate or underestimate real-world budget impact. (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - December 14, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Julia Thornton Snider, Jesse Sussell, Mahlet Gizaw Tebeka, Alicia Gonzalez, Joshua T. Cohen, Peter Neumann Source Type: research

The Use of Checklists in Reviews of Health Economic Evaluations, 2010 to 2018
It is useful for reviewers of economic evaluations to assess quality in a manner that is consistent and comprehensive. Checklists can allow this, but there are concerns about their reliability and how they are used in practice. We aimed to describe how checklists have been used in systematic reviews of health economic evaluations. (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - December 14, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Rory D. Watts, Ian W. Li Source Type: research

Identifying the Need for Good Practices in Health Technology Assessment: Summary of the ISPOR HTA Council Working Group Report on Good Practices in HTA
The systematic use of evidence to inform healthcare decisions, particularly health technology assessment (HTA), has gained increased recognition. HTA has become a standard policy tool for informing decision makers who must manage the entry and use of pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and other technologies (including complex interventions) within health systems, for example, through reimbursement and pricing. Despite increasing attention to HTA activities, there has been no attempt to comprehensively synthesize good practices or emerging good practices to support population-based decision-making in recent years. (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - December 13, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Finn B ørlum Kristensen, Don Husereau, Mirjana Huić, Michael Drummond, Marc L. Berger, Kenneth Bond, Federico Augustovski, Andrew Booth, John F.P. Bridges, Jeremy Grimshaw, Maarten J. IJzerman, Egon Jonsson, Daniel A. Ollendorf, Alric Rüther, Uwe Siebe Source Type: research

Survival Extrapolation in Cancer Immunotherapy: A Validation-Based Case Study
Immune-checkpoint inhibitors may provide long-term survival benefits via a cured proportion, yet data are usually insufficient to prove this upon submission to health technology assessment bodies. (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - December 13, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Ash Bullement, Nicholas R. Latimer, Helen Bell Gorrod Source Type: research

Cost-Effectiveness of Alemtuzumab in the Treatment of Relapsing Forms of Multiple Sclerosis in the United States
To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of alemtuzumab compared with fingolimod, natalizumab, ocrelizumab, and generic glatiramer acetate 20 mg among patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS) in the United States. (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - December 5, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Viktor Chirikov, Ingrid Ma, Namita Joshi, Dipen Patel, Alden Smith, Cindy Giambrone, Noelle Cornelio, Lobat Hashemi Source Type: research

Use of Both Qualitative and Quantitative Methods to Estimate Meaningful Change Thresholds for Key Endpoints in Pediatric Asthma Trials
Diary-derived symptom score and rescue medication use endpoints, such as symptom-free days (SFDs) and rescue medication-free days (RFD), are frequently used as clinical trial endpoints. Estimates of meaningful change for SFDs and RFDs have not been generated in pediatric populations. This research aimed to generate evidence supporting estimates of the individual within-patient changes that constitute an important or meaningful change in SFDs, RFDs, and updated estimates on the Childhood Asthma Control Test (C-ACT) in pediatric asthma populations aged 5-11 years. (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - December 5, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Rob Arbuckle, Hannah Staunton, Kate Sully, Susan Tomkins, Sanjeev Khindri, Henrik Svedsater, Linda Nelsen Source Type: research

Editorial Board
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Source: Value in Health - November 30, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Table of Contents
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Source: Value in Health - November 30, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Copyright/Subscription
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Source: Value in Health - November 30, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Comparative Effectiveness of CT- Versus Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation Among Medicare Patients 65 Years of Age or Older With Hepatocellular Carcinoma
For patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) not eligible for surgical resection, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a promising technique that reduces the risk of disease progression. (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - November 27, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Jinhai Huo, Thomas A. Aloia, Ying Xu, Tong Han Chung, Tommy Sheu, Ya-Chen Tina Shih Source Type: research

