Travellers take heed: Outbreak of extensively drug resistant (XDR) typhoid fever in Pakistan and a warning from the US CDC
Imported, drug-resistant typhoid fever has been reported among travellers [1]. Typhoid fever is a highly contagious notifiable bacterial infection, spread by contaminated water and food. Each year, an estimated 26 million cases of typhoid fever appeared worldwide causing 215 thousand deaths. Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a foremost threat in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in parts of Asia and Africa. The first deadly outbreak of a novel S. Typhi H58 clone harboring resistance to three first-line drugs (ampicillin, chloramphenicol and co-trimoxazole) as well as the blaCTX-M-15 extended-spectrum β-lactamase and qnrS ...
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - October 16, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zikria Saleem, Mohamed Azmi Hassali Source Type: research

Gut microbiota dynamics in travelers returning from India colonized with extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae: A longitudinal study
Intestinal colonization by extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (ESC-R-Ent) has been attributed to travel to high prevalence countries. However, the dynamics of the microbiota changes during ESC-R-Ent colonization and whether there is a particular bacterial composition which is associated with subsequent colonization is unknown. (Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease)
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - October 16, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jo ão Pires, Julia G. Kraemer, Esther Kuenzli, Sara Kasraian, Regula Tinguely, Christoph Hatz, Andrea Endimiani, Markus Hilty Source Type: research

National approaches to the vaccination of recently arrived migrants in Europe: A comparative policy analysis across 32 European countries
Migrants may be underimmunised and at higher risk of vaccine-preventable diseases, yet there has been no comprehensive examination of what policies are currently implemented across Europe targeting child and