Cardiomyocyte Protein Trafficking: Relevance to Heart Disease and Opportunities for Therapeutic Intervention
Cardiomyocytes, the individual contractile units of heart muscle, are long-lived and robust. Given the longevity of these cells, it can be easy to overlook their dynamic intracellular environment that contain rapid protein movements and frequent protein turnover. Critical gene transcription and protein translation occur continuously, as well as trafficking and localization of proteins to specific functional zones of cell membrane. As heart failure becomes an increasingly important clinical entity, growing numbers of investigative teams are examining the cell biology of healthy and diseased cardiomyocytes. (Source: Trends i...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - December 29, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Shaohua Xiao, Robin M. Shaw Source Type: research

Cardiovascular Consequences of Cocaine use
The cardiovascular consequences of cocaine use are numerous and can be severe, with mechanisms of cardiotoxicity unique to cocaine that include sympathomimetic effects, blockade of sodium and potassium channels, oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage, and disruption of excitation-contraction coupling. In combination, these effects increase myocardial oxygen demand while simultaneously decreasing oxygen supply. Cocaine-associated chest pain is particularly common and, in some instances, associated with a more severe cardiac syndrome, such as myocardial infarction, myocardial ischemia, arrhythmia, cardiomyopathy, aortic d...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - December 26, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Rachel V. Stankowski, Robert A. Kloner, Shereif H. Rezkalla Source Type: research

Cover
(Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - December 25, 2014 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - December 25, 2014 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

TCM Editorial Policy
(Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - December 25, 2014 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - December 25, 2014 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Present status of statin therapy
Statins are cardioprotective agents that reduce the adverse effects of increased low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. For significantly dyslipidemic persons, who are at higher cardiovascular risk, combined statin therapy substantially reduces the mortality risk, thus potentially being an ideal risk-reducing combination with added risk reduction by life-style changes. Decisions regarding the initiation of statin therapy for primary prevention where the absolute risk reduction is much less, are more difficult, involving LDL-C levels, and higher C-reactive protein levels. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - December 23, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Lionel H Opie Source Type: research

Progress for Peripartum Cardiomyopathy
Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM), which is defined as new onset cardiomyopathy arising during the peripartum period without any other identifiable cause, was first described by Virchow in 1870 and identified as a distinct disease in 1937 by Hull et al. [1], but despite its long history, many aspects of this disease have remained unclear until recently. In this issue, Fett and Markham. have expertly reviewed the current literature, highlighting several key points and including important discoveries that finally have the potential to move the field forward [2]. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - December 19, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Lili A. Barouch Source Type: research

Approaching the Hayflick limit
Aging has little going for it, but it beats the alternative. We cannot avoid senescence. The Hayflick limit is the number of times a normal human cell population will divide until cell division stops (Fig. 1) [1]. The chromosomal telomeres associated with each cell׳s DNA become slightly shorter with each new cell division until they shorten to a critical length, allowing no further divisions. Thus, as the German poet Theodor Fontane remarked in his poem Abgang (Exit): Das Beste was es sendet ist das Wissen, dass es endet. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - December 18, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Friedrich C. Luft Tags: Editorial Commentary Source Type: research

MY APPROACH to Patients With Acute Pericarditis
When approaching patients with suspected acute pericarditis, I first ask myself, “Is the history convincing and has the diagnosis been objectively confirmed?” Virtually all patients present with pleuritic chest pain, but this can be caused by many diseases. In addition to its pleuritic nature, other key features of pericardial pain include relief with sitting up and radiation to the trapezius ridge. The latter is virtually pathognomonic for pericarditis. Objective confirmation consists of auscultation of a pericardial friction rub, an ECG showing a classic pattern of ST-segment elevation, and detection of a per...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - December 18, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Martin M. LeWinter Source Type: research

