CRISPR-Based Directed Evolution for Crop Improvement.
Abstract Directed evolution involves generating diverse sequence variants of a gene of interest to produce a desirable trait under selective pressure. CRISPR-Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated protein 9) systems can be programmed to target any genomic locus and perform targeted directed evolution. Here, we discuss the opportunities and challenges of this emerging platform for targeted crop improvement. PMID: 31477243 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Biotechnology)
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - August 30, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Butt H, Zaidi SS, Hassan N, Mahfouz M Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

Dynamic Metabolomics for Engineering Biology: Accelerating Learning Cycles for Bioproduction.
Abstract Metabolomics is a powerful tool to rationally guide the metabolic engineering of synthetic bioproduction pathways. Current reports indicate great potential to further develop metabolomics-directed synthetic bioproduction. Advanced mass metabolomics methods including isotope flux analysis, untargeted metabolomics, and system-wide approaches are assisting the characterization of metabolic pathways and enabling the biosynthesis of more complex products. More importantly, a design, build, test, and learn (DBTL) cycle is accelerating synthetic biology research and is highly compatible with metabolomics data to...
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - August 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Vavricka CJ, Hasunuma T, Kondo A Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

Biological Applications and Toxicity Minimization of Semiconductor Quantum Dots.
Abstract The extraordinary potential of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) has resulted in their widespread application in various fields, from engineering technology and the development of laboratory techniques to biomedical imaging and therapeutic strategies. However, the toxicity of QDs remains a concern and has limited their applications in human health. Better understanding of the behavior of QDs as it relates to their composition will enable the exploration of their limitations and development of a strategy to control their toxicity for potential therapeutic applications. Here, we describe approaches to minimi...
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - August 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Filali S, Pirot F, Miossec P Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

Dunaliella Microalgae for Nutritional Protein: An Undervalued Asset.
Abstract β-carotene production using Dunaliella microalgae is established, yet their potential as a source of protein for food and feed applications appears to be overlooked. The rich protein content and nutritional tunability of Dunaliella make these algae intriguing sources of sustainable protein. Thus, it is of societal interest to exploit these promising proteinaceous Dunaliella traits. PMID: 31451287 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Biotechnology)
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - August 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Sui Y, Vlaeminck SE Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

Multienzymatic Nanoassemblies: Recent Progress and Applications.
is H Abstract Biotechnological research has turned to multienzymatic nanoassemblies as a promising concept to host multiple applications. Here, we consider important aspects around the development and optimization of such biocatalytic systems and present current advances in utilizing bi- and multienzymatic cascade reactions in diverse fields, including ultrasensitive biosensing, development of pharmaceuticals, and conversion of natural biopolymers to valuable products, highlighting their future potential in the chemical, biotechnological, and pharmaceutical industries. Diverse co-immobilization techniques and diff...
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - August 22, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Giannakopoulou A, Gkantzou E, Polydera Α, Stamatis H Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

Using Remote Fields for Complex Tissue Engineering.
Abstract Great strides have been taken towards the in vitro engineering of clinically relevant tissue constructs using the classic triad of cells, materials, and biochemical factors. In this perspective, we highlight ways in which these elements can be manipulated or stimulated using a fourth component: the application of remote fields. This arena has gained great momentum over the last few years, with a recent surge of interest in using magnetic, optical, and acoustic fields to guide the organization of cells, materials, and biochemical factors. We summarize recent developments and trends in this arena and then l...
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - August 19, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Armstrong JPK, Stevens MM Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

Designing Eukaryotic Gene Expression Regulation Using Machine Learning.
Abstract Controlling the expression of genes is one of the key challenges of synthetic biology. Until recently fine-tuned control has been out of reach, particularly in eukaryotes owing to their complexity of gene regulation. With advances in machine learning (ML) and in particular with increasing dataset sizes, models predicting gene expression levels from regulatory sequences can now be successfully constructed. Such models form the cornerstone of algorithms that allow users to design regulatory regions to achieve a specific gene expression level. In this review we discuss strategies for data collection, data en...
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - August 17, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: de Jongh RPH, van Dijk ADJ, Julsing MK, Schaap PJ, de Ridder D Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

