Female sex as a biological variable: A review on younger patients with acute coronary syndrome
Although acute coronary syndrome (ACS) mainly occurs in individuals>60 years, younger adults can be affected as well. Women continue to be at higher risk of 30-day mortality after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) even in the current era of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Importantly, the excess mortality among women is only significant at younger ages. Previous work has suggested that the reason for the differences in outcome is likely multifactorial and may partially be explained by some of the following factors: atypical presentation, delayed presentation, under recognition of STEMI at init...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 12, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Raffaele Bugiardini, Olivia Manfrini, Edina Cenko Source Type: research

Gout and arrhythmias: in search for causation beyond association
Gout is a systemic disease, characterized by the formation and deposition of crystals in tissues (mainly in and around the joints) of individuals with elevated serum uric acid levels. Lately, a considerable number of reports relating elevated uric acid and/or gout with rhythm disorders, such as atrial fibrillation, have been published. This review summarizes evidence linking common arrhythmias and hyperuricemia/gout and discusses questions or controversies that surround it. Overall, existing evidence may not be overwhelming, but strongly suggests a positive correlation between uric acid levels and common rhythm disorders. ...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 12, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Georgios Giannopoulos, Christos Angelidis, Spyridon Deftereos Source Type: research

Update on Cardio-Oncology: Novel Cancer Therapeutics and Associated Cardiotoxicities.
There have been significant advances in the field of oncology leading to improved survival as a result of novel targeted and immunotherapies. Despite these improved outcomes, there is increased recognition of cardiotoxicities associated with these therapies that can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. As such, the field of cardio-oncology has seen significant growth over the last several years. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the field of cardio-oncology and provide a detailed discussion of the cardiovascular complications associated with novel cancer therapeutics including tyrosine kinase inhibitors...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 8, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Avirup Guha, Merna Armanious, Michael G. Fradley Source Type: research

Naming the misfits - MINOCA, ACSNNOCA, and the rest of the family,
Naming and categorization are essential prerequisites in scientific medicine. Ideally, these practices facilitate the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of a disease process. The relationship is bidirectional; scientific advances improve the precision and utility of names, such as shifting “Q-wave myocardial infarction” to “ST-elevation myocardial infarction.” In cardiology, we have been fortunate to witness many scientifically meaningful name transitions over the past few decades. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 5, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Radmila Lyubarova, Joshua Schulman-Marcus Source Type: research

Oxidized LDL and anti-oxidized LDL antibodies in atherosclerosis – novel insights and future directions in diagnosis and therapy
We provide an up-to-date overview of current topics surrounding oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and its related antibodies in the quest to better identify the individuals at risk of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerotic plaques with unfavorable characteristics. We discuss the potential of oxLDL and anti-oxLDL antibodies as serum biomarkers of cardiovascular disease and emerging studies examining the targeting of arterial oxLDL for imaging and therapeutic delivery. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 4, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Adam Hartley, Haskard Dorian, Ramzi Khamis Source Type: research

Perspectives on the Relation of Blood Pressure and Cognition in the Elderly
The relationship of blood pressure to cognition in the elderly is a poorly understood topic. Many questions exist such as does treatment of hypertension prevent cognitive decline, the optimal timing of intervention and selecting the appropriate agent. In this review we will explore recent epidemiologic data and clinical trials addressing hypertension and cognition, review pathophysiology of chronic hypertension and effects of brain function, discuss the timing of intervention and finally review opportunities for future research. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 2, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Christopher Goshgarian, Philip B. Gorelick Source Type: research

Two Faces of Janus: The Complexities of Coronary Artery Calcium Density and Distribution
Dr. Ferencik was supported by a grant from the American Heart Association: Fellow to Faculty Award 13FTF16450001 (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 29, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Maros Ferencik, James E. Udelson Source Type: research

Sudden cardiac death prediction in the general population and among patients with left ventricular ejection fractions greater than 40%
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) refers to an unexpected and sudden death from cardiovascular cause in a person with or without preexisting heart disease [1,2]. SCD is a major public health problem with reported annual incidence rates ranging from 50 to 100 per 100,000 persons in the general population [3,4]. This corresponds to 7-20% of all deaths and ≈50% of cardiovascular deaths [3–5]. As most sudden cardiac arrests are fatal despite resuscitation attempts and occurs unexpectedly, prevention is inherently difficult [5,6]. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 29, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Thomas Hadberg Lynge, Bo Gregers Winkel, Jacob Tfelt-Hansen Source Type: research

