Assessing knowledge and skills of laypersons bringing victims of road traffic collisions to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital in Blantyre, Malawi.
Abstract In Malawi, pre-hospital care assistance is mainly provided by laypersons who witnessed the event. The aim of our study was to determine the knowledge and skills of such persons who bring victims of road traffic crashes to hospital. The study was conducted at Adult Emergency and Trauma Centre at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital in Blantyre, Malawi. A total of 392 participants were interviewed. Most were merchants (22%) and unskilled labourers (14.5%). Three quarters (75.8%) provided assistance on the scene. The most common assistance provided was transporting victim to the hospital (68.7%), assisting with ...
Source: Tropical Doctor - November 28, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Sheikh S, Mulwafu W, Gondwe WTM, Nyirenda M, Mbomuwa F, Chokhotho L Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Anaesthesia practices for Caesarean section amongst non-physician anaesthesia providers at an Ethiopian referral hospital.
This study suggests that focusing on communication and anticipation of complications could aid providers in preventing and preparing for complications. PMID: 33251984 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Tropical Doctor)
Source: Tropical Doctor - November 28, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: White VE, Asfaw G, Moore JN Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Splenectomy in Jamaican children with sickle cell disease: Outcome of selective blood transfusion.
Abstract We reviewed the post-operative morbidity and mortality of open splenectomy undertaken in conjunction with selective blood transfusion in Jamaican children with sickle cell disease. Data were collected on 150 splenectomies performed between November 1994 and October 2017. Selective blood transfusion involved raising haemoglobin levels to approximately 100 g/L in patients with admission haemoglobin ≥10 g/L below steady state. There was no mortality. Mean post-operative stay was 3.2 days with a median of three days. Total morbidity was 19/150 cases (12.7%), with acute chest syndrome accounti...
Source: Tropical Doctor - November 26, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Steele O, Duncan AL, Simms LN, Duncan SA, Byles SED, Duncan ND Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Cardiogenic shock with first-degree heart block in a patient with glyphosate-surfactant poisoning.
We present such a case. PMID: 33241735 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Tropical Doctor)
Source: Tropical Doctor - November 26, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ghosh S, Tale S, Kolli M, Kaur S, Garbhapu A, Bhalla A Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Covid-19 and leptospirosis: Cytokine storm and the use of steroids.
Abstract The majority of patients with Covid-19 have a good outcome. However, complications principally of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiple-organ failure can occur rapidly. Leptospirosis, a zoonotic disease, is similar to Covid-19 in that most infections are mild or asymptomatic and only a small number develop ARDS. Cytokine storm is considered to be the main incriminating factor in both. High dose steroids have been used to ameliorate the effects in leptospirosis, and similarly, reports suggest a benefit in Covid-19. SARS CoV-2 and leptospira, one a virus and the other a bacterium, are two ...
Source: Tropical Doctor - November 25, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ittyachen AM Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Clinical and microbial spectrum of community-acquired pneumonia in children of north India.
Abstract We compared the clinical, radiological and microbial profile in children suffering from community-acquired pneumonia in rural populations of north India. A total of 125 such children were divided into two age groups of 2-12 months (Group A) and 13-60 months (Group B). After taking a history and clinical examination, routine investigations including full blood count, blood, urine, and nasopharyngeal swab culture and radiology were performed. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae was carried out. Failure to ea...
Source: Tropical Doctor - November 25, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Yadav RK, Kumar D, Singh A, Ziauddin M, Singh DK Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Forehead plaque in a child with epilepsy: A clue for tuberous sclerosis.
We describe a 10-year-old girl with generalised tonic-clonic seizures whose diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis complex was made in view of the presence of a forehead plaque. Certain clinical pointers such as ashleaf macules, café-au-lait spots, shagreen patches and forehead plaques must therefore be looked for in a child with unprovoked seizures. PMID: 33232218 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Tropical Doctor)
Source: Tropical Doctor - November 24, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Singanamalla B, Bhagwat C, Madaan P, Saini L, De D Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Caudal duplication syndrome in an adolescent: Rare concoction of duplication anomalies.