Resources to Discover and Use Short Linear Motifs in Viral Proteins.
Abstract Viral proteins evade host immune function by molecular mimicry, often achieved by short linear motifs (SLiMs) of three to ten consecutive amino acids (AAs). Motif mimicry tolerates mutations, evolves quickly to modify interactions with the host, and enables modular interactions with protein complexes. Host cells cannot easily coordinate changes to conserved motif recognition and binding interfaces under selective pressure to maintain critical signaling pathways. SLiMs offer potential for use in synthetic biology, such as better immunogens and therapies, but may also present biosecurity challenges. We surv...
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - August 16, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hraber P, O'Maille PE, Silberfarb A, Davis-Anderson K, Generous N, McMahon BH, Fair JM Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

Reinventing the Wheel: Synthetic Circular RNAs for Mammalian Cell Engineering.
Abstract The circular RNA renaissance is upon us. Recent reports demonstrate applications of synthetic circular RNA molecules as gene therapies and in the production of biologics from cell-based expression systems. Circular RNAs are covalently closed loop RNA species that are formed naturally through noncolinear splicing of pre-mRNA. Although once thought to be noncoding artefacts from splicing errors, it is now accepted that circular RNAs are abundant and have diverse functions in gene regulation and protein coding in eukaryotes. Numerous reports have investigated circular RNAs in various diseases, but the promis...
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - August 14, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Costello A, Lao NT, Barron N, Clynes M Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

Industrial Biotechnology: To What Extent Is Responsible Innovation on the Agenda?
Abstract The UK Industrial Biotechnology (IB) Strategy presents a consistent plan to develop the IB sector but fails to endorse an innovation process that allows for input from multiple publics. This could be disadvantageous for the bioeconomy: there are notable cases where negligence to address societal dimensions has caused innovation failure. PMID: 31399264 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Biotechnology)
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - August 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Rosemann A, Molyneux-Hodgson S Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

Detecting Harmful Algal Blooms with Isothermal Molecular Strategies.
We describe recent advances in these systems and highlight the challenges for the achievement of simple, low-cost, compact, and portable devices for field applications. PMID: 31399265 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Biotechnology)
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - August 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Toldrà A, O'Sullivan CK, Campàs M Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

The Microbiome: A Life Science Opportunity for Our Society and Our Planet.
Abstract Microbiome research and innovation (R&I) promises solutions to a broad range of business and societal challenges. To bridge the gap between today's potential and the moment at which concrete applications start generating societal impact, critical-scale efforts offering visible progress on topics of public interest will be essential. PMID: 31345571 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Biotechnology)
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - July 22, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Małyska A, Markakis MN, Pereira CF, Cornelissen M Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

Integrating Organs-on-Chips: Multiplexing, Scaling, Vascularization, and Innervation.
Abstract Organs-on-chips (OoCs) have attracted significant attention because they can be designed to mimic in vivo environments. Beyond constructing a single OoC, recent efforts have tried to integrate multiple OoCs to broaden potential applications such as disease modeling and drug discoveries. However, various challenges remain for integrating OoCs towards in vivo-like operation, such as incorporating various connections for integrating multiple OoCs. We review multiplexed OoCs and challenges they face: scaling, vascularization, and innervation. In our opinion, future OoCs will be constructed to have increased p...
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - July 22, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Park D, Lee J, Chung JJ, Jung Y, Kim SH Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

Production and Quality Requirements of Human Platelet Lysate: A Position Statement from the Working Party on Cellular Therapies of the International Society of Blood Transfusion.
Abstract Human platelet lysate (HPL), rich in growth factors, is an efficient alternative supplement to fetal bovine serum (FBS) for ex vivo propagation of stromal cell-based medicinal products. Since 2014, HPL has been a focus of the Working Party for Cellular Therapies of the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT). Currently, as several Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-compliant manufacturing protocols exist, an international consensus defining the optimal modes of industrial production, product specification, pathogen safety, and release criteria of this ancillary material (AM) is needed. This opini...
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - July 17, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Schallmoser K, Henschler R, Gabriel C, Koh MBC, Burnouf T Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