A systematic view on E3 ligase Ring TRIMmers with a focus on cardiac function and disease
Ubiquitination, a post-translational modification via ubiquitin-proteasome-system, is one of the vital cellular processes involved in intracellular signaling, cell death, transcriptional control, etc. Importantly, it prevents the aggregation of non-functional, misfolded or unfolded, potentially toxic proteins to maintain cellular protein homeostasis. Ubiquitination is accomplished by the concerted action of three enzymatic steps involving E1 activating enzymes, E2 conjugating enzymes, and E3 ligases. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 28, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ankush Borlepawar, Norbert Frey, Ashraf Yusuf Rangrez Source Type: research

Acute Coronary Syndromes in Patients with Angiographically Normal or Near Normal (Non-Obstructive) Coronary Arteries
Patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with normal or near-normal (non-obstructive) coronary arteries (ACSNNOCA) constitute an important, albeit heterogeneous, patient subset of younger patients, more commonly females, who may have lower risk of cardiovascular events compared to patients with obstructive coronary artery disease; however this risk remains substantial, hence needing further investigation to identify the underlying cause and devise a proper therapeutic strategy. A diagnostic algorithm starts during coronary angiography with some essential additional diagnostic steps, such as a left ventricular angiogram ...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 23, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Antonis S. Manolis, Antonis A. Manolis, Theodora A. Manolis, Helen Melita Source Type: research

Pushing preeclampsia back to pre-preeclampsia
How to push preeclampsia one step backward (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 21, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Friedrich C. Luft, Ralf Dechend Source Type: research

Technology to Treat Heart Failure: Friend or Foe?
Disclosures (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 19, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Sitaramesh Emani Source Type: research

Vasovagal syncope –role of closed loop stimulation pacing
The benefit of conventional pacing in vasovagal syncope remains controversial and is currently recommended for patients with recurrent syncope and documented asystole. In the last two decades, a growing body of evidence has emerged supporting the use of a new sensing technique called closed loop stimulation or CLS, to treat refractory vasovagal syncope. CLS uses a sensing algorithm that can detect variation in cardiac contractility and respond to drop in blood pressure by increasing the heart rate. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 17, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Mohammed Ruzieh, Blair P. Grubb Source Type: research

Reversal of Coronary Atherosclerosis: Role of Life Style and Medical Management
Atherosclerotic coronary artery disease continues to be a major global health burden in developing and developed nations. Newer imaging techniques afford an accurate assessment of plaque burden and characteristics as well as the effects of treatment. Lifestyle interventions and pharmacotherapy remains the mainstay of non-interventional treatment of coronary atherosclerosis, with reversal seen in many studies. In addition, control of modifiable risk factors can be beneficial. As a better understanding of atherosclerosis pathophysiology is achieved, new therapeutic targets and combination therapies may join the armamentarium...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 17, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Christine Parsons, Pradyumna Agasthi, Farouk Mookadam, Reza Arsanjani Source Type: research

Vasovagal syncope - role of closed loop stimulation pacing
The benefit of conventional pacing in vasovagal syncope remains controversial and is currently recommended for patients with recurrent syncope and documented asystole. In the last two decades, a growing body of evidence has emerged supporting the use of a new sensing technique called closed loop stimulation or CLS, to treat refractory vasovagal syncope. CLS uses a sensing algorithm that can detect variation in cardiac contractility and respond to drop in blood pressure by increasing the heart rate. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 17, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Mohammed Ruzieh, Blair P. Grubb Source Type: research

Preeclampsia and the cardiovascular system: An update
Preeclampsia, an important cause of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide, is defined as the new onset of hypertension in pregnancy after 20 weeks ’ gestation with associated proteinuria, maternal organ dysfunction or fetal growth restriction [1–3]. The incidence of preeclampsia is estimated to be between 3 and 10% of all pregnancies. While maternal death due to preeclampsia is less common in developed countries, maternal morbidity is high and is a major contributor to intensive care unit admissions—especially given that preeclampsia is more common with advanced maternal age, obesity and other medica...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 14, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Helen Perry, Asma Khalil, Basky Thilaganathan Source Type: research

