Fractional flow reserve: A diagnostic tool, a prognostic index
Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is a well-validated invasive index able to detect ischemia-producing epicardial coronary stenoses [1]. Coronary angiogram has represented the benchmark invasive test for the detection of coronary atherosclerotic disease, but alone has been demonstrated unable to reliably predict the functional significance of the epicardial coronary stenosis [2]. FFR complements the invasive angiographic evaluation of the atherosclerotic coronary disease, by indicating those coronary stenoses deriving potential benefits from revascularization. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - July 11, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Emanuele Barbato Source Type: research

Evolution and vascular calcification: Second response to letter to editor
The proposals and questions posed by Leopold [1] in reply to our Letter to the Editor [2] apparently are based on the erroneous assumption that evolution by natural selection shapes the body for health; it does so only to the extent that health promotes reproductive success. Leopold ′s proposal “that vascular calcification co-evolved as a defense mechanism concomitant with the increased prevalence of other systemic diseases now associated with increased longevity”, and the question “why there has not been a co-evolution of an ectopic calcification regression mechanism?” prompt the answer: natu...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - July 11, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Carlos de C éspedes Source Type: research

Fractional flow reserve: A diagnostic tool, a prognostic index
Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is a well-validated invasive index able to detect ischemia-producing epicardial coronary stenoses [1]. Coronary angiogram has represented the benchmark invasive test for the detection of coronary atherosclerotic disease, but alone has been demonstrated unable to reliably predict the functional significance of the epicardial coronary stenosis [2]. FFR complements the invasive angiographic evaluation of the atherosclerotic coronary disease, by indicating those coronary stenoses deriving potential benefits from revascularization. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - July 11, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Emanuele Barbato Source Type: research

Evolution and vascular calcification: Second response to letter to editor
The proposals and questions posed by Leopold [1] in reply to our Letter to the Editor [2] apparently are based on the erroneous assumption that evolution by natural selection shapes the body for health; it does so only to the extent that health promotes reproductive success. Leopold′s proposal “that vascular calcification co-evolved as a defense mechanism concomitant with the increased prevalence of other systemic diseases now associated with increased longevity”, and the question “why there has not been a co-evolution of an ectopic calcification regression mechanism?” prompt the answer: natur...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - July 11, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Carlos de Céspedes Source Type: research

Reply: Evolutionary approach sheds light on the significance of vascular calcification
Dear Editor, (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - July 6, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Linda L. Demer, Yin Tintut Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Evolutionary approach sheds light on the significance of vascular calcification
Dear Editor, (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - July 6, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Linda L. Demer, Yin Tintut Source Type: research

Editorial commentary: Virtual medicine —A better reality?
The last decade has witnessed an explosion in amount and variety of digital health-related data available to both patient and health care provider, which will undoubtedly have a profound influence on the practice of medicine. Increasingly, information could be obtained from smart phones and other commercial external devices, electronic medical record systems, wireless transmission through implantable, wearable, or stand-alone medical devices, and greater access to patients using video and other telemedicine applications. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - July 3, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Joseph G. Akar, James P. Hummel Source Type: research

Virtual Medicine – A Better Reality?
The last decade has witnessed an explosion in amount and variety of digital health-related data available to both patient and health care provider, which will undoubtedly have a profound influence on the practice of medicine. Increasingly, information could be obtained from smart phones and other commercial external devices; electronic medical record systems; wireless transmission through implantable, wearable, or stand alone medical devices; and greater access to patients using video and other telemedicine applications. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - July 3, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Joseph G. Akar, James P. Hummel Source Type: research

MY APPROCH to the Diagnosis and Treatment of Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy/Dysplasia (ARVC/D) ⁎
Frank L. Marcus, MD (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 29, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Frank L. Marcus Tags: MY APPROCH Source Type: research

My Approach to the Diagnosis and Treatment of Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy/Dysplasia (ARVC/D)
Image 1 (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 29, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Frank L. Marcus Source Type: research

MY APPROACH to evaluating a patient with a serious illness ⁎
Amy Kelley, MD (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 28, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Amy Kelley Tags: MY APPROACH Source Type: research