Abstract Caudal duplication syndrome is a rare and interesting entity with a reported prevalence of
Source: Tropical Doctor - November 23, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Aggarwal P, Nair N Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Classification of cutaneous leishmaniasis patients based on its risk factors using latent class analysis.
Abstract Cutaneous leishmaniasis is one of the main health-economic problems around the world. Data were collected from all patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis referred to the health centres of Kermanshah province between 2013 and 2019. Latent class analysis was conducted by PROC LCA in SAS 9.2 and a significant level was set at 0.05. Four latent classes were identified: low (33.8%), moderate (9.8%), high (22.4%) and very high risk (34.0%). The probability of having a travel history was high in the third class. Our study indicated that having history of an eschar has no role in the classification of patients. On...
Source: Tropical Doctor - November 23, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Salimi M, Shakiba E, Moradi-Asl E, Abbasi-Ghahramanloo A, Khassi K Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

A school-based soil-transmitted helminths survey in the Guadalcanal Province, the Solomon Islands.
Abstract Infections by soil-transmitted helminths are a major public health problem worldwide, especially among schoolchildren in low-income countries. Little information is described about their prevalence in the Solomon Islands. From 2017 to 2018, a school-based soil-transmitted helminths survey in the Guadalcanal Province was conducted. A total of 454 schoolchildren were selected; the Merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde concentration and stain was used. The prevalence was 17% of one or more parasites, including hookworm (8.8%), Strongyloides stercoralis (5.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (4.2%) and Trichuris trichiura (3...
Source: Tropical Doctor - November 20, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Lee JD, Yen CM, Wang JJ, Lin RJ, Chung LY Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Effect of inadvertent steroid use during COVID-19 lockdown in chronic illnesses in children.
PMID: 33167800 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Tropical Doctor)
Source: Tropical Doctor - November 10, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Bhalla K, Verma A, Nanda S Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Delayed cerebellar ataxia as a rare late presenting feature of falciparum malaria - A Case report.
We report a case of 60-year-old woman who had a prior history of fever and presented with cerebellitis. The importance of highlighting this case is because in malaria endemic regions awareness of neurological manifestations of malaria must be included in the differential diagnosis of cerebellar ataxia. PMID: 33167801 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Tropical Doctor)
Source: Tropical Doctor - November 10, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Gupta S, Gupta S Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Human anthrax in Turkey: A ten years' experience (2009-2018).
The objective of our study was to evaluate the national surveillance data and control activities in the last decade. A total of 1174 anthrax cases and 9 deaths have been reported. Anthrax was frequent in eastern provinces and in big cities where large animal movements were significant. The incidence rate was 1.5 times higher in males than in females. The disease was more common in the 30-64 age group. The number of cases increased in the summer and autumn seasons. Human anthrax is still being reported though in decreasing numbers in Turkey. A collaborative control programme continues to be needed. PMID: 33167802 [PubM...
Source: Tropical Doctor - November 10, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Topluoglu S, Aktas D, Celebi B, Kara F, Doganay M, Alp E Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Clinical spectrum, aetiology and predictors of acute febrile encephalopathy at a tertiary hospital in south India - A prospective observational study.
Abstract Acute febrile encephalopathy is a common syndrome in the tropics with high mortality encountered by emergency physicians. In order to study the aetiology of acute febrile encephalopathy and its mortality and functional outcome over one year, data on all patients>18 years of age with short duration of fever (
Source: Tropical Doctor - October 28, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Job M, Mathuram AJ, Turaka VP, Carey RA, Iyyadurai R, Rajan SJ Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Pre-hospital care and its association with clinical outcome of snakebite victims presenting at a tertiary care referral hospital in South India.
Abstract Most snakebite victims in low- and middle-income countries continue to seek many forms of first aid therapy before reaching hospital, the commonest being the application of a tourniquet. Our study looked at a prospective cohort of 382 such patients to ascertain the association of pre-hospital care with clinical outcome, and found that 60% developed complications as compared to 36% who had no pre-hospital care (p 
Source: Tropical Doctor - October 27, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Singaravelu KP, Pandit VR, Chinnakali P, Bammigatti C Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Clinical profile and outcome of glycogen storage disease in Indian children.