Hands-On Introduction to Synthetic Biology for Security Professionals.
Abstract The rapid pace of life sciences innovations and a growing list of nontraditional actors engaging in biological research make it challenging to develop appropriate policies to protect sensitive infrastructures. To address this challenge, we developed a five-day awareness program for security professionals, including laboratory work, site visits, and lectures. PMID: 31320118 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Biotechnology)
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - July 15, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Adames NR, Gallegos JE, Hunt SY, So WK, Peccoud J Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

The Regulation of Wearable Medical Devices.
This article provides a guideline for the design, manufacture, regulatory approval, and post-market surveillance (PMS) of wearable medical devices (WMDs). The integration of regulatory considerations can accelerate wearable device (WD) development from laboratory to market while mitigating device failure risks. The implementation of stringent clinical evaluations will transcend WDs beyond consumer products. PMID: 31320119 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Biotechnology)
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - July 15, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jiang N, Mück JE, Yetisen AK Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

A Physiology-Inspired Multifactorial Toolbox in Soft-to-Hard Musculoskeletal Interface Tissue Engineering.
Abstract Musculoskeletal diseases are increasing the prevalence of physical disability worldwide. Within the body, musculoskeletal soft and hard tissues integrate through specific multitissue transitions, allowing for body movements. Owing to their unique compositional and structural gradients, injuries challenge the native interfaces and tissue regeneration is unlikely to occur. Tissue engineering strategies are emerging to emulate the physiological environment of soft-to-hard tissue interfaces. Advances in biomaterial design enable control over biophysical parameters, but biomaterials alone are not sufficient to...
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - July 15, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Calejo I, Costa-Almeida R, Reis RL, Gomes ME Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

Synthesis of Recoded Bacterial Genomes toward Bespoke Biocatalysis.
Abstract Ongoing efforts in synthetic biology aim at constructing (micro)organisms with (pre)defined properties. A recent breakthrough is the chemical synthesis of a recoded Escherichia coli genome by Fredens et al. (Nature, 2019). Besides the conceptual and technological tour de force, the consequences of this unprecedented effort for whole-cell biocatalysis are multifold. PMID: 31311671 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Biotechnology)
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - July 13, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Nikel PI Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

Will Following the Regulatory Script for GMOs Promote Public Acceptance of Gene-Edited Crops?
Abstract Risk-disproportionate regulation of gene-edited crops has been proposed to gain public acceptance for this breeding technique. However, confounding safety regulations with advocacy for an underlying technology risks weakening achievement of both objectives. Dedicated factual communication and education from trusted sources is likely to better support public acceptance of gene-edited crops. PMID: 31307666 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Biotechnology)
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - July 13, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Herman RA, Fedorova M, Storer NP Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

A Makerspace for Life Support Systems in Space.
Abstract Human space exploration and settlement will require leaps forward in life support for environmental management and healthcare. Life support systems must efficiently use nonrenewable resources packed from Earth while increasingly relying on resources available locally in space. On-demand production of components and materials (e.g., 3D printing and synthetic biology) holds promise to satisfy the evolving set of supplies necessary to outfit human missions to space. We consider here life support systems for missions planned in the 2020s, and discuss how the maker and 'do-it-yourself' (DIY) biology communitie...
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - July 4, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Snyder JE, Walsh D, Carr PA, Rothschild LJ Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

Improving CRISPR Technology to Sustain Animal Welfare: Response to Bailey.
PMID: 31272708 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Biotechnology)
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - July 1, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kim DY, Moon SB, Kim YS Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

Synthetic Biology and the United Nations.
nt PS Abstract Synthetic biology is a rapidly emerging interdisciplinary field of science and engineering that aims to redesign living systems through reprogramming genetic information. The field has catalysed global debate among policymakers and publics. Here we describe how synthetic biology relates to these international deliberations, particularly the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). PMID: 31257057 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Biotechnology)
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - June 27, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lai HE, Canavan C, Cameron L, Moore S, Danchenko M, Kuiken T, Sekeyová Z, Freemont PS Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