MY APPROACH to selecting patients for videoscopic cardiac sympathetic denervation (CSD) ⁎
Kalyanam Shivkumar, MD, PhD, FHRS, FACC (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 28, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Kalyanam Shivkumar Tags: MY APPROACH Source Type: research

Use of fractional flow reserve in patients with coronary artery disease: The right choice for the right outcome
Despite advances in therapy, coronary artery disease (CAD) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Over the past years, the utilization of revascularization procedures has been refined, and in the best interest of the patient and to reduce the healthcare burden of CAD, it is paramount that patients are appropriately selected for therapies aiming at improving their symptoms and prognosis. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is the current invasive standard test to identify hemodynamically significant coronary artery stenoses with resultant implications for revascularization and clinical outcomes. (Source: ...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 28, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jae Yoon Park, Amir Lerman, Joerg Herrmann Source Type: research

My Approach to Evaluating a Patient With a Serious Illness
Image 1 (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 28, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Amy Kelley Source Type: research

My Approach to Selecting Patients for Videoscopic Cardiac Sympathetic Denervation (CSD)
Image 1 (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 28, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Kalyanam Shivkumar Source Type: research

Use of fractional flow reserve in patients with coronary artery disease: The right choice for the right outcome
Despite advances in therapy, coronary artery disease (CAD) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Over the past years, the utilization of revascularization procedures has been refined, and in the best interest of the patient and to reduce the healthcare burden of CAD, it is paramount that patients are appropriately selected for therapies aiming at improving their symptoms and prognosis. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is the current invasive standard test to identify hemodynamically significant coronary artery stenoses with resultant implications for revascularization and clinical outcomes. (Source: ...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 28, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jae Yoon Park, Amir Lerman, Joerg Herrmann Source Type: research

Use of fractional flow reserve in patients with coronary artery disease – the right choice for the right outcome
Despite advances in therapy, coronary artery disease (CAD) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Over the past years, the utilization of revascularization procedures has been refined, and in the best interest of the patient and to reduce the healthcare burden of CAD, it is paramount that patients are appropriately selected for therapies aimed at improving their symptoms and prognosis. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is the current invasive standard test in identifying hemodynamically significant coronary artery stenoses with resultant implications for revascularization and clinical outcomes. (Source...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 28, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jae Yoon Park, Amir Lerman, Joerg Herrmann Source Type: research

My Approach to Evaluating a Patient With a Serious Illness
Image 1 (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 28, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Amy Kelley Source Type: research

My Approach to Selecting Patients for Videoscopic Cardiac Sympathetic Denervation (CSD)
Image 1 (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 28, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Kalyanam Shivkumar Source Type: research

Update on primary PCI for patients with STEMI
Primary PCI is the dominant reperfusion strategy for patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction and continues to evolve. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent reports that focused on the relationship of door-to-balloon time with mortality, radial versus femoral artery access, aspiration thrombectomy, culprit versus multivessel primary PCI, drug-eluting stents, and anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapies. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 26, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Michael P. Thomas, Eric R. Bates Source Type: research

Update on primary PCI for STEMI patients
Primary PCI is the dominant reperfusion strategy for patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction and continues to evolve. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent reports that focused on the relationship of door-to-balloon time with mortality, radial versus femoral artery access, aspiration thrombectomy, culprit versus multivessel primary PCI, drug-eluting stents, and anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapies. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 26, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Michael P. Thomas, Eric R. Bates Source Type: research

Editorial commentary: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin: Like every new tool there is a learning curve
It is fascinating how a biomarker related to myocardial injury has garnered so much attention from both the clinical and clinical laboratory communities alike. Everett [1] provides a concise and thorough review on the utility and possible new roles for cardiac troponin testing, in particular on the emerging evidence of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin testing in the ambulatory population. As clearly articulated in the review article and perhaps not too surprising to those who have chronicled the evolution of cardiac troponin testing, “the therapeutic implications for individual patients remain decidedly murky”...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 23, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Peter A. Kavsak Source Type: research

