Experience-Driven Auditory Attention
Publication date: Available online 11 September 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Douglas A. Addleman, Yuhong V. JiangIn addition to conscious goals and stimulus salience, an observer’s prior experience also influences selective attention. Early studies demonstrated experience-driven effects on attention mainly in the visual modality, but increasing evidence shows that experience drives auditory selection as well. We review evidence for a multiple-levels framework of auditory attention, in which experience-driven attention relies on mechanisms that acquire control settings and mechanisms that guide a...
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - September 13, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: October 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 10Author(s): (Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences)
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - September 11, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

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Publication date: October 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 10Author(s): (Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences)
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - September 11, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Climate Crisis Needs Attention from Cognitive Scientists
Publication date: Available online 3 September 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Adam R. AronTo prevent the devastating consequences of anthropogenic global heating, immediate collective action is needed to reduce fossil fuel emissions. Cognitive scientists are in a special position to facilitate collective action by researching the factors underlying belief and action, and by teaching students how to think about the biggest problem of their lives. (Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences)
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - September 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

When Do Growth Mindset Interventions Work?
Publication date: Available online 4 September 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): David I. MillerCan teaching students about brain plasticity improve their grades? A recent large, national experiment (Yeager et al.) found that a brief growth mindset intervention improved lower-achieving adolescents’ grades by 0.10 points. Debate about interpreting the study’s findings illustrates the need to consider effect heterogeneity and contextual factors when evaluating effect sizes. (Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences)
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - September 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Where Does Value Come From?
Publication date: Available online 4 September 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Keno Juechems, Christopher SummerfieldThe computational framework of reinforcement learning (RL) has allowed us to both understand biological brains and build successful artificial agents. However, in this opinion, we highlight open challenges for RL as a model of animal behaviour in natural environments. We ask how the external reward function is designed for biological systems, and how we can account for the context sensitivity of valuation. We summarise both old and new theories proposing that animals track current and desi...
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - September 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Consciousness Is Not Key in the Serial-versus-Parallel Debate
Publication date: Available online 30 August 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Joshua Snell, Jonathan Grainger (Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences)
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - September 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

You Can’t Recognize Two Words Simultaneously
Publication date: Available online 30 August 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Alex L. White, Geoffrey M. Boynton, Jason D. Yeatman (Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences)
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - September 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Eye Movements and Comprehension Are Important to Reading
Publication date: Available online 30 August 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Elizabeth R. Schotter, Brennan R. Payne (Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences)
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - September 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Individual Representation in a Community of Knowledge
Publication date: Available online 30 August 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Nathaniel Rabb, Philip M. Fernbach, Steven A. SlomanAn individual’s knowledge is collective in at least two senses: it often comes from other people’s testimony, and its deployment in reasoning and action requires accuracy underwritten by other people’s knowledge. What must one know to participate in a collective knowledge system? Here, we marshal evidence that individuals retain detailed causal information for a few domains and coarse causal models embedding markers indicating that these details are available ...
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - September 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Awake Reactivation of Prior Experiences Consolidates Memories and Biases Cognition
Publication date: Available online 22 August 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Arielle Tambini, Lila DavachiAfter experiences are encoded into memory, post-encoding reactivation mechanisms have been proposed to mediate long-term memory stabilization and transformation. Spontaneous reactivation of hippocampal representations, together with hippocampal–cortical interactions, are leading candidate mechanisms for promoting systems-level memory strengthening and reorganization. While the replay of spatial representations has been extensively studied in rodents, here we review recent fMRI work that provide...
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - August 22, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Ontogenetic Origins of Human Integer Representations
Publication date: Available online 19 August 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Susan Carey, David BarnerDo children learn number words by associating them with perceptual magnitudes? Recent studies argue that approximate numerical magnitudes play a foundational role in the development of integer concepts. Against this, we argue that approximate number representations fail both empirically and in principle to provide the content required of integer concepts. Instead, we suggest that children’s understanding of integer concepts proceeds in two phases. In the first phase, children learn small exact numb...
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - August 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Misestimation of Uncertainty in Affective Disorders
Publication date: Available online 17 August 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Erdem Pulcu, Michael BrowningOur knowledge about the state of the world is often incomplete, making it difficult to select the best course of action. One strategy that can be used to improve our ability to make decisions is to identify the causes of our ignorance (i.e., why an unexpected event might have occurred) and use estimates of the uncertainty induced by these causes to guide our learning. Here, we explain the logic behind this process and describe the evidence that human learners use estimates of uncertainty to sculpt th...
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - August 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Default Mode Network’s Role in Discrete Emotion
Publication date: Available online 16 August 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Ajay B. Satpute, Kristen A. LindquistEmotions are often assumed to manifest in subcortical limbic and brainstem structures. While these areas are clearly important for representing affect (e.g., valence and arousal), we propose that the default mode network (DMN) is additionally important for constructing discrete emotional experiences (of anger, fear, disgust, etc.). Findings from neuroimaging studies, invasive electrical stimulation studies, and lesion studies support this proposal. Importantly, our framework builds on a const...
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - August 17, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