New Horizons in Acetogenic Conversion of One-Carbon Substrates and Biological Hydrogen Storage.
r V Abstract Strictly anaerobic, acetogenic (acetate-forming) bacteria are characterized by a reductive pathway in which two mol of CO2 are reduced to one mol of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) and then further to acetate, ethanol, or butyrate. Therefore, they have come into focus for an alternative, CO2-based bioeconomy. Other one-carbon (C1) substrates, such as formic acid or methanol, are promising feedstocks for an alternative bioeconomy using acetogens as biocatalysts that have been somewhat overlooked. In addition, acetogens, such as Acetobacterium woodii and Thermoanaerobacter kivui, have a unique enzyme sys...
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - June 27, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Müller V Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

Accelerating Climate Resilient Plant Breeding by Applying Next-Generation Artificial Intelligence.
Abstract Breeding crops for high yield and superior adaptability to new and variable climates is imperative to ensure continued food security, biomass production, and ecosystem services. Advances in genomics and phenomics are delivering insights into the complex biological mechanisms that underlie plant functions in response to environmental perturbations. However, linking genotype to phenotype remains a huge challenge and is hampering the optimal application of high-throughput genomics and phenomics to advanced breeding. Critical to success is the need to assimilate large amounts of data into biologically meaning...
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - June 21, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Harfouche AL, Jacobson DA, Kainer D, Romero JC, Harfouche AH, Scarascia Mugnozza G, Moshelion M, Tuskan GA, Keurentjes JJB, Altman A Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

Policy Considerations Regarding Genome Editing.
Abstract The international Organisation for Economic and Co-operative Development (OECD) conference on genome editing (June 2018) provided a timely platform for scientists, risk assessors, policy-makers, and regulators to discuss the applications and implications of this technology in various agriculture areas and the related policy considerations; in addition questions related to appropriate safety assessments and the regulation of genome-edited products were debated. PMID: 31229272 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Biotechnology)
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - June 19, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Friedrichs S, Takasu Y, Kearns P, Dagallier B, Oshima R, Schofield J, Moreddu C Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

Optogenetics in the Era of Cerebral Organoids.
Abstract The human brain has been deemed the most complex organ and has captivated neuroscientists for decades. Most studies of this organ have relied on reductionist model systems. Although all model systems are essentially wrong, cerebral organoids so far represent the closest recapitulation of human brain development and disease both in terms of cell diversity and organization. The optogenetic technique can be used in this context to study the functional neuroanatomy of the brain, to examine the neural circuits, and to determine the etiology of neurological disorders. In this opinion article, we suggest ways in...
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - June 18, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Shiri Z, Simorgh S, Naderi S, Baharvand H Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

New Frontiers for Biofabrication and Bioreactor Design in Microphysiological System Development.
Abstract Microphysiological systems (MPSs) have been proposed as an improved tool to recreate the complex biological features of the native niche with the goal of improving in vitro-in vivo extrapolation. In just over a decade, MPS technologies have progressed from single-tissue chips to multitissue plates with integrated pumps for perfusion. Concurrently, techniques for biofabrication of complex 3D constructs for regenerative medicine and 3D in vitro models have evolved into a diverse toolbox for micrometer-scale deposition of cells and cell-laden bioinks. However, as the complexity of biological models increases...
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - June 12, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Parrish J, Lim K, Zhang B, Radisic M, Woodfield TBF Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

CRISPR-Mediated Gene Editing: Scientific and Ethical Issues.
Abstract There remains substantial evidence to warrant great concern over the poor efficiency and specificity of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-mediated genetic modification (GM), despite relatively minor improvements compared to other GM methods. These issues cause persistent, adverse, ethical, and scientific consequences for GM animals, which may never be sufficiently resolvable. PMID: 31182244 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Biotechnology)
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - June 7, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Bailey J Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