Acute stroke therapy: A review
This review summarizes the modern early diagnosis and acute phase treatment of acute stroke. The guidelines for treatment of acute ischemic stroke underwent major changes in 2015 and endovascular therapy (catheter-based mechanical thrombectomy with a stent retriever) became the class IA indication for patients presenting within less than 6h from symptom onset who have proven occlusion of large intracerebral artery in anterior circulation. Acute stroke care organization should enable to perform effective revascularization therapy as soon as possible after the initial brain imaging whenever this examination provides indicati...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 23, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Tomas Peisker, Boris Koznar, Ivana Stetkarova, Petr Widimsky Source Type: research

Editorial commentary: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin: Like every new tool there is a learning curve
It is fascinating how a biomarker related to myocardial injury has garnered so much attention from both the clinical and clinical laboratory communities alike. Everett [1] provides a concise and thorough review on the utility and possible new roles for cardiac troponin testing, in particular on the emerging evidence of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin testing in the ambulatory population. As clearly articulated in the review article and perhaps not too surprising to those who have chronicled the evolution of cardiac troponin testing, “the therapeutic implications for individual patients remain decidedly murky”...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 23, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Peter A. Kavsak Source Type: research

High-sensitivity cardiac troponin: Like every new tool there’s a learning curve
It is fascinating how a biomarker related to myocardial injury has garnered so much attention from both the clinical and clinical laboratory communities alike. Everett provides a concise and thorough review on the utility and possible new roles for cardiac troponin testing, in particular on the emerging evidence of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin testing in the ambulatory population [1]. As clearly articulated in the review article and perhaps not too surprising to those who have chronicled the evolution of cardiac troponin testing, “the therapeutic implications for individual patients remain decidedly murky”...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 23, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Peter A. Kavsak Source Type: research

Acute stroke therapy: A review
This review summarizes the modern early diagnosis and acute phase treatment of acute stroke. The guidelines for treatment of acute ischemic stroke underwent major changes in 2015 and endovascular therapy (catheter-based mechanical thrombectomy with a stent retriever) became the class IA indication for patients presenting within less than 6hours from symptom onset who have proven occlusion of large intracerebral artery in anterior circulation. Acute stroke care organization should enable to perform effective revascularization therapy as soon as possible after the initial brain imaging whenever this examination provides indi...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 23, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Tomas Peisker, Boris Koznar, Ivana Stetkarova, Petr Widimsky Source Type: research

Update on atrial fibrillation
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia and accounts for one-third of hospitalizations for rhythm disorders in the United States [1]. Atrial fibrillation is of public health importance and profoundly increases morbidity, mortality, and health-related expenditures. Morbidities include outcomes such as heart failure, stroke and the deleterious effects on quality of life (QOL), functional status, and cognition. In the United States and Western Europe, the aging population and the accompanying rise in the prevalence of AF have magnified its toll on morbidity and healthcare costs. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 21, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Amanulla Khaji, Peter R. Kowey Source Type: research

Editorial commentary: Mapping of persistent atrial fibrillation —Can the driver mechanisms be determined in the clinical setting?
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a progressive disease that commonly advances into persistent and then permanent AF [1]. The longer AF continues, the outcome of any associated therapeutic options becomes less favorable [2]. With the advancement of persistent AF, electrical and structural remodeling occurs and an atrial substrate develops that promotes the propagation of the arrhythmia [3]. As the AF propagates, it becomes more complex and disorganized [4] as other driving sources may have developed beyond the initial triggers. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 20, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Thomas H. Everett Source Type: research

Editorial commentary: Mapping of persistent atrial fibrillation—Can the driver mechanisms be determined in the clinical setting?
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a progressive disease that commonly advances into persistent and then permanent AF [1]. The longer AF continues, the outcome of any associated therapeutic options becomes less favorable [2]. With the advancement of persistent AF, electrical and structural remodeling occurs and an atrial substrate develops that promotes the propagation of the arrhythmia [3]. As the AF propagates, it becomes more complex and disorganized [4] as other driving sources may have developed beyond the initial triggers. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 20, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Thomas H. Everett Source Type: research