Evaluating Canadians ’ Values for Drug Coverage Decision Making
Decision makers are facing growing challenges in prioritizing drugs for reimbursement because of soaring drug costs and increasing pressures on financial resources. In addition to cost and effectiveness, payers are using other values to dictate which drugs are prioritized for funding, yet there are limited data on the Canadian public ’s priorities. (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - November 26, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Shirin Rizzardo, Nick Bansback, Nick Dragojlovic, Conor Douglas, Kathy H. Li, Craig Mitton, Carlo Marra, Litsa Blanis, Larry D. Lynd Tags: Preference-Based Assessments Source Type: research

Correction
Economic Analysis of Vaccination Programs (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - November 26, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Correction Source Type: research

Correction
Advocating a Paradigm Shift in Health-State Valuations: The Estimation of Time-Preference  Corrected QALY Tariffs (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - November 26, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Correction Source Type: research

Correction
Methodological Issues in Assessing the Economic Value of Next-Generation Sequencing Tests: Many Challenges and Not Enough Solutions (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - November 26, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Correction Source Type: research

Correction
Valuation of Health and Nonhealth Outcomes from Next-Generation Sequencing: Approaches, Challenges, and Solutions (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - November 26, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Correction Source Type: research

Correction
Using “Big Data” in the Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Next-Generation Sequencing Technologies: Challenges and Potential Solutions (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - November 26, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Correction Source Type: research

Valuation of Health States Considered to Be Worse Than Death —An Analysis of Composite Time Trade-Off Data From 5 EQ-5D-5L Valuation Studies
To evaluate the discriminative ability of negative values measured in 5-level EuroQol 5-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L) value set studies. (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - November 12, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Mihir Gandhi, Kim Rand, Nan Luo Tags: Preference-Based Assessments Source Type: research

Assessing Lung Cancer Screening Programs under Uncertainty in a Heterogeneous Population
In this study we evaluated the perceived value of screening programs based on LDCT, breath analysis (BA), or blood biomarkers (BB) according to the perspective of the target population. (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - November 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Henk Broekhuizen, Catharina G.M. Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Rozemarijn Vliegenthart, Harry J.M. Groen, Maarten J. IJzerman Tags: Comparative-Effectiveness Research/HTA Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - November 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - November 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Copyright/Subscription
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Source: Value in Health - November 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Cost-Effectiveness of Financial Incentives for Viral Suppression: HPTN 065 Study
To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of financial incentives for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral suppression compared to standard of care. (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - November 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Blythe Adamson, Wafaa El-Sadr, Dobromir Dimitrov, Theresa Gamble, Geetha Beauchamp, Josh J. Carlson, Louis Garrison, Deborah Donnell Source Type: research

Choice of Prosthetic Implant Combinations in Total Hip Replacement: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Using UK and Swedish Hip Joint Registries Data
Prosthetic implants used in total hip replacements (THR) have a range of bearing surface combinations (metal-on-polyethylene, ceramic-on-polyethylene, ceramic-on-ceramic, and metal-on-metal), head sizes (small [ (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - November 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Christopher G. Fawsitt, Howard H.Z. Thom, Linda P. Hunt, Szilard Nemes, Ashley W. Blom, Nicky J. Welton, William Hollingworth, Jos é A. López-López, Andrew D. Beswick, Amanda Burston, Ola Rolfson, Goran Garellick, Elsa M.R. Marques Source Type: research

The Distribution of the EQ-5D-5L Profiles and Values in Three Patient Groups
The distribution of EQ-5D-3L values (health state profiles, weighted by value sets) often shows two distinct groups, arising from both the distribution of profiles and the characteristics of value sets. To date, there is little evidence about the distribution of EQ-5D-5L values. (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - October 31, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Yan Feng, Nancy Devlin, Andrew Bateman, Bernarda Zamora, David Parkin Source Type: research