The ASPRE Preeclampsia Trial: Implications for Basic Research and Clinical Practice
Placental dysfunction is fundamental to the pathophysiology of pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia, but to date, the placenta has been considered in isolation without regard to the fact that its function is dependent on adequate perfusion by the maternal circulation. An alternative explanation for preeclampsia is that placental dysfunction is secondary to maternal cardiovascular maladaptation in pregnancy. The concept that placental dysfunction is secondary to a maternal disorder is not new when one considers the clinical similarities between preeclampsia and gestational diabetes - both pregnancy-specific conditio...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 14, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Professor Basky Thilaganathan Source Type: research

Sudden death risk markers for patients with left ventricular ejection fractions greater than 40%
The major burden of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in patients with heart disease occurs in those with a left ventricular ejection fraction  > 40%. Although the annual risk of SCD may be lower in these patients compared to those with lower LVEF, their lifetime cumulative risk of SCD may be greater due to a better overall prognosis. It is plausible that those with LVEF > 40% who are at highest risk of life-threatening arrhythmia will benefit from implantable cardioverter defibrillators. Features that identify patients with a LVEF > 40% at high risk of SCD are urgently needed. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 11, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Brian P Halliday, Amrit S Lota, Sanjay K Prasad Source Type: research

Sudden death risk markers for patients with left ventricular ejection fractions greater than 40%,
The major burden of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in patients with heart disease occurs in those with a left ventricular ejection fraction>40%. Although the annual risk of SCD may be lower in these patients compared to those with lower LVEF, their lifetime cumulative risk of SCD may be greater due to a better overall prognosis. It is plausible that those with LVEF>40% who are at highest risk of life-threatening arrhythmia will benefit from implantable cardioverter defibrillators. Features that identify patients with a LVEF>40% at high risk of SCD are urgently needed. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 11, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Brian P Halliday, Amrit S Lota, Sanjay K Prasad Source Type: research

Plant-based diets: more than meets the eye
Decades of sound epidemiological and clinical research on nutrition and health have provided compelling evidence that dietary patterns that reduce risk of many non-communicable conditions, including cardiovascular diseases (CVD), share the common attributes of being predominantly plant-based, so they are high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts, and non-tropical vegetable oils. Cardioprotective diets are also low in added sugars, saturated and trans fats, and sodium. Some healthful dietary patterns include reduced-fat dairy products, eggs and fish, as well as alcoholic beverages in moderation for adults and ...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 8, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Emilio Ros Tags: Editorial commentary Source Type: research

Coronary Arterial Calcification: A Review of Mechanisms, Promoters and Imaging
Coronary artery calcification (CAC) was once thought to be a passive, degenerative, and quiescent development of disease. However, it has now been shown to be an active process associated with atherosclerosis that is stimulated by inflammatory pathways. Calcification forms within the intimal and medial layers of the vessel wall by way of mechanisms similar to bone development. A variety of imaging modalities have been used to identify and characterize CAC, from early microcalcifications to well-developed fibroatheromas that have calcified. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 2, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jordan Andrews, Peter J. Psaltis, Belinda A. Di Bartolo, Stephen J. Nicholls, Rishi Puri Source Type: research

Weaving Palliative Care into the Fabric of Heart Failure Management
Over the last decade, novel life-prolonging pharmacotherapies and mechanical circulatory support devices have been approved to combat the burgeoning heart failure (HF) epidemic. In parallel, there has been increasing recognition that the debilitating physical and emotional symptoms that accompany HF can lead to a loss of independence, existential distress, deteriorating quality of life, and caregiver burden. Palliative care is both a clinical subspecialty and a multidisciplinary approach to patient-centered care that focuses on the relief of suffering and the improvement of quality of life in patients facing serious illnes...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - April 28, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Garrick C. Stewart Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - April 27, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Pacing for Syncope: Progress and Promise
The application of permanent cardiac pacing to patients with recurrent severe vasovagal syncope has a long and controversial history. The development of head upright tilt table testing by Sutton and colleagues in the mid-1980s opened new vistas into the understanding of the pathophysiology and manifestations of vasovagal syncope [1]. Head upright tilt table testing provided not only a diagnostic modality, it also provided the ability to make scientific observations and measurements that would not have been possible previously. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - April 26, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Blair P. Grubb Source Type: research