What Underlies Political Polarization? A Manifesto for Computational Political Psychology
Publication date: Available online 15 August 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Max Rollwage, Leor Zmigrod, Lee de-Wit, Raymond J. Dolan, Stephen M. FlemingPolarization is one of the biggest societal challenges of our time, yet its drivers are poorly understood. Here we propose a novel approach – computational political psychology – which uses behavioral tasks in combination with formal computational models to identify candidate cognitive processes underpinning susceptibility to polarized beliefs about political and societal issues. (Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences)
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - August 17, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Preregistration Is Hard, And Worthwhile
Publication date: Available online 14 August 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Brian A. Nosek, Emorie D. Beck, Lorne Campbell, Jessica K. Flake, Tom E. Hardwicke, David T. Mellor, Anna E. van ’t Veer, Simine VazirePreregistration clarifies the distinction between planned and unplanned research by reducing unnoticed flexibility. This improves credibility of findings and calibration of uncertainty. However, making decisions before conducting analyses requires practice. During report writing, respecting both what was planned and what actually happened requires good judgment and humility in making claims...
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - August 15, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

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Publication date: September 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 9Author(s): (Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences)
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - August 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: September 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 9Author(s): (Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences)
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - August 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A Modeling Approach that Integrates Individual Behavior, Social Networks, and Cross-Cultural Variation
Publication date: Available online 1 August 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Paul E. SmaldinoHow do psychological traits shape social networks? How does this relationship influence the spread of behavior? In a recent paper, Muthukrishna and Schaller (Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev., 2019) use a modeling approach to explore these questions. In doing so, they illustrate the value of using a multilevel approach to study human behavior. (Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences)
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - August 2, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Understanding the Higher-Order Approach to Consciousness
Publication date: Available online 30 July 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Richard Brown, Hakwan Lau, Joseph E. LeDouxThe higher-order theory (HOT) of consciousness has often been misunderstood by critics. Here, we clarify its position on several issues, and distinguish it from other views, such as the global workspace theory (GWT) and early sensory models (e.g., first-order local recurrency theories). For example, HOT has been criticized for overintellectualizing consciousness. We show that, while higher-order states are cognitively assembled, the requirements are in fact considerably less than often pr...
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - July 31, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Moving Forward: On the Limits of Motor-Based Forward Models
Publication date: Available online 29 July 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Myrthel Dogge, Ruud Custers, Henk AartsThe human ability to anticipate the consequences that result from action is an essential building block for cognitive, emotional, and social functioning. A dominant view is that this faculty is based on motor predictions, in which a forward model uses a copy of the motor command to predict imminent sensory action-consequences. Although this account was originally conceived to explain the processing of action-outcomes that are tightly coupled to bodily movements, it has been increasingly extra...
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - July 31, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Nonmonotonic Plasticity: How Memory Retrieval Drives Learning
Publication date: Available online 26 July 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Victoria J.H. Ritvo, Nicholas B. Turk-Browne, Kenneth A. NormanWhat are the principles that govern whether neural representations move apart (differentiate) or together (integrate) as a function of learning? According to supervised learning models that are trained to predict outcomes in the world, integration should occur when two stimuli predict the same outcome. Numerous findings support this, but – paradoxically – some recent fMRI studies have found that pairing different stimuli with the same associate causes diffe...
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - July 28, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