Abstract We aimed to determine the clinical profile and outcome of Indian children with glycogen storage disorders. Ours was a retrospective study from 2005 to 2018 in 36 children diagnosed on the basis of a liver biopsy. Most (77.7%) presented with abdominal swelling but a quarter with convulsion, four of whom had documented hypoglycaemia associated, doll-like facies or developmental delay. Diarrhoea was found in four patients, ascites in two and portal hypertension in one. One child died, and over half were unfortunately lost to follow-up, though the rest had recurrent seizures, three more developed neutropenia,...
Source: Tropical Doctor - October 27, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Poojari V, Shah I, Shetty NS, Mirani S, Tolani D Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Rare association of consumptive coagulopathy in visceral leishmaniasis: A case report.
reia M, de Sá AF Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis is a tropical parasitic disease caused by the species of the genus Leishmania infantum. The clinical picture includes fever, splenomegaly, leucopenia, anaemia and hypergammaglobulinaemia. There may also be a drop in plasma fibrinogen levels or an increase in plasma fibrinolytic activity. Furthermore, visceral leishmaniasis may be the trigger for secondary haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. On the other hand, disseminated intravascular coagulation may also result. The International Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis has recommended the use of a scoring sys...
Source: Tropical Doctor - October 27, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: de Santana Ferreira E, de Souza Júnior VR, de Oliveira JFS, Costa MFH, da Conceição de Barros Correia M, de Sá AF Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Filariasis presenting as isolated pleural effusion: A case report and mini review.
We describe a case of lymphocytic and exudative pleural effusion showing microfilaria on pleural fluid cytology. A retrospective review of all cases of filarial pleural effusion reported after 2000 was conducted to evaluate the association between filariasis and pleural effusion as well as to screen the features that can help in accurate detection of these patients. The analysis suggested a causal association between the parasite and the development of pleural effusion with a high sensitivity of pleural fluid cytology for diagnosis. PMID: 33108966 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Tropical Doctor)
Source: Tropical Doctor - October 27, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Aggarwal P, Subramanian S, Saini V, Aggarwal D Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Isolated pancreatic and peripancreatic nodal tuberculosis: A single-centre experience.
We report our experience with pancreatic tuberculosis. Over a period of 12 years, we have managed 16 such patients, of whom 10 were diagnosed preoperatively. In six, the diagnosis was only made after extensive surgery. All 16 patients received antitubercular drugs and were well at a median follow-up of 52 months. Although pancreatic tuberculosis can be diagnosed by modern image-guided biopsy in a fair number of patients, if a high index of suspicion is maintained, a laparotomy may still be unavoidable in a subset of patients. PMID: 33104450 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Tropical Doctor)
Source: Tropical Doctor - October 26, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ray S, Das K, Ghosh R Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Liver abscess in early infancy with no underlying risk factors: a case series.
We present three cases of early infantile liver abscesses without any identifiable predisposing factor despite extensive work-up to search for such. Early recognition and management led to a favourable outcome in all our patients. PMID: 33070703 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Tropical Doctor)
Source: Tropical Doctor - October 18, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Anand M, Kaur Sahi P, Mantan M Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Triple A syndrome: a case report.
Abstract Triple A syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterised by alacrimia, achalasia and adrenal failure. It was first reported by Allgrove in 1978 and 100 cases have been reported worldwide. This case report concerns a 24-year-old woman who was referred for evaluation of dysphagia and was finally diagnosed as such a case. A high degree of suspicion enables all the components of this syndrome to be searched for, as early diagnosis can reduce the morbidity and mortality. PMID: 33070704 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Tropical Doctor)
Source: Tropical Doctor - October 18, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Manoria P Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Two success stories in the management of Guillain-Barr é syndrome illustrate the challenges of intensive care unit care in Malawi.
In this report, we discuss two patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome who were managed successfully in the intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital in Malawi. Both patients recovered and were discharged home. The management and outcomes of these patients provide case-based lessons for improving intensive care unit medicine in low-resource contexts. PMID: 33054608 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Tropical Doctor)
Source: Tropical Doctor - October 14, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Onofrey L, Naus C, Thakur KT, Kadyaudzu C, Prin M Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Prevalence of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci among Egyptian patients after surgical interventions.