Mapping of persistent atrial fibrillation – can the driver Mechanisms be determined in the clinical setting?
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a progressive disease that commonly advances into persistent and then permanent AF [1]. The longer AF continues, the outcome of any associated therapeutic options becomes less favorable [2]. With the advancement of persistent AF, electrical and structural remodeling occurs and an atrial substrate develops that promotes the propagation of the arrhythmia [3]. As the AF propagates, it becomes more complex and disorganized [4] as other driving sources may have developed beyond the initial triggers. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 20, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Thomas H. Everett Source Type: research

Ed Board
(Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 14, 2016 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 14, 2016 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Diagnosis and management of adult hereditary cardio-neuromuscular disorders: A model for the multidisciplinary care of complex genetic disorders
Genetic disorders that disrupt the structure and function of the cardiovascular system and the peripheral nervous system are common enough to be encountered in routine cardiovascular practice. Although often these patients are diagnosed in childhood and come to the cardiologist fully characterized, some patients with hereditary neuromuscular disease may not manifest until adulthood and will present initially to the adult cardiologist for an evaluation of an abnormal ECG, unexplained syncope, LV hypertrophy, and or a dilated cardiomyopathy of unknown cause. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 12, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: R. Brian Sommerville, Margherita Guzzi Vincenti, Kathleen Winborn, Anne Casey, Nathan O. Stitziel, Anne M. Connolly, Douglas L. Mann Source Type: research

Diagnosis and management of adult hereditary cardio-neuromuscular disorders: A model for the multidisciplinary care of complex genetic disorders
Genetic disorders that disrupt the structure and function of the cardiovascular system and the peripheral nervous system are common enough to be encountered in routine cardiovascular practice. Although often these patients are diagnosed in childhood and come to the cardiologist fully characterized, some patients with hereditary neuromuscular disease may not manifest until adulthood and will present initially to the adult cardiologist for an evaluation of an abnormal ECG, unexplained syncope, LV hypertrophy and or a dilated cardiomyopathy of unknown cause. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 12, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: R. Brian Sommerville, Margherita Guzzi Vincenti, Kathleen Winborn, Anne Casey, Nathan O. Stitziel, Anne M. Connolly, Douglas L. Mann Source Type: research

Cardiac troponin as a novel tool for cardiovascular risk prediction in ambulatory populations
Assays for cardiac troponin have become increasingly sensitive, and are now able to detect very low concentrations of circulating cardiac troponin in a substantial proportion of stable patients who are not suspected of having an acute myocardial infarction. These low concentrations of cardiac troponin are frequently well within the range of what is considered normal but are nonetheless associated with a significant increase in the risk of major cardiovascular events, including heart failure, myocardial infarction, and death in patients with and without established cardiovascular disease. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 8, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Brendan M. Everett Source Type: research

Cardiac troponin as a novel tool for cardiovascular risk prediction in Ambulatory Populations
Assays for cardiac troponin have become increasingly sensitive, and are now able to detect very low concentrations of circulating cardiac troponin in a substantial proportion of stable patients who are not suspected of having an acute myocardial infarction. These low concentrations of cardiac troponin are frequently well within the range of what is considered normal and are associated with a significant increase in the risk of major cardiovascular events, including heart failure, myocardial infarction, and death in patients with and without established cardiovascular disease. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 8, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Brendan M. Everett Source Type: research

Reply: Understanding vascular calcification from an evolutionary approach
Understanding the evolutionary mechanisms that support the development of vascular calcification is a valid point, and one that may ultimately reveal novel etiologies of this complex vascular remodeling process [1]. Nonetheless, the overall supposition that vascular calcification occurs as a consequence of atherosclerosis (owing to the relatively late appearance of atherosclerosis in the history of man) may be an overly simplistic interpretation of the (mal)adaptive consequences of calcifying blood vessels. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 7, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jane A. Leopold Tags: Letter to Editor Source Type: research