An Insect’s Sense of Number
Publication date: Available online 20 July 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Martin GiurfaRecent studies revealed numerosity judgments in bees, which include the concept of zero, subtraction and addition, and matching symbols to numbers. Despite their distant origins, bees and vertebrates share similarities in their numeric competences, thus suggesting that numerosity is evolutionary conserved and can be implemented in miniature brains without neocortex. (Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences)
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - July 21, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Measuring Adaptive Control in Conflict Tasks
Publication date: Available online 19 July 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Senne Braem, Julie M. Bugg, James R. Schmidt, Matthew J.C. Crump, Daniel H. Weissman, Wim Notebaert, Tobias EgnerThe past two decades have witnessed an explosion of interest in the cognitive and neural mechanisms of adaptive control processes that operate in selective attention tasks. This has spawned not only a large empirical literature and several theories but also the recurring identification of potential confounds and corresponding adjustments in task design to create confound-minimized metrics of adaptive control. The result...
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - July 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Factors Determining Where Category-Selective Areas Emerge in Visual Cortex
Publication date: Available online 18 July 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Hans P. Op de Beeck, Ineke Pillet, J. Brendan RitchieA hallmark of functional localization in the human brain is the presence of areas in visual cortex specialized for representing particular categories such as faces and words. Why do these areas appear where they do during development? Recent findings highlight several general factors to consider when answering this question. Experience-driven category selectivity arises in regions that have: (i) pre-existing selectivity for properties of the stimulus, (ii) are appropriately plac...
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - July 19, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Editors, Contents, Cover details
Publication date: August 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 8Author(s): (Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences)
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - July 19, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Social Status and Gene Regulation: Conservation and Context Dependence in Primates
Publication date: Available online 15 July 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Noah D. Simons, Jenny TungCurrent models suggest that low social status affects immune function by increasing inflammation and compromising antiviral defense. While this pattern appears to be somewhat conserved, recent studies argue that the gene regulatory signature of social status also depends on the local environment and the nature of social hierarchies. (Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences)
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - July 16, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

At the Heart of Cognitive Functioning in Aging
Publication date: Available online 11 July 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Anders Wåhlin, Lars NybergSeveral neural and non-neural factors contribute to individual differences in cognitive performance. Here we outline a sequence of vascular events where excessive transfer of arterial-pressure pulsatility damages hippocampal capillaries. We argue that the vascular alterations decrease the ability to sustain neural activity and thereby contribute to episodic-memory impairment in aging. (Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences)
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - July 13, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Is Rehearsal an Effective Maintenance Strategy for Working Memory?
Publication date: Available online 10 July 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Klaus OberauerA common assumption in theories of working memory is that a maintenance process – broadly referred to as rehearsal – is involved in keeping novel information available. This review evaluates the effectiveness of three forms of rehearsal: articulatory rehearsal, attention-based refreshing, and elaborative rehearsal. Evidence for the effectiveness of these strategies is surprisingly weak. Experimental manipulations of articulatory rehearsal have yielded working memory benefits in children, but not in adults...
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - July 10, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Respect Defended
Publication date: Available online 5 July 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Jan M. Engelmann, Michael Tomasello (Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences)
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - July 7, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Children’s Sense of Fairness: Respect Isn’t Everything
Publication date: Available online 5 July 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Katherine McAuliffe, Felix Warneken, Peter Blake (Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences)
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - July 7, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