Abstract Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are frequently isolated from wound infections. There are limited data examining the prevalence of methicillin-resistant CoNS (MRCoNS) among Egyptian patients after surgery. Thus, we studied 208 hospitalised patients, who had skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) due to various causes. Samples were cultured for isolation and identification of CoNS and isolates were screened for susceptibility against 23 different antimicrobials. Out of 241 Staphylococcal isolates, 114 (47.3%) were CoNS. The prevalence of MRCoNS among surgical site infection, diabetic foot, abscess,...
Source: Tropical Doctor - October 13, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ahmed EF, Gad GF, Soliman WE, El-Asady RS, Hasaneen AM, Abdelwahab SF Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Tuberculosis heralding connective tissue disorder.
We report such a case. A 50-year-old diabetic male, a roadside shop keeper, a current smoker presented with fever, breathlessness, cough and weight loss for four months. Chest radiography demonstrated areas of consolidation with halo signs. Anti-nuclear antibody blot was positive for Scl-70 and Jo-1 suggestive of a syndrome of systemic sclerosis and polymyositis overlap. Fibre-optic bronchoscopy guided lung biopsy was suggestive of organising pneumonia, and broncho-alveolar lavage detected Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis should be investigated as an aetiology of organising pneumonia, as this may occu...
Source: Tropical Doctor - October 13, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Pratap U, Ravindrachari M, RamyaPriya A, Toi PC, Manju R Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Prevalence of past hepatitis A infection among Crohn's patients and controls - An examination of the 'hygiene hypothesis', and the need for hepatitis A vaccination.
Abstract Our study aimed to determine the prevalence of prior exposure to hepatitis A virus in Crohn's disease patients, whose IgG antibody levels against hepatitis A virus were compared with age and sex-matched controls. All of the 41 cases with Crohn's disease and 43 controls included in the study tested positive for IgG anti-hepatitis A virus antibody, with titres (38.8 IU/ml, 22-63.9; median, IQR) similar to those in controls (40.7 IU/ml, 17.3-66.7; p = 0.75). Environmental sanitation remains poor in India, despite reasonable economic gains as reflected by universal exposure to hepa...
Source: Tropical Doctor - October 13, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Kalra P, John A, Jaleel R, Simon EG, Babji S, Joseph AJ Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Tears of blood - a female adolescent with essential idiopathic bilateral haemolacria: case report and brief review.
Abstract Haemolacria is a rare condition that usually occurs secondary to a hidden pathology. On rare occasions when no underlying cause may be found, it is called essential idiopathic haemolacria. Here the authors report a case of a 13-year-old girl presented to the ophthalmology emergency department with spontaneous bloody tears from both eyes for the past six months. There was associated bleeding from the ear. The rest of the systemic and ophthalmology examinations were within normal limits. She was investigated systemically to look for any underlying pathology; however, her blood investigations, radiological i...
Source: Tropical Doctor - October 13, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Agrawal S, T M, Das D, Bajaj MS, Modaboyina S, Modaboyina V Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Duodenal strongyloidiasis - Our 15-year histopathological experience at a tertiary gastrointestinal centre.
Abstract In order to emphasise the importance of histopathology in the clinically unsuspected diagnosis of duodenal strongyloidiasis, we report six cases diagnosed on duodenal biopsies identified from the database over a period of 15 years, and clinical, endoscopic and histopathological findings were analysed retrospectively. Four were elderly males and the remainder young females. Only one patient had an underlying immunocompromised state. Three presented with cholestatic jaundice and simulated hepatobiliary malignancy. In all cases, endoscopy provided non-specific findings. Only one case showed a predominant eos...
Source: Tropical Doctor - October 12, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Gupta L, Gaur K, Sakhuja P, Sharma BC, Saran RK, Batra VV Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Experience with use of improvised negative pressure wound therapy in the management of wounds with exposed bone.
Abstract Wounds with exposed bone pose a significant challenge in healing. Negative pressure wound therapy has simplified reconstructive options. In economically constrained regions, this has been modified with materials that are affordable. Its effect on such wounds has not been well studied and so case summaries of 15 patients with 17 wounds who were managed with modified negative pressure wound therapy at Ntasiobi Specialist Hospital and ESUT Teaching Hospital between 2015 and 2019 were obtained. The procedure progressed satisfactorily in 88% of patients with granulation tissue covering the bones while the proc...