Understanding vascular calcification from an evolutionary approach
Understanding the evolutionary mechanisms that support the development of vascular calcification is a valid point, and one that may ultimately reveal novel etiologies of this complex vascular remodeling process [1]. Nonetheless, the overall supposition that vascular calcification occurs as a consequence of atherosclerosis (owing to the relatively late appearance of atherosclerosis in the history of man) may be an overly simplistic interpretation of the (mal)adaptive consequences of calcifying blood vessels. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 7, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jane A. Leopold Source Type: research

Vascular calcification: How an evolutionary approach may help to shed light on its significance
Editorial of Demer and Tintut [1] in this Journal put forward the interesting hypothesis that vascular calcification (VC) may have an adaptive value as an immunological defense to pathogens. We go along with this, and propose that VC may function as a welcome mechanical immunological defense —an adaptation—in cells like cardiomyocytes with low or no capacity to regenerate [2]. However, it is wrong to assume that adaptations promote health they do, only if health promotes reproductive success, that is, Darwinian fitness [3]. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 7, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Carlos de C éspedes Source Type: research

Editorial Commentary: Multiple arterial grafting for coronary revascularization: We are not perplexed but choose ignorance
The treatment for coronary artery disease (CAD) has evolved greatly over the past several decades. This includes interventions as varied as the ligation of the coronary sinus to total endoscopic coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Types of conduits use for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery have also evolved. The left internal thoracic artery (LITA) has become the new gold standard in CABG surgery, replacing the once prevalent saphenous vein. With increased utilization of the LITA, several groups have searched for alternative arterial conduits, which may portend improved benefits similar to the LITA. (Source: Tr...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 7, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Danny Ramzy Source Type: research

Editorial Commentary: Resistant hypertension: Pathogenesis and current and future management
Hypertension and its target organ damage, such as cardiac (coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, and sudden cardiac death), renal (renal insufficiency and failure), and cerebrovascular (thrombotic and hemorrhagic stroke) are leading causes of morbidity and mortality. In addition, the prevalence of hypertension is increasing dramatically worldwide, especially in low and middle income countries, and is estimated to affect over 1 billion individuals. Nearly, 40 million Americans have hypertension. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 7, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Elizabeth Edwards, Donald J. DiPette Source Type: research

Editorial Commentary: Multiple arterial grafting for coronary revascularization: We are not perplexed but choose ignorance
The treatment for coronary artery disease (CAD) has evolved greatly over the past several decades. This includes interventions as varied as the ligation of the coronary sinus to total endoscopic coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Types of conduits use for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery have also evolved. The left internal thoracic artery (LITA) has become the new gold standard in CABG surgery, replacing the once prevalent saphenous vein. With increased utilization of the LITA, several groups have searched for alternative arterial conduits, which may portend improved benefits similar to the LITA. (Source: Tr...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 7, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Danny Ramzy Source Type: research

Editorial Commentary: Resistant hypertension: Pathogenesis and current and future management
Hypertension and its target organ damage, such as cardiac (coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, and sudden cardiac death), renal (renal insufficiency and failure), and cerebrovascular (thrombotic and hemorrhagic stroke) are leading causes of morbidity and mortality. In addition, the prevalence of hypertension is increasing dramatically worldwide, especially in low and middle income countries, and is estimated to affect over 1 billion individuals. Nearly, 40 million Americans have hypertension. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 7, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Elizabeth Edwards, Donald J. DiPette Source Type: research

Vascular calcification: How an evolutionary approach may help to shed light on its significance
Editorial of Demer and Tintut [1] in this Journal put forward the interesting hypothesis that vascular calcification (VC) may have an adaptive value as an immunological defense to pathogens. We go along with this, and propose that VC may function as a welcome mechanical immunological defense—an adaptation—in cells like cardiomyocytes with low or no capacity to regenerate [2]. However, it is wrong to assume that adaptations promote health they do, only if health promotes reproductive success, that is, Darwinian fitness [3]. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 7, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Carlos de Céspedes Source Type: research