New Perspectives on the Aging Lexicon
Publication date: Available online 6 July 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Dirk U. Wulff, Simon De Deyne, Michael N. Jones, Rui Mata, The Aging Lexicon ConsortiumThe field of cognitive aging has seen considerable advances in describing the linguistic and semantic changes that happen during the adult life span to uncover the structure of the mental lexicon (i.e., the mental repository of lexical and conceptual representations). Nevertheless, there is still debate concerning the sources of these changes, including the role of environmental exposure and several cognitive mechanisms associated with learning, ...
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - July 7, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Lesion Studies in Contemporary Neuroscience
Publication date: Available online 3 July 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Avinash R. Vaidya, Maia S. Pujara, Michael Petrides, Elisabeth A. Murray, Lesley K. FellowsStudies of humans with focal brain damage and non-human animals with experimentally induced brain lesions have provided pivotal insights into the neural basis of behavior. As the repertoire of neural manipulation and recording techniques expands, the utility of studying permanent brain lesions bears re-examination. Studies on the effects of permanent lesions provide vital data about brain function that are distinct from those of reversible ma...
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - July 4, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Consolidating the Case for Transient Hippocampal Memory Traces
Publication date: Available online 30 June 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Daniel N. Barry, Eleanor A. Maguire (Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences)
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - July 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Sculpting Remote Memory: Enduring Hippocampal Traces and vmPFC Reconstructive Processes
Publication date: Available online 30 June 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Morris Moscovitch, Lynn Nadel (Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences)
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - July 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Naturalistic Stimuli in Neuroscience: Critically Acclaimed
Publication date: Available online 27 June 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Saurabh Sonkusare, Michael Breakspear, Christine GuoCognitive neuroscience has traditionally focused on simple tasks, presented sparsely and using abstract stimuli. While this approach has yielded fundamental insights into functional specialisation in the brain, its ecological validity remains uncertain. Do these tasks capture how brains function ‘in the wild’, where stimuli are dynamic, multimodal, and crowded? Ecologically valid paradigms that approximate real life scenarios, using stimuli such as films, spoken narra...
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - June 28, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Multimodal Language Processing in Human Communication
Publication date: Available online 21 June 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Judith Holler, Stephen C. LevinsonThe natural ecology of human language is face-to-face interaction comprising the exchange of a plethora of multimodal signals. Trying to understand the psycholinguistic processing of language in its natural niche raises new issues, first and foremost the binding of multiple, temporally offset signals under tight time constraints posed by a turn-taking system. This might be expected to overload and slow our cognitive system, but the reverse is in fact the case. We propose cognitive mechanisms that ...
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - June 22, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Editors, Contents, Cover details
Publication date: July 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 7Author(s): (Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences)
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - June 19, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

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Publication date: July 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 7Author(s): (Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences)
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - June 19, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Perceptual Input Is Not Conceptual Content
Publication date: Available online 11 June 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Justin HalberdaCan we represent number approximately? A seductive reductionist notion is that participants in number tasks rely on continuous extent cues (e.g., area) and therefore that the representations underlying performance lack numerical content. I suggest that this notion embraces a misconception: that perceptual input determines conceptual content. (Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences)
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - June 12, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Bilingual Brain: Emergent, Dynamic, and Variable. Albert Costa (1970–2018)
Publication date: Available online 7 June 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Arturo E. Hernandez, Ping Li, Jubin AbutalebiIn this piece, we honor the work of Albert Costa. His work focused on how bilinguals manage two languages, the brain mechanisms involved, and the ways in which language and emotion are related. We end by discussing ways in which his work will frame research in the field going forward. (Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences)
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - June 9, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Rethinking Cognitive Load: A Default-Mode Network Perspective
Publication date: Available online 5 June 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Adrianna C. JenkinsTypical cognitive load tasks are now known to deactivate the brain’s default-mode network (DMN). This raises the possibility that apparent effects of cognitive load could arise from disruptions of DMN processes, including social cognition. Cognitive load studies are reconsidered, with reinterpretations of past research and implications for dual-process theory. (Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences)
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - June 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Neural Dedifferentiation in the Aging Brain
Publication date: Available online 4 June 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Joshua D. Koen, Michael D. RuggMany cognitive abilities decline with age even in the absence of detectable pathology. Recent evidence indicates that age-related neural dedifferentiation, operationalized in terms of neural selectivity, may contribute to this decline. We review here work exploring the relationship between neural dedifferentiation, cognition, and age. Compelling evidence for age effects on neural selectivity comes from both non-human animal and human research. However, current data suggest that age does not moderate t...
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - June 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