Source: Tropical Doctor - October 12, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Mba UC, Okenwa WO Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Effects of anthropometric and metabolic parameters on transaminase levels and liver stiffness in patients with non-alcohol fatty liver disease.
In conclusion, a significant number of our patients with NAFLD had steatohepatitis and F2-F4 fibrosis. PMID: 33040692 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Tropical Doctor)
Source: Tropical Doctor - October 12, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Samejo SA, Abbas Z, Asim M Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

The epidemiology and clinical spectrum of infections of the central nervous system in adults in north India.
Abstract Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are a leading cause of mortality in low- and middle-income countries. We studied the spectrum, aetiology and outcome of CNS infections in 401 consecutive patients aged ≥12 years admitted at the medical emergency centre of PGIMER, Chandigarh, India. An aetiological diagnosis was made in 365 (91.0%) patients, with 149 (40.8%) microbiologically confirmed cases. CNS tuberculosis was the most prevalent cause (51.5%), followed by viral meningoencephalitis (13.9%), community-acquired bacterial meningitis (9.7%), cryptococcal meningitis (6.2%), scrub typhus mening...
Source: Tropical Doctor - October 5, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Kumar D, Pannu AK, Dhibar DP, Singh R, Kumari S Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Misuse of gloves.
PMID: 33016223 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Tropical Doctor)
Source: Tropical Doctor - October 3, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Sachdev J, Singh G Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Comments in response to report on 'Late reversal reaction with resistant Mycobacterium leprae: an emerging paradigm'.
PMID: 32998654 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Tropical Doctor)
Source: Tropical Doctor - September 30, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Narang T, Kamat D, Dogra S, Kumar B Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Acute infectious purpura fulminans: a case series from India.
We present a case series of 11 patients from March 2005 to March 2017, whose clinical symptoms were fever (100%), confusion (63.6%) and headache (55%), and whose common laboratory abnormalities were thrombocytopenia (100%), elevated alkaline phosphatase (70%) and anaemia (63.6%). Three patients (27%) developed gangrene and two presented in shock. Only one grew Neisseria meningitidis in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture and another confirmed by latex agglutination and polymerase chain reaction in CSF. Five others had serology confirmed spotted fever rickettsioses (SFG). All received broad spectrum antibiotics; in 9/11 patie...
Source: Tropical Doctor - September 30, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Abdul Kalam S, Carey RA, Antony J, Abraham OC Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Status of human toxocariasis, a neglected parasitic zoonosis in Iran: a systematic review from past to current.
Abstract Although human toxocariasis can lead to serious complications including neurological, ocular and visceral complications, there is a lack of comprehensive epidemiological information about the seroprevalence of Toxocara species in humans. In the present study, we analysed and reviewed the overall seroprevalence of human toxocariasis in Iran. The data collection was systematically undertaken on published articles using the PubMed, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect and Scopus databases. A total of 27 studies from the past two decades reporting seroprevalence of human toxocariasis met our eligibility criteria. Th...
Source: Tropical Doctor - September 30, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Shafiei R, Rahimi MT, Emameh RZ, Mirzaei M, Perez-Cordon G, Ahmadpour E Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Pneumoperitoneum from pneumomediastinum in paraquat poisoning.
Abstract Pneumomediastinum is not uncommon in paraquat poisoning and usually results from oesophageal perforation or alveolar rupture in fibrotic lung disease. However, the combined presentation of pneumomediastinum and pneumoperitoneum is a rarity. We recently managed a young patient with paraquat ingestion who developed spontaneous pneumomediastinum. His chest radiograph also showed free air under the right hemidiaphragm. This pneumoperitoneum caused no clinical symptom and resolved spontaneously within a few days without any surgical intervention. PMID: 32998627 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Tropical Doctor)
Source: Tropical Doctor - September 29, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: James N, Bakshi R, Rudresh SS, Kaushik K, Ghumaan KS, Pannu AK Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Persistent wheezing along with apparent stridor caused by a rare anomaly: double aortic arch.