Paradigm Shift in Algal H2 Production: Bypassing Competitive Processes.
oby I Abstract Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, but producing it sustainably remains a challenge. Green algae can produce hydrogen photosynthetically using their efficient but oxygen-sensitive hydrogenases. Recent strategies aiming to bypass competing processes provide a promising route for scaling up algal hydrogen production. PMID: 31174881 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Biotechnology)
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - June 4, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tóth SZ, Yacoby I Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

New Prospects for Modified Algae in Heavy Metal Adsorption.
This article reviews current research on selective algal heavy metal adsorption and critically discusses the performance of novel biosorbents. We emphasize emerging state-of-the-art techniques that customize algae for enhanced performance and selectivity, particularly molecular and chemical extraction techniques as well as nanoparticle (NP) synthesis approaches. The mechanisms and processes for developing novel algal biosorbents are also presented. Finally, we discuss the applications, challenges, and future prospects for modified algae in heavy metal biosorption. PMID: 31174882 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (So...
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - June 4, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Cheng SY, Show PL, Lau BF, Chang JS, Ling TC Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

Antimicrobial Inks: The Anti-Infective Applications of Bioprinted Bacterial Polysaccharides.
Abstract Bioprinting is a rapidly emerging technology with the potential to transform the biomedical sector. Here, we discuss how a range of bacterial polysaccharides with antibiofilm and antibacterial activity could be used to augment current bioink formulations to improve their biocompatibility and tackle the spread of antibiotic-resistant infections. PMID: 31171377 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Biotechnology)
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - June 3, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: McCarthy RR, Ullah MW, Pei E, Yang G Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

Field-Specific Microbial Consortia Are Feasible: A Response to Kaminsky et al.
Abstract Kaminsky et al. (Trends Biotechnol. 2019:37;140-151) discuss the conflicts in developing microbial inoculants for agriculture. The authors affirm that microbial inoculants should perform across a wide range of environments but rule out the feasibility of personalized inoculants for individual fields. Here, I propose customized microbial consortia for specific field environments. PMID: 31103069 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Trends in Biotechnology)
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - May 20, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Awasthi A Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

Factoring Ecological, Societal, and Economic Considerations into Inoculant Development.
Abstract There are many paths toward effective microbial inoculants for agriculture. Considering what is practical for the present day technological and farming landscape should not limit our creativity in developing innovative technologies. However, factors including production costs, practicality of implementation, and technology adoption by farmers will drive the success of new management approaches. PMID: 31103070 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Trends in Biotechnology)
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - May 20, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Bell TH, Kaminsky LM, Gugino BK, Carlson JE, Malik RJ, Hockett KL, Trexler RV Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

'Living' Inks for 3D Bioprinting.
Abstract A critical aspect in bioprinting is the formulation of bioactive inks. A recent breakthrough in bioink design (Qian et al. Nano Lett. 2019; https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.9b00066) enables the direct writing of catalytically active microorganisms with unprecedented cell loading, tunable structural properties, and long-term activity. This strategy will create possibilities for bottom-up design and integration of functional living systems. PMID: 31103352 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Biotechnology)
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - May 15, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hsu L, Jiang X Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

CRISPR/Cas Powered Multiplexed Biosensing.
Abstract Multiplexed CRISPR/Cas biosensing offers various possibilities for diagnosing different diseases by analyzing many analytes from one single specimen. However, in this relatively new field, nearly no multiplexing approaches exist, as many challenges need to be addressed. We discuss the reasons behind it and possible strategies to push the multiplexing level. PMID: 31078316 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Biotechnology)
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - May 8, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Bruch R, Urban GA, Dincer C Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

Microchannels in Development, Survival, and Vascularisation of Tissue Analogues for Regenerative Medicine.
Abstract Microchannels are simple, perfusable architectural features engineered into biomaterials to promote mass transport of solutes to cells, effective cell seeding and compartmentalisation for tissue engineering applications, control over spatiotemporal distribution of molecules and ligands, and survival, integration, and vascularisation of engineered tissue analogues in vivo. Advances in biofabrication have led to better control over microchannel fabrication in 3D scaffolds, enabling sophisticated designs that drive the development of complex tissue structures. This review addresses the importance of microcha...
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - May 7, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lim KS, Baptista M, Moon S, Woodfield TBF, Rnjak-Kovacina J Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