Evolving Paradigms for Stroke Prevention in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation
Stroke is the most dreaded complication of atrial fibrillation (AF) and its prevention remains central to the management of this common arrhythmia. The approach to preventing and managing stroke in AF patients has evolved significantly over the past decade. Some of the major innovations in this field include better definition of the at risk population, availability of new anticoagulant agents and, more recently, interventional therapies that target the left atrial appendage. In this well-rounded review, Stock and Malm comprehensively discuss all aspects of stroke prevention and management in AF patients [1]. (Source: Trend...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - April 23, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jackson J.Sanjay LiangDixit Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - April 19, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Genetic testing of long QT syndrome: Should we go back to the future?
In the current issue of the Journal, Giudicessi et  al. [1] perform a critical and comprehensive review of the present status and existing challenges for genetic testing in LQT syndrome. As pointed out by the authors, the advent of high throughput next-generation sequencing technologies, with the consequent “flooding” of data at the DNA level, provide both patients and practicing physicians with plenty of information that sometimes can be difficult to interpret for non-specialized practitioners. In their state of the art review, the authors carefully review the history, mechanisms, and the potential need f...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - April 17, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Eugenio Cingolani Source Type: research

Genetic Testing of Long QT Syndrome: Should we go Back to The Future?
In the current issue of the Journal, Giudicessi et al. [1] perform a critical and comprehensive review of the present status and existing challenges for genetic testing in LQT syndrome. As pointed out by the authors, the advent of high throughput next-generation sequencing technologies, with the consequent “flooding” of data at the DNA level, provide both patients and practicing physicians with plenty of information that sometimes can be difficult to interpret for non-specialized practitioners. In their state of the art review, the authors carefully review the history, mechanisms, and the potentia l need for re...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - April 17, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Eugenio Cingolani Source Type: research

Use of software applications to improve medication adherence and achieve more integrated disease management in heart failure a review
The treatment and management of heart failure is associated with high mortality rates and treatment costs. Poor medication adherence is a major barrier to improving care and traditional interventions addressing non-adherence have not consistently demonstrated improvement in health care outcomes like readmission. The reasons for non-adherence are complicated and illustrate the broader challenges patients face when managing a complex disease like heart failure. In this review, a digitally enabled heart failure management platform consisting of medical digital tools and software solutions that are designed to be patient-facin...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - April 16, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Guy Talmor, Benjamin Nguyen, Andrew Keibel, Tijana Temelkovska, Leslie Saxon Source Type: research

Will the real long QT genes please stand up
Our understanding of the genetic landscape for inherited long QT syndrome (LQTS) has evolved since the first discovery of the molecular basis of LQT1-3 in 1995 [1 –3]. With rapid advances in technology, particularly large-scale next generation sequencing, there has been haste to discover the “next” LQTS gene. This has led to a rapid expansion of the list of so-called LQTS genes to at least 16 genes, many without any strong functional or linkage data to support pathogenicity [4]. As population datasets have grown to the current size [more than 138,000 exomes and genomes in the gnomAD database (gnomAD.broad...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - April 16, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Belinda Gray, Christopher Semsarian Source Type: research

Use of Software Applications to Improve Medication Adherence and Achieve More Integrated Disease Management in Heart Failure A Review
The treatment and management of heart failure is associated with high mortality rates and treatment costs. Poor medication adherence is a major barrier to improving care and traditional interventions addressing non-adherence have not consistently demonstrated improvement in health care outcomes like readmission. The reasons for non-adherence are complicated and illustrate the broader challenges patients face when managing a complex disease like heart failure. In this review, a digitally enabled heart failure management platform consisting of medical digital tools and software solutions that are designed to be patient-facin...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - April 16, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Guy Talmor, Benjamin Nguyen, Andrew Keibel, Tijana Temelkovska, Leslie Saxon Source Type: research

Will the real long qt genes please stand up
Our understanding of the genetic landscape for inherited long QT syndrome (LQTS) has evolved since the first discovery of the molecular basis of LQT1-3 in 1995 [1-3]. With rapid advances in technology, particularly large-scale next generation sequencing, there has been haste to discover the “next” LQTS gene. This has led to a rapid expansion of the list of so-called LQTS genes to at least 16 genes, many without any strong functional or linkage data to support pathogenicity [4]. As population datasets have grown to the current size [more than 138,000 exomes and genomes in the gnomAD database (gnomAD.broadinstitu...
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - April 16, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Belinda Gray, Christopher Semsarian Source Type: research