üdaver Alper H Abstract Vascular rings are rare anomalies that occur as a result of abnormal development of the aortic arch complex, often manifested by signs of tracheo-oesophageal compression during the infant period. A double aortic arch anomaly is the most common type of vascular ring pathology. Here we report a case presenting with wheezing and stridor in a 10-month-old child. PMID: 32981472 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Tropical Doctor)
Source: Tropical Doctor - September 26, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Gökçe Ş, Abdullayeva N, Koç F, Hüdaver Alper H Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

BreaDoxy sandwich for leptospirosis prophylaxis.
Abstract The incidence of leptospirosis is higher in resource-limited countries after the monsoon when people work in waterlogged areas after floods. Prophylactic doses of doxycycline against leptospirosis are effective but compliance is poor due to drug-induced gastritis. A cheap and effective method of improving drug compliance is presented here. PMID: 32981473 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Tropical Doctor)
Source: Tropical Doctor - September 26, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Parameswaran RM, Sundaran SP, Parakkadavath RT Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Pelvic kidney as a cause of May-Thurner syndrome.
Abstract Deep venous thrombosis is a common clinical problem with significant morbidity and mortality. Since the iconic publication by Virchow in 1856, which placed all known causes of deep venous thrombosis into three groups, namely venous stasis, vascular injury and hypercoagulability, numerous causes have been added to each category. This case report highlights the importance of an anatomical imaging study of the pelvis in cases of recurring, proximal deep venous thrombosis of the lower limb. PMID: 32981474 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Tropical Doctor)
Source: Tropical Doctor - September 26, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ker J Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Exchange blood transfusion in neonates with severe hyperbilirubinemia in a lower-middle-income country: can we minimise the incidence?
Abstract Our descriptive study examines the clinical profile of referred neonates who underwent exchange blood transfusion (EBT) and identifies possible interventions at peripheral hospitals to decrease their severe hyperbilirubinemia. Among the 38 neonates enrolled, the following were identified as potential clinical gaps in management: early discharge within 24 h of birth (57%); non-availability of ABORh blood grouping (43%); lack of anti-D immunoprophylaxis (75%); pathological weight loss because of inadequate breastfeeding (42%); and low usage of phototherapy. Because of late recognition, the mean age a...
Source: Tropical Doctor - September 26, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Rajan M, Singh J, Singh Dalal J Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

The other side of life.
PMID: 32962565 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Tropical Doctor)
Source: Tropical Doctor - September 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Kaur S Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

HIV is an emerging health challenge in Pakistan: risk factors and management strategies.
PMID: 32956027 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Tropical Doctor)
Source: Tropical Doctor - September 20, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Khan A, Tahir A, Sohail Afzal M, Kamran Shabbir RM, Saleem S, Ahmed H Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Tubercular longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis with lower motor neuron paralysis.
We present a case of spinal tuberculosis presenting with LETM with true lower motor neuron-type flaccid paraplegia. PMID: 32933380 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Tropical Doctor)
Source: Tropical Doctor - September 14, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Goyal MK, Lal M Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome: a report of TB-IRIS after switching from efavirenz to dolutegravir.
Abstract In 2016, the World Health Organization adopted dolutegravir (DTG)-based antiretroviral therapy as an alternative first-line treatment of HIV after many clinical trials showed that it was more effective, better tolerated and more protective than efavirenz and boosted protease inhibitors against discontinuation of treatment from adverse drug reactions. However, there was concern that DTG would lead to increased rates of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), especially in the setting of late presentation to care. Three cases at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia highlight this c...
Source: Tropical Doctor - September 8, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Zimba S, Mbewe N, Chishimba L, Chomba M, Saylor D Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Time for a village-level strategy for the elimination of kala-azar (visceral leishmaniasis) in India: analysis of potential kala-azar outbreak situation in 2018.
Abstract Cases of kala-azar reported during 2013-2018 in Bihar, India were retrospectively analysed. Of 2187 villages reporting cases of kala-azar in 2018, 573 (26.2%) had reported no case in the previous five years but contributed to 20% of disease burden in 2018. On applying potential thresholds of kala-azar outbreaks, 805, 519 and 103 villages reported more than twice, thrice and five times their previous five-year annual average in 2018, respectively. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) in villages reporting any case of kala-azar in the past three years as per current guidelines could cover 72% of incident cases in...