Medical Nutrition Terminology and Regulations in the United States and Europe —A Scoping Review: Report of the ISPOR Nutrition Economics Special Interest Group
The term medical nutrition (MN) refers to nutritional products used under medical supervision to manage disease- or condition-related dietary needs. Standardized MN definitions, aligned with regulatory definitions, are needed to facilitate outcomes research and economic evaluation of interventions with MN. (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - October 25, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Karen Freijer, Sheri Volger, J ános G. Pitter, Elizabeth Molsen-David, Clarissa Cooblall, Silvia Evers, Mickaël Hiligsmann, Aurelie Danel, Irene Lenoir-Wijnkoop, ISPOR Nutrition Economics Medical Nutrition Terms & Definitions Working Group ’s Leaders Source Type: research

Methods for Measuring Multiple Medication Adherence: A Systematic Review
A broad literature base exists for measuring medication adherence to monotherapeutic regimens, but publications are less extensive for measuring adherence to multiple medications. (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - October 25, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Priti P. Pednekar, Tam ás Ágh, Maria Malmenäs, Amit D. Raval, Bryan M. Bennett, Bijan J. Borah, David S. Hutchins, Elizabeth Manias, Allison F. Williams, Mickaël Hiligsmann, Adina Turcu-Stiolica, John E. Zeber, Lusine Abrahamyan, Thomas J. Bunz, Andre Tags: Systematic Literature Review Source Type: research

Determining the Comparative Value of Pharmaceutical Risk-Sharing Policies in Non –Small Cell Lung Cancer Using Real-World Data
Risk-sharing arrangements (RSAs) can be used to mitigate uncertainty about the value of a drug by sharing the financial risk between payer and pharmaceutical company. We evaluated the projected impact of alternative RSAs for non –small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) therapies based on real-world data. (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - October 25, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Marscha S. Holleman, Carin A. Uyl-de Groot, Stephen Goodall, Naomi van der Linden Source Type: research

Cost Utility of Voretigene Neparvovec for Biallelic RPE65-Mediated Inherited Retinal Disease
The gene therapy voretigene neparvovec (VN) is the first Food and Drug Administration –approved treatment for vision loss owing to the ultra-rare RPE65-mediated inherited retinal disorders. We modeled the cost-utility of VN compared with standard of care (SoC). (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - October 25, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Marita Zimmermann, Solomon J. Lubinga, Reiner Banken, David Rind, Geri Cramer, Patricia G. Synnott, Richard H. Chapman, Sonya Khan, Josh Carlson Source Type: research

Association between Disability, Cognition, Fatigue, EQ-5D-3L Domains, and Utilities Estimated with Different Western European Value Sets in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis
To assess the association between fatigue, cognition, domains of the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D-3L), disability, and utilities estimated with several Western European value sets in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - October 12, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Jennifer Eriksson, Gisela Kobelt, Mia Gannedahl, Jenny Berg Source Type: research

Was it worth introducing health economic evaluation of innovative drugs in the French regulatory setting? The case of new hepatitis C drugs
This paper constitutes the first attempt to draw lessons from the recent uptake of health economic evaluation of innovative drugs in the French regulatory framework. (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - October 9, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Val érie Clément, Véronique Raimond Source Type: research

Economic Analysis of Vaccination Programs: An ISPOR Good Practices for Outcomes Research Task Force Report
This report provides recommendations for budget holders and decision makers in high-, middle, and low-income countries requiring economic analyses of new vaccination programs to allocate scarce resources given budget constraints. ISPOR ’s Economic Evaluation of Vaccines Designed to Prevent Infectious Disease: Good Practices Task Force wrote guidelines for three analytic methods and solicited comments on them from external reviewers. Cost-effectiveness analyses use decision-analytic models to estimate cumulative changes in resour ce use, costs, and changes in quality- or disability-adjusted life-years attributable to ...
Source: Value in Health - October 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Josephine Mauskopf, Baudouin Standaert, Mark P. Connolly, Anthony J. Culyer, Louis P. Garrison, Raymond Hutubessy, Mark Jit, Richard Pitman, Paul Revill, Johan L. Severens Tags: ISPOR Task Force Report Source Type: research