Contemporary Approach to Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation: Risks, Benefits, And New Options
Atrial fibrillation is a common diagnosis affecting nearly 3 million adults in the United States. Morbidity and mortality in these patients is driven largely by the associated increased risk of thromboembolic complications, especially stroke. Atrial fibrillation is a stronger risk factor than hypertension, coronary disease, or heart failure and is associated with an approximately five-fold increased risk. Mitigating stroke risk can be challenging and requires accurate assessment of stroke risk factors and careful selection of appropriate therapy. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - April 4, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jonathan Stock, Brian J. Malm Source Type: research

The genetic architecture of long QT syndrome: A critical reappraisal
Collectively, the completion of the Human Genome Project and subsequent development of high-throughput next-generation sequencing methodologies have revolutionized genomic research. However, the rapid sequencing and analysis of thousands upon thousands of human exomes and genomes has taught us that most genes, including those known to cause heritable cardiovascular disorders such as long QT syndrome, harbor an unexpected background rate of rare, and presumably innocuous, non-synonymous genetic variation. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - March 30, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: John R. Giudicessi, Arthur A.M. Wilde, Michael J. Ackerman Source Type: research

The Genetic Architecture of Long QT Syndrome: A Critical Reappraisal
Collectively, the completion of the Human Genome Project and subsequent development of high-throughput next-generation sequencing methodologies have revolutionized genomic research. However, the rapid sequencing and analysis of thousands upon thousands of human exomes and genomes has taught us that most genes, including those known to cause heritable cardiovascular disorders such as long QT syndrome, harbor an unexpected background rate of rare, and presumably innocuous, non-synonymous genetic variation. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - March 30, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: John R. Giudicessi, Arthur A.M. Wilde, Michael J. Ackerman Source Type: research

Nox2: A new challenge for antiplatelet treatment?
The functional interplay between reactive oxidant species (ROS) and platelet activation was originally demonstrated by Del Principe et  al. [1], who used H2O2 as a stimulus to aggregate platelets. H2O2–mediated platelet aggregation occurred via calcium mobilization and enhanced thromboxane(Tx) A2 biosynthesis, an effect blunted if platelets were incubated with catalase, an enzyme that destroys H2O2 [2]. The inhibitory effect of other antioxidants such as vitamin C and E confirmed intra-platelet redox status as an important factor modulating platelet aggregation (PA) [3]. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - March 27, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Francesco Violi Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Nox2: a new challenge for antiplatelet treatment?
The functional interplay between reactive oxidant species (ROS) and platelet activation was originally demonstrated by Del Principe et al. [1], who used H2O2 as a stimulus to aggregate platelets. H2O2 –mediated platelet aggregation occurred via calcium mobilization and enhanced thromboxane(Tx) A2 biosynthesis, an effect blunted if platelets were incubated with catalase, an enzyme that destroys H2O2 [2]. The inhibitory effect of other antioxidants such as vitamin C and E confirmed intra-platelet redox status as an important factor modulating platelet aggregation(PA) [3]. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - March 27, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Francesco Violi Source Type: research

NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2): A key target of oxidative stress-mediated platelet activation and thrombosis
Oxidative stress represents an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the cellular antioxidant system. Increased levels of oxidative stress contribute to the development of atherosclerosis that eventually leads to thrombosis; a principle cause of heart attacks and strokes. Thrombosis is a consequence of platelet activation and aggregate formation within the circulation. Platelet ROS are mostly generated by reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - March 26, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Eduardo Fuentes, Jonathan M. Gibbins, Lisa M. Holbrook, Iv án Palomo Source Type: research

Nadph Oxidase 2 (Nox2): A Key Target of Oxidative Stress-Mediated Platelet Activation and Thrombosis
Oxidative stress represents an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the cellular antioxidant system. Increased levels of oxidative stress contribute to the development of atherosclerosis that eventually leads to thrombosis; a principle cause of heart attacks and strokes. Thrombosis is a consequence of platelet activation and aggregate formation within the circulation. Platelet ROS are mostly generated by reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - March 26, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Eduardo Fuentes, Jonathan M. Gibbins, Lisa M. Holbrook, Iv án Palomo Source Type: research