Source: Tropical Doctor - September 8, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Saurabh S Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Cervical lymphadenopathy of Togolese children in a tropical context: clinicopathological study.
apo-Koura G Abstract Our study describes the epidemiology and aetiology of cervical lymphadenopathy in children diagnosed between 2003 and 2017 at the pathology laboratory of Lomé, Togo. A total of 221 cases were collected. The average age of diagnosis of the study population was 9.8 ± 0.3 years and consisted of 118 (53.4%) boys. HIV was confirmed by indirect ELISA test in 69 (31.2%) cases. The cohort consisted of infections (n = 128, 57.9%), tumours (n = 85, 38.5%) and others (n = 8, 1.6%). The main infectious aetiology was tuberculosis (n&thin...
Source: Tropical Doctor - August 18, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Darré T, Doukouré B, Djiwa T, Amana B, Bissa H, Napo-Koura G Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Neonatal pertussis: an emerging issue of concern.
We report seven cases of neonatal pertussis (Bordetella pertussis DNA PCR positive) in this retrospective study conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital in north India over eight months (March to October 2018). All except one were male infants and presented at the age of 14-30 days with paroxysmal cough in all, four had fever, four had respiratory distress, three had similar illness in the family, and two had leucocytosis. All recovered well with azithromycin. The duration of hospital stay was 5-7 days. A strong suspicion of neonatal pertussis in neonates with paroxysmal cough and similar family history should be mai...
Source: Tropical Doctor - August 17, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Dhir SK, Angurana SK, Sundaram V, Kumar P, Gautam V, Sangal L Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Vehicular hyperthermia deaths in Indian children: a little recognised mode of fatal injury.
This study was a descriptive analysis to describe circumstances leading to death in children left unattended in parked motor vehicles in India. Between 2011 and 2018, there were 16 incidents that resulted in 28 fatalities across India, mostly in the summer months. The majority of children (19/28) were aged 4-6 years, of whom 25 (89%) gained access to unattended vehicles and became accidentally locked in. Hyperthermia-related deaths are a poorly recognised type of vehicular injury in India; there has been no analysis to describe circumstances leading to such fatalities. PMID: 32807025 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher...
Source: Tropical Doctor - August 16, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Siddiqui SA, Siddiqui GF, Singh MV Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Response to oxygen therapy using oxygen concentrators run off solar power in children with respiratory distress in remote primary health facilities in Papua New Guinea.
Abstract Oxygen therapy reduces mortality and morbidity from hypoxaemia in children. There are no published studies assessing individual patient responses to oxygen when delivered by oxygen concentrators in primary healthcare facilities.Ours was a prospective observational study in remote health facilities over three years. A data recording form was used for children who required oxygen. Oxygen saturation (SpO2) was recorded before administration of oxygen, at 30 min and then daily. We assessed the primary diagnosis and the outcome.The common primary diagnoses needing oxygen were pneumonia: moderate (39%) a...
Source: Tropical Doctor - August 16, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Pulsan F, Duke T Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Aetiology of pyrexia of unknown origin in north India.
Abstract The aetiology of pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) varies dramatically according to epidemiology. We studied the cause and spectrum of PUO in Indian adults. A total of 152 patients (112 prospectively and 40 retrospectively) met Petersdorf and Beeson's criteria. The diagnostic evaluation was guided by potentially diagnostic clues, based on a 'step-wise' approach. The five main categories, i.e. infectious, neoplastic, non-infectious inflammatory, miscellaneous and undiagnosed comprised 43.4%, 21.5%, 19.7%, 2.0% and 12.5%, respectively. The top three causes were tuberculosis (n = 43, 28.3%), lymp...
Source: Tropical Doctor - August 16, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Pannu AK, Golla R, Kumari S, Suri V, Gupta P, Kumar R Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Respectful maternity care: the need to create awareness.
PMID: 32777990 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Tropical Doctor)
Source: Tropical Doctor - August 9, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ansari H, Yeravdekar R Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research