Approaching the limit
Aging has little going for it, but it beats the alternative. We cannot avoid senescence. The Hayflick limit is the number of times a normal human cell population will divide until cell division stops (fig. 1).[1] The chromosomal telomeres associated with each cell’s DNA become slightly shorter with each new cell division until they shorten to a critical length, allowing no further divisions. Thus, as the German poet Theodor Fontane, remarked in his poem Abgang (Exit): Das Beste was es sendet ist das Wissen, dass es endet. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - December 18, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Friedrich C. Luft Source Type: research

Dying with cardiovascular disease, not of it
Dr. Jay Cohn presents us in this issue of Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine [1] with a bold new strategy for avoiding morbid events due to cardiovascular disease, shifting the paradigm to focus on reducing the progression of disease in individuals with early-stage disease, rather than concentrating on preventive efforts to reduce population-defined risk factors. Dr. Cohn posits that traditional public health methods that seek to reduce risk at the population level by promoting lifestyle modifications addressing exercise, smoking, obesity, fat and salt consumption need to be supplemented by a more direct approach to individ...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - December 18, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Samuel Wann Source Type: research

Maintenance of certification: Good Intentions Gone Awry
“There is nothing more deceptive than an obvious fact.” ― Arthur Conan Doyle, The Boscombe Valley Mystery (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - December 18, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Joseph Loscalzo Source Type: research

Minimally invasive mitral valve surgery: Does it make a difference?
Minimally invasive mitral valve surgery (MIMVS) has emerged as an alternative approach to conventional sternotomy to perform mitral valve repair and replacement with equivalent results. This strategy was developed to decrease surgical trauma by minimizing the size of incisions and permits excellent exposure of the mitral valve thereby avoiding conventional full sternotomy. The purpose of this review is to provide a critical, objective, balanced, and evidence-based analysis of the literature to understand advantages, potential scope, and the utility of these minimally invasive approaches to the mitral valve in modern cardia...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - December 17, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Khaled D. Algarni, Rakesh M. Suri, Hartzell Schaff Source Type: research

Minimal invasive mitral valve surgery: Does it make a difference?
Minimal invasive mitral valve surgery (MIMVS) has emerged as an alternative approach to conventional sternotomy to perform mitral valve repair and replacement with acceptable results. It aims to decrease the surgical trauma by minimizing the size of incisions and modifying the approach to the mitral valve to avoid a conventional full sternotomy. The purpose of this review is to provide a critical, objective, balanced, evidence based analysis of the literature to understand advantages, potential scope and the utility of these minimal invasive approaches to the mitral valve in modern cardiac care. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - December 17, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Khaled D. Algarni, Rakesh M. Suri, Hartzell Schaff Source Type: research

Understanding and Treating aortopathy in bicuspid aortic valve
Bicuspid aortic valve is a simple yet common condition with surprising clinical complexity. Patients are typically found to have enlargement of the ascending aorta, either root or mid ascending, independent of valve function. This enlargement is perceived to be a risk of aortic dissection and therefore prophylactic surgery is often recommended when the aorta reaches 50-55mm in diameter. Despite the prevalence and potential health impact, there is to date no published data on the role of medical therapy. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - December 16, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Craig S. Broberg, Judith Therrien Source Type: research

Prevention of cardiovascular disease
Cardiovascular morbid events have served as the clinical marker for the presence of cardiovascular disease. These markers include not only death from cardiovascular causes but also symptoms of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), neurological deficits of cerebrovascular disease, claudication in the lower extremities from peripheral vascular disease, renal failure from kidney vascular disease, and dyspnea, fatigue or rhythm disturbances related to myocardial disease. These clinical syndromes are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world and consume a large fraction of our health care expendit...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - December 15, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jay N. Cohn Source Type: research

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C): We׳ve come a long way, baby
ARVD/C was recognized as a clinical entity in 1982 with the referral of patients with ventricular tachycardia who had advanced disease [1]. The diagnosis was straightforward since they had markedly enlarged right ventricles, abnormal right ventricular function, and ventricular tachycardia originating from the right ventricle. The electrocardiograms were strikingly abnormal with the majority of patients having T-wave inversion beyond V2. Subsequently, large-scale studies of this ECG parameter in healthy young and middle-aged population have established that T-wave inversion beyond V1 is present in less than 1% of these heal...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - December 11, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Frank I. Marcus Tags: Editorial Commentary Source Type: research