Wearable Devices for Single-Cell Sensing and Transfection.
Abstract Wearable healthcare devices are mainly used for biosensing and transdermal delivery. Recent advances in wearable biosensors allow for long-term and real-time monitoring of physiological conditions at a cellular resolution. Transdermal drug delivery systems have been further scaled down, enabling wide selections of cargo, from natural molecules (e.g., insulin and glucose) to bioengineered molecules (e.g., nanoparticles). Some emerging nanopatches show promise for precise single-cell gene transfection in vivo and have advantages over conventional tools in terms of delivery efficiency, safety, and controllab...
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - May 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Chang L, Wang YC, Ershad F, Yang R, Yu C, Fan Y Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

Grand Research Challenges for Sustainable Industrial Biotechnology.
Abstract Future manufacturing will focus on new, improved products as well as on new and enhanced production methods. Recent biotechnological and scientific advances, such as CRISPR/Cas and various omic technologies, pave the way to exciting novel biotechnological research, development, and commercialization of new sustainable products. Rigorous mathematical descriptions of microbial cells and consortia thereof will enable deeper biological understanding and lead to powerful in silico cellular models. Biological engineering, namely model-based design together with synthetic biology, will accelerate the constructio...
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - May 1, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Straathof AJJ, Wahl SA, Benjamin KR, Takors R, Wierckx N, Noorman HJ Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

Pick a Tag and Explore the Functions of Your Pet Protein.
Abstract Protein tags have been essential for advancing our knowledge of the function of proteins, their localization, and the mapping of their interaction partners. Expressing epitope-tagged proteins has become a standard practice in every life science laboratory and, thus, continues to enable new studies. In recent years, several new tagging moieties have entered the limelight, many of them bringing new functionalities, such as targeted protein degradation, accurate quantification, and proximity labeling. Other novel tags aim at tackling research questions in challenging niches. In this review, we elaborate on r...
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - April 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Vandemoortele G, Eyckerman S, Gevaert K Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

Enabling the Advanced Bioeconomy through Public Policy Supporting Biofoundries and Engineering Biology.
D, Philp J Abstract The bioeconomy concept is proliferating globally. However, the enabling roles of biotechnology may be getting sidelined in the strategies of some countries. A goal for engineering biology is alignment with the engineering design cycle to enable more rapid commercialization. This paper considers several policy options to remove critical technical barriers to commercialization. PMID: 31036350 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Biotechnology)
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - April 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kitney R, Adeogun M, Fujishima Y, Goñi-Moreno Á, Johnson R, Maxon M, Steedman S, Ward S, Winickoff D, Philp J Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

Strategies for Engineering Natural Product Biosynthesis in Fungi: (Trends in Biotechnology 37, 416-427, 2019).
PMID: 31027863 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Biotechnology)
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - April 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Skellam E Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

Bioprocessing Butanol into More Valuable Butyl Butyrate.
Abstract The toxicity of butanol to microbial cells makes it difficult to scale-up the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation process. Bioconversion of butanol into more valuable and nontoxic short-chain esters, such as butyl butyrate which is widely used in the food, beverage, and biofuel sectors, offers a promising alternative. PMID: 31027864 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Biotechnology)
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - April 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Xin F, Zhang W, Jiang M Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

Targeting Plant ssDNA Viruses with Engineered Miniature CRISPR-Cas14a.
Abstract CRISPR-Cas14a is a highly compact protein with great potential to be used as a guided genome editing tool for single-stranded (ss) DNA cleavage. Recently isolated from noncultured archaea, its unrestricted and sequence-independent cleavage makes it an ideal tool for engineering resistance against economically important plant ssDNA viruses. PMID: 31023561 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Biotechnology)
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - April 22, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Khan MZ, Haider S, Mansoor S, Amin I Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

Safety Assessment of Immune-Mediated Adverse Reactions to Novel Food Proteins.
We present new strategies and directions for assessing immune adverse reactions to novel food proteins. Understanding genetic factors involved in food allergy and the role of the gastrointestinal tract will streamline risk assessment strategies. PMID: 31005332 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Biotechnology)
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - April 17, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Fernandez A, Mills ENC, Koning F, Moreno FJ Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