Economic Analysis of Vaccination Programs
This report provides recommendations for budget holders and decision makers in high-, middle, and low-income countries requiring economic analyses of new vaccination programs to allocate scarce resources given budget constraints. ISPOR ’s Economic Evaluation of Vaccines Designed to Prevent Infectious Disease: Good Practices Task Force wrote guidelines for three analytic methods and solicited comments on them from external reviewers. Cost-effectiveness analyses use decision-analytic models to estimate cumulative changes in resour ce use, costs, and changes in quality- or disability-adjusted life-years attributable to ...
Source: Value in Health - October 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Josephine Mauskopf, Baudouin Standaert, Mark P. Connolly, Anthony J. Culyer, Louis P. Garrison, Raymond Hutubessy, Mark Jit, Richard Pitman, Paul Revill, Johan L. Severens Tags: ISPOR Task Force Report Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - October 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - October 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Copyright/Subscription
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Source: Value in Health - October 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Estimating CHU-9D utility scores from the WAItE: a mapping algorithm for economic evaluation
The Weight-Specific Adolescent Instrument for Economic Evaluation (WAItE) is a new condition-specific patient reported outcome measure that incorporates the views of adolescents in assessing the impact of above healthy weight status on key aspects of their lives. Presently it is not possible to use the WAItE to calculate quality adjusted life years (QALYs) for cost-utility analysis (CUA), given that utility scores are not available for health states described by the WAItE. (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - October 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tomos Robinson, Yemi Oluboyede Source Type: research

The Internal Validity of Discrete Choice Experiment Data: A Testing Tool for Quantitative Assessments
To develop a tool for testing internal validity of discrete choice experiment (DCE) data, deploy the program, and collect summary test results from a sample of active health researchers to demonstrate the practical utility of the tool in a wide range of health applications. (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - September 26, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: F. Reed Johnson, Jui-Chen Yang, Shelby D. Reed Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Comparison of Recommendations and Use of Cardiovascular Risk Equations by Health Technology Assessment Agencies and Clinical Guidelines
To identify risk equations for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in primary and secondary prevention settings that are used or recommended by health technology assessment (HTA) organizations and in clinical guidelines (CGs). (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - September 20, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Marissa Blieden Betts, Sandra Milev, Meredith Hoog, Hyosung Jung, Du šan Milenković, Yi Qian, Ming-Hui Tai, Lucie Kutikova, Guillermo Villa, Christine Edwards Source Type: research

Paying Low-Income Smokers to Quit? The Cost Effectiveness of Incentivizing Tobacco Quit Line Engagement for Medicaid Recipients Who Smoke
To determine the cost effectiveness of an incentive-based stop-smoking intervention that paid Medicaid recipients who smoke to take calls from a tobacco quit line. (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - September 19, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Marlon P. Mundt, Timothy B. Baker, David L. Fraser, Stevens S. Smith, Megan E. Piper, Michael C. Fiore Source Type: research

Vaccination Programs: Economic and Leadership Considerations
Imagine that you are a government official charged with planning and implementing the public health program in your country. With finite resources available to you, you must ensure to invest wisely to protect and preserve the health of the greater society. Suppose, in particular, you are considering an immunization program that will prevent communicable illness in a large population in a place where health care services are less than ideal. If funds are allocated to immunization, will that choice deprive another program of needed funding? How will you decide how to spend the limited resources? More specifically, what kinds...
Source: Value in Health - September 19, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Kenneth Y. Hartigan-Go Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Pediatric Quality of Life Instruments in Oral Health Research: A Systematic Review
To identify the generic or disease-specific pediatric quality of life (QoL) instruments used in oral health research among children and adolescents and to provide an overview of these QoL instruments. (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - September 8, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Ruvini M. Hettiarachchi, Sanjeewa Kularatna, Joshua Byrnes, Paul A. Scuffham Source Type: research

Assessing the Cost Effectiveness of Updated Breast Cancer Screening Guidelines for Average-Risk Women
Several specialty societies have recently updated their breast cancer screening guidelines in late 2015/early 2016. (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - September 7, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Ya-Chen Tina Shih, Wenli Dong, Ying Xu, Yu Shen Source Type: research