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C): We׳ve come a long way baby
ARVD/C was recognized as a clinical entity in 1982 with the referral of patients with ventricular tachycardia who had advanced disease [1]. The diagnosis was straightforward since they had markedly enlarged right ventricles, abnormal right ventricular function, and ventricular tachycardia originating from the right ventricle. The electrocardiograms were strikingly abnormal with the majority of patients having T-wave inversion beyond V2. Subsequently, large-scale studies of this ECG parameter in healthy young and middle-aged population have established that T-wave inversion beyond V1 is present in less than 1% of these heal...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - December 11, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Frank I. Marcus Tags: Editorial Commentary Source Type: research

Ascending KLFs in Cardiovascular Biology
Cardiac transcription factor biologists have spent many years identifying transcription factors that function as critical regulators of important cellular processes; however, the challenges in understanding cardiac transcriptional regulatory networks have been formidable. The cardiovascular system is a complex organ system in which component muscle cells must interact with other cells in a coordinated fashion to generate and maintain the heart and vasculature. Within the heart, muscle cells contract to circulate the blood, while specialized muscle cells are required for generation of the heartbeat and electrical propagatio...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - December 11, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Michael T. Chin Source Type: research

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C): We’ve come a long way baby
ARVD/C was recognized as a clinical entity in 1982 with the referral of patients with ventricular tachycardia who had advanced disease. [1] The diagnosis was straightforward since they had markedly enlarged right ventricles, abnormal right ventricular function and ventricular tachycardia originating from the right ventricle. The electrocardiograms were strikingly abnormal with the majority of patients having Twave inversion beyond V2. Subsequently, large scale studies of this ECG parameter in young and middle-aged population have established that Twave inversion beyond V1 is present in less than 1% of otherwise healthy you...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - December 11, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Frank Marcus Source Type: research

Role of CaMKII in Cardiac Arrhythmias
Protein phosphorylation is a central mechanism in vertebrates for the regulation of signaling. Relevant for the cardiovascular system, phosphorylation of myocyte targets is critical for regulation of excitation contraction coupling, metabolism, intracellular calcium regulation, mitochondrial activity, transcriptional regulation, and cytoskeletal dynamics. In fact, relevant for this review, pathways that tune protein kinase signaling have been a mainstay for cardiovascular therapies for the past sixty years. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - December 5, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Thomas J. Hund, Peter J. Mohler Source Type: research

Mechanical support of Patients with heart failure: What are the future Hurdles?
The paper, “Ventricular Assist Devices: The Future is Now” by Lima, Mack, and Gonzalez presents the current status of mechanical circulatory support for treatment of patients with chronic heart failure [1] .The authors review patient selection, discuss the basic technical aspects of current assist devices including the total artificial heart, and give an overview of expected outcomes including patient survival and quality of life. Indeed, it is remarkable that for over 40 years surgeons and physiologists have explored many aspects of cardiac assist device design, biomaterials compatibility, and physiologic resp...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - December 5, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Hartzell V. Schaff Source Type: research

Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation
Ablation is increasingly used to treat AF, since recent trials of pharmacological therapy for AF have been disappointing. Ablation has been shown to improve maintenance of sinus rhythm compared to pharmacological therapy in many multi center trials, although success rates remain suboptimal. This review will discuss several trends in the field of catheter ablation, including studies to advance our understanding of AF mechanisms in different patient populations, innovations in detecting and classifying AF, use of this information to improve strategies for ablation, technical innovations that have improved the ease and safety...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - December 4, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Matthew Wright, Sanjiv M. Narayan Source Type: research

Stress cardiomyopathy: Thinking outside the octopus pot
“Takotsubo syndrome” or stress cardiomyopathy (SC) was first reported by Japanese authors in 1991[1]. As we all know by now, the apical variant was aptly coined “Takotsubo” due to its’ resemblance to the ceramic pots used by Japanese fishermen to trap octopuses. SC most commonly occurs in post-menopausal women who have been exposed to a triggering event such as acute physical or emotional distress [2]. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - December 4, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Timothy P. Fitzgibbons Source Type: research

The leading edge of vascular calcification
About two decades ago, when lipids were the focus of atherosclerosis research, calcific vasculopathy (or, more commonly, “vascular calcification”) had been dismissed as a non-biological, unregulated, degenerative phenomenon. Ironically, decades earlier, atherosclerosis itself had been dismissed in the same manner. In the earlier 1990s, a series of events raised awareness of calcific vasculopathy. New imaging modalities such as electron-beam and ECG-gated computed tomography showed coronary calcification to occur earlier and more often than previously believed, to the point that it is now used widely as a &ldquo...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - December 3, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Linda L. Demer, Yin Tintut Source Type: research

Heart failure in adult congenital heart disease: Emerging Concepts with a Focus on Tetralogy of Fallot
Emerging heart failure (HF) concepts in the growing population of adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) are reviewed in the following article with a focus on individuals with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), the largest group of adults with repaired cyanotic congenital heart disease (CHD). In the first section, the changing epidemiology of CHD and HF in ACHD patients is described. We demonstrate the challenges health care providers face when caring for this unique population. Emphasis is placed on the importance and difficulty of identifying patients at risk for HF, of which TOF patients comprise a substantial subset, unde...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - December 3, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Rachel M Wald, Anne Marie Valente, Ariane Marelli Source Type: research

Genetics of Congenital Heart Disease: Beyond Half-Measures
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common type of birth defect, accounting for one-third of all major congenital anomalies, identifiable in up to 10% of stillbirths and presumed to play a major role in early fetal demise. Worldwide, 1.35 million infants are born with CHD each year[1]. CHDs range from milder forms such as bicuspid aortic valves, through conotruncal cardiac defects associated with severe late complications, requiring lifelong medical care[2]. The advent of corrective cardiac surgery and the increase in knowledge concerning the longitudinal care of CHD patients has led to a spectacular increase in lif...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - December 3, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Phil Barnett, Alex V. Postma Source Type: research

Time to switch trains? AF ablation at a pivotal time point
“If you board the wrong train, it is no use running along the corridor in the other direction.” – Dietrich Bonhoeffer* (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - December 3, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: J. Vijay Jayachandran Source Type: research

Molecular Insight into Heart Development and Congenital Heart Disease: An Update Review from the Arab Countries
Congenital heart defect (CHD) has a major influence on affected individuals as well as the supportive and associated environment such as the immediate family. Unfortunately, CHD is common worldwide with an incidence of approximately 1% and consequently is a major health concern. The Arab population has a high rate of consanguinity, fertility, birth and annual population growth, in addition to a high incidence of diabetes mellitus and obesity. All these factors may lead to a higher incidence and prevalence of CHD within the Arab population than in the rest of the world making CHD of even greater concern. (Source: Trends in ...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - November 20, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: E.H. Aburawi, H.E. Aburawi, K.M. Bagnall, Z.A. Bhuiyan Source Type: research

MY APPROACH to Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome
Patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) typically present with symptomatic palpitations, and, more rarely, with syncope or cardiac arrest. In the era of ECG screening, another large group of patients are diagnosed with ventricular pre-excitation (“asymptomatic WPW”). All WPW patients share a small risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD), estimated to be ~1/1000 patients/year. The goals of identifying and treating WPW are to eliminate symptoms, prevent the occurrence of SCD, and permit the patient to participate in activities without restriction. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - November 19, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: John Triedman Source Type: research