Are cytokines ready for prime time? Insights from markers and trials
Cardiovascular (CV) disease remains a leading source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Over recent decades, it has become apparent that clinical risk factors alone do not neatly capture the individual risk profile for future CV events. This unmet need has created an impetus for the discovery of biomarkers reflective of the underlying disease pathophysiology that can provide a personalized approach to risk stratification and risk modification. An additional value of biomarker discovery is that they do not just track a response to therapy but can potentially suggest novel therapeutic targets. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - March 20, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Andriana P. Nikolova, Robin M. Shaw Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Are Cytokines Ready for Prime Time? Insights from Markers and Trials
Cardiovascular (CV) disease remains a leading source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Over recent decades, it has become apparent that clinical risk factors alone do not neatly capture the individual risk profile for future CV events. This unmet need has created an impetus for the discovery of biomarkers reflective of the underlying disease pathophysiology that can provide a personalized approach to risk stratification and risk modification. An additional value of biomarker discovery is that they do not just track a response to therapy but can potentially suggest novel therapeutic targets. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - March 20, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Andriana P. Nikolova, Robin M. Shaw Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - March 13, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Diagnosing spontaneous coronary artery dissection in women: A call for early coronary angiography
There is a unique cohort of patients, predominantly women, that experience chest pain or acute coronary syndromes in the absence of significant epicardial coronary artery disease. These individuals present with signs and symptoms consistent with ischemia and undergo a diagnostic evaluation with the objective of identifying atherosclerotic coronary disease as the causal factor. When these studies find no or insignificant ( (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - March 13, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jane A. Leopold Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Diagnosing Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection in Women: A Call for Early Coronary Angiography
There is a unique cohort of patients, predominantly women, that experience chest pain or acute coronary syndromes in the absence of significant epicardial coronary artery disease. These individuals present with signs and symptoms consistent with ischemia and undergo a diagnostic evaluation with the objective of identifying atherosclerotic coronary disease as the causal factor. When these studies find no or insignificant ( (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - March 13, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jane A. Leopold Source Type: research

Palliative Care in Heart Failure: Review
Palliative Care (PC) is now recommended by all major cardiovascular societies for advanced heart failure (HF). PC is a philosophy of care that uses a holistic approach to address physical, psychosocial, and spiritual needs in patients with a terminal disease process. In HF, PC has been shown to improve symptoms and quality of life, facilitate advanced care planning, decrease hospital readmissions, and decrease hospital-associated healthcare costs. Although PC is still underutilized in HF, uptake is increasing. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - February 20, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Katie Wiskar, Mustafa Toma, Barret Rush Source Type: research

Palliative care in heart failure: Review
Palliative Care (PC) is now recommended by all major cardiovascular societies for advanced heart failure (HF). PC is a philosophy of care that uses a holistic approach to address physical, psychosocial, and spiritual needs in patients with a terminal disease process. In HF, PC has been shown to improve symptoms and quality of life, facilitate advanced care planning, decrease hospital readmissions, and decrease hospital-associated healthcare costs. Although PC is still underutilized in HF, uptake is increasing. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - February 20, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Katie Wiskar, Mustafa Toma, Barret Rush Source Type: research

Editorial commentary: Preserving myocardium in muscular dystrophy patients using ACE inhibition
Two of the key therapeutic questions for cardiology practitioners caring for muscular dystrophy patients is the efficacy and timing of initiating cardioprotective medications in this inexorably progressive disease. The article by Russo et al. [1] in this issue is an excellent review of this difficult and clinically important topic. The paper is a comprehensive review of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I) therapy in three different muscular dystrophies: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), myotonic dystrophy I, and Emery-Dreyfus muscular dystrophy. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - February 19, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Michael D. Taylor Source Type: research

The caveats of cardiac imaging in Ebstein anomaly
Ebstein anomaly is a rare but intriguing anomaly comprising a variety of abnormalities predominantly within the right heart with an abnormal tricuspid valve being the most striking feature [1]. The main features of Ebstein anomaly are caused by insufficient delamination of the septal and inferior (posterior) tricuspid valve leaflets from the right ventricular myocardial mass during embryological development of the heart. This leads to abnormal apical displacement of the functional tricuspid valve annulus with various degrees of tricuspid regurgitation. (Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine - February 19, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Matthias Greutmann, Emanuela R. Valsangiacomo Buechel, Christine Attenhofer Jost Source Type: research