How Plants Shape the Mind
Publication date: Available online 1 June 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Annie E. WertzPlants are easy to overlook in modern environments, but were a fundamental part of human life over evolutionary time. Recent work with infants suggests that the adaptive problems humans faced with respect to plants have left their mark on the human mind. (Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences)
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - June 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Language of Programming: A Cognitive Perspective
Publication date: Available online 29 May 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Evelina Fedorenko, Anna Ivanova, Riva Dhamala, Marina Umaschi BersComputer programming is becoming essential across fields. Traditionally grouped with science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines, programming also bears parallels to natural languages. These parallels may translate into overlapping processing mechanisms. Investigating the cognitive basis of programming is important for understanding the human mind and could transform education practices. (Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences)
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - May 31, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Heterogeneity Problem: Approaches to Identify Psychiatric Subtypes
Publication date: Available online 29 May 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Eric Feczko, Oscar Miranda-Dominguez, Mollie Marr, Alice M. Graham, Joel T. Nigg, Damien A. FairThe imprecise nature of psychiatric nosology restricts progress towards characterizing and treating mental health disorders. One issue is the ‘heterogeneity problem’: different causal mechanisms may relate to the same disorder, and multiple outcomes of interest can occur within one individual. Our review tackles this heterogeneity problem, providing considerations, concepts, and approaches for investigators examining human co...
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - May 31, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Global Workspace Needs Metacognition
Publication date: Available online 29 May 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Nicholas Shea, Chris D. FrithThe two leading cognitive accounts of consciousness currently available concern global workspace (a form of working memory) and metacognition. There is relatively little interaction between these two approaches and it has even been suggested that the two accounts are rival and separable alternatives. Here, we argue that the successful function of a global workspace critically requires that the broadcast representations include a metacognitive component. (Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences)
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - May 31, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Object Vision in a Structured World
Publication date: Available online 27 May 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Daniel Kaiser, Genevieve L. Quek, Radoslaw M. Cichy, Marius V. PeelenIn natural vision, objects appear at typical locations, both with respect to visual space (e.g., an airplane in the upper part of a scene) and other objects (e.g., a lamp above a table). Recent studies have shown that object vision is strongly adapted to such positional regularities. In this review we synthesize these developments, highlighting that adaptations to positional regularities facilitate object detection and recognition, and sharpen the representations ...
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - May 28, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Readers Are Parallel Processors
Publication date: Available online 25 May 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Joshua Snell, Jonathan GraingerReading research has long endorsed the view that words are processed strictly one by one. The primary empirical test of this notion is the search for effects from upcoming words on readers’ eye movements during sentence reading. Here we argue that no conclusions can be drawn from the absence of such effects, and that the serial versus parallel processing debate cannot be resolved without treading beyond the methodological scope of tracking eye movements. Recent considerations of how the brain or...
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - May 26, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Mesoscopic Neural Representations in Spatial Navigation
Publication date: Available online 23 May 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Lukas Kunz, Shachar Maidenbaum, Dong Chen, Liang Wang, Joshua Jacobs, Nikolai AxmacherRecent evidence suggests that mesoscopic neural oscillations measured via intracranial electroencephalography exhibit spatial representations, which were previously only observed at the micro- and macroscopic level of brain organization. Specifically, theta (and gamma) oscillations correlate with movement, speed, distance, specific locations, and goal proximity to boundaries. In entorhinal cortex (EC), they exhibit hexadirectional modulation, whic...
Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences - May 25, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research