My Approach To Stable Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm
My first step in the evaluation and management of a patient with a stable thoracic aortic aneurysm is to determine the etiology. While most thoracic aneurysms are idiopathic, one should look for evidence of Marfan syndrome or other connective tissue disorders, an underlying bicuspid aortic valve, a family history of thoracic aortic aneurysm or dissection, or evidence of aortitis. While conclusions will be drawn from the diagnostic imaging data, when there is suspicion of aortitis, measurement of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein may be valuable. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - November 19, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Eric M. Isselbacher Source Type: research

Ventricular assist devices: the future is now
Heart failure has become a global epidemic. For advanced heart failure, a broad assortment of device options have been introduced for both acute and prolonged intervals of hemodynamic assistance. Durable implantable ventricular assist devices (VADs) in particular, play a key role in the management of advanced heart failure. This review focuses specifically on current outcomes with VAD therapy, highlighting results from pivotal clinical trials, and summarizing the various device options on the market and those in preclinical development. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - November 18, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Brian Lima, Michael Mack, Gonzalo V. Gonzalez-Stawinski Source Type: research

Kruppel-Like Factors in Muscle Health and Disease
Kruppel-like factors (KLF) are zinc-finger DNA binding transcription factors that are critical regulators of tissue homeostasis. Emerging evidence suggests KLFs are critical regulators of muscle biology in the context of cardiovascular health and disease. The focus of this review is to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding the physiologic and pathologic roles of KLFs in the three lineages of muscle: cardiac, smooth, and skeletal. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - November 15, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Domenick A. Prosdocimo, M. Khaled Sabeh, Mukesh K. Jain Source Type: research

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy: Clinical Challenges in a Changing Disease Spectrum
Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/Cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) is an inherited cardiomyopathy characterized by fibro-fatty replacement of predominantly the right ventricle (RV), which predisposes patients to life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias and usually slowly progressive ventricular dysfunction. The disease is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. Increased appreciation of ARVD/C as a “disease of the desmosome” has fueled research into possible disease mechanisms, and insights into ARVD/C pathogenesis are rapidly advancing. (Source: Trends in ...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - November 14, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Anneline S. te Riele, Richard N. Hauer Source Type: research

At the Heart of Matters: The Role of the Heart Team in Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement
The management of cardiovascular disease has seen revolutionary changes within the past decade. The treatment of valvular heart disease, and more specifically symptomatic aortic stenosis, has been at the epicenter of these changes. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has filled the gap in the treatment of patients who were previously deemed inoperable; a number that could be as high as 40% of all patients with aortic stenosis [1]. Since the first TAVR on April 16, 2002, transcatheter valve technology has been improved and evaluation and selection of patients for this therapy refined, with rapid expansion. (Source...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - November 14, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Sarah K. Gualano, Dharam J. Kumbhani Source Type: research

The Broken Heart Syndrome: Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy
First described in 1990, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy consists of a transient systolic dysfunction of localized segments of the left ventricle. Commonly occurring in postmenopausal women, Takotsubo is often associated with intense physical and/or emotional stress. It is traditionally identified by distinctive wall motion patterns on trans-thoracic echocardiogram and left ventriculography. Further understanding of disease mechanisms and recognition of at-risk populations has potentially tremendous therapeutic benefit. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - November 14, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Matthew N. Peters, Praveen George, Anand M. Irimpen Source Type: research

Guidelines and Guidance in Lipid Modification
In the current issue of Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine, Drs. Finkel and Duffy review the evidence that forms the basis for the major changes in the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol to Reduce Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk in Adults. [1]. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - November 7, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Charles H. Hennekens, Marc A. Pfeffer Source Type: research

Testosterone supplementation and cardiovascular risk
Several observational studies have clearly shown a significant relationship between low testosterone (T) and a higher cardiovascular (CV) risk profile [1]. However, it is not completely known whether reduced T levels in elderly males might play a direct pathogenetic role in the stratification of CV risk, or if CV diseases (CVD) and low T are concomitant conditions, both associated with the aging process. Much evidence supports both of these possibilities. In their work, Walsh and Kitchens [2] elegantly reviewed the available evidence. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - November 7, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: G Corona, M Maggi Source Type: research

Coronary Artery Disease: the magnificent fifty?
Coronary artery disease (CAD) remains the leading cause of death in the US. Altered cholesterol metabolism and pro-inflammatory mechanisms have been associated with the development of atherosclerotic plaques [1]. Only recently, large scale genetic approaches using genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified novel genetic markers and unsuspected pathways have been exposed along with their potential application to CAD. In the review article in this issue of the Journal, titled “A genetic basis for coronary artery disease”, Dr. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - November 5, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Holli M. Drendel, Matteo Vatta Source Type: research

ARVD: “What would you do?”
“So Doc, if you were in this situation, what would you do?” How often do we face this question? In disease states where data are clear and unified with guidelines, this is an easier question to answer. When the data are insufficient or absent, and no additional guidance is available, this is a difficult situation for any physician. Under any circumstances, the answer that we give is personal, colored by our values, moral beliefs, and life experiences and, as physicians, also likely colored by our anecdotal experiences. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - November 4, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: J. Kevin Donahue Source Type: research

Board Certification in Internal Medicine and Cardiology: Historical Success and Future Challenges
Board certification is at a critical juncture. As physicians face increased regulation and pressures from both inside and outside the profession, board certification and Maintenance of Certification (MOC) are coming under increased scrutiny from the public and the medical community. At this challenging time, it is important to remind ourselves what board certification is (and what it is not) and revisit the origins of this tangible expression of professional self-regulation, even as we contemplate how it needs to improve. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - November 4, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Richard J. Baron, Harlan M. Krumholz, Mariell Jessup, Jennifer L. Brosseau Source Type: research

Assessing cardiovascular risk in women: Looking beyond traditional risk factors
Although cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality among women, CV risk and disease in this population is often not recognized in a timely manner. As a result, many women at high risk for CVD never receive appropriate preventive strategies that have proven to reduce risk for CVD and related adverse outcomes. In this regard, the review article by Mehta et al. [1] is a “must read” for the clinician who is serious about advancing health care for women. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - November 3, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ki E. Park, Carl J. Pepine Source Type: research

Assessing cardiovascular risk in women—Looking beyond traditional risk factors
Although cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality among women, CV risk and disease in this population is often not recognized in a timely manner. As a result, many women at high risk for CVD never receive appropriate preventive strategies that have proven to reduce risk for CVD and related adverse outcomes. In this regard, the review article by Mehta, Wei, and Wenger is “must reading” for the clinician who is serious about advancing the health care of women. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - November 3, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ki E. Park, Carl J. Pepine Source Type: research

The non-vitamin K oral Anticoagulants (NOACs): Have All Questions Been Answered?
Proper use of oral anticoagulation to prevent thromboemboli is critical to manage patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Evidence, based on empiric observation and prior, prospective, randomized, multicenter, clinical trials defines AF populations at risk [1] and defines benefit of warfarin anticoagulation within a specific narrow therapeutic target INR of 2.0-3.0 [2]. Years of clinical experience provide comfort with use of warfarin, a vitamin K antagonist, for AF patients at risk for thromboembolic events, yet, despite this, the difficulty and complexity of warfarin management has created problems for clinicians and pat...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - November 3, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Brian Olshansky Source Type: research

Cover
(Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 30, 2014 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 30, 2014 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

TCM Editorial Policy
(Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 30, 2014 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 30, 2014 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants in atrial fibrillation: Where are we now?
Atrial fibrillation (AF) confers increased risk of stroke and other thromboembolic events, and oral anticoagulation therefore is the essential part of AF management to reduce the risk of these complications. Until recently, the vitamin K antagonists (VKAs, e.g., warfarin) were the only oral anticoagulants available, acting by decreased synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors (II, VI, IX, and X). The VKAs had many limitations: delayed onset and prolonged offset of action, variability of anticoagulant effect among patients, multiple food and drug interactions affecting pharmacological properties of warfarin, nar...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 30, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Mikhail S. Dzeshka, Gregory Y.H. Lip Source Type: research