Production and Biomedical Application of Flavivirus-like Particles.
Abstract Many viruses belonging to the Flaviviridae family are transmitted by invertebrate vectors. Among those transmitted by mosquitos, there are many human pathogens of great medical importance, such as Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, dengue virus, Zika virus, or yellow fever virus. Millions of people contract mosquito-borne diseases each year, leading to thousands of deaths. Co-circulation of genetically similar flaviviruses in the same areas result in the generation of crossreactive antibodies, which is of serious concern for the development of effective vaccines and diagnostic tests. This revie...
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - April 16, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Krol E, Brzuska G, Szewczyk B Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

Engineering Polymerases for New Functions.
Abstract DNA polymerases are critical tools in biotechnology, enabling efficient and accurate amplification of DNA templates, yet many desired functions are not readily available in natural DNA polymerases. New or improved functions can be engineered in DNA polymerases by mutagenesis or through the creation of protein chimeras. Engineering often necessitates the development of new techniques, such as selections in water-in-oil emulsions that connect genotype to phenotype and allow more flexibility in engineering than phage display. Engineering efforts have led to DNA polymerases that can withstand extreme conditio...
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - April 16, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Coulther TA, Stern HR, Beuning PJ Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

Deep Eutectic Solvents as Efficient Solvents in Biocatalysis.
n D Abstract 'Ideal' solvents in biocatalysis have to fulfill a large number of requirements, such as high substrate solubility, high enzyme activity and stability, and positive effects on reaction equilibrium. In the past decades, many enzymatic synthesis routes in water-based and nonaqueous (organic solvents, ionic or supercritical fluids) reaction media have been developed. However, no solvent meets every demand for different reaction types at the same time, and there is still a need for novel solvents suited for different reaction types and applications. Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have recently been evaluat...
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - April 16, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Pätzold M, Siebenhaller S, Kara S, Liese A, Syldatk C, Holtmann D Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

Mimicking the Articular Joint with In Vitro Models.
Abstract Treating joint diseases remains a significant clinical challenge. Conventional in vitro cultures and animal models have been helpful, but suffer from limited predictive power for the human response. Advanced models are therefore required to mimic the complex biological interactions within the human joint. However, the intricate structure of the joint microenvironment and the complex nature of joint diseases have challenged the development of in vitro models that can faithfully mimic the in vivo physiological and pathological environments. In this review, we discuss the current in vitro models of the joint...
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - April 16, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Piluso S, Li Y, Abinzano F, Levato R, Moreira Teixeira L, Karperien M, Leijten J, van Weeren R, Malda J Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

CRISPR/Cas-Mediated Base Editing: Technical Considerations and Practical Applications.
Abstract Genome editing with CRISPR/Cas has rapidly gained popularity. Base editing, a new CRISPR/Cas-based approach, can precisely convert one nucleotide to another in DNA or RNA without inducing a double-strand DNA break (DSB). A combination of catalytically impaired nuclease variants with different deaminases has yielded diverse base-editing platforms that aim to address the key limitations such as specificity, protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) compatibility, editing window length, bystander editing, and sequence context preference. Because new base editors significantly reduce unintended editing in the genome, ...
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - April 14, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Molla KA, Yang Y Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research

Integrated Printed Microfluidic Biosensors.
Abstract Integrated printed microfluidic biosensors are one of the most recent point-of-care (POC) sensor developments. Fast turnaround time for production and ease of customization, enabled by the integration of recognition elements and transducers, are key for on-site biosensing for both healthcare and industry and for speeding up translation to real-life applications. Here, we provide an overview of recent progress in printed microfluidics, from the 2D to the 4D level, accompanied by novel sensing element integration. We also explore the latest trends in integrated printed microfluidics for healthcare, especial...
Source: Trends in Biotechnology - April 13, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Loo JFC, Ho AHP, Turner APF, Mak WC Tags: Trends Biotechnol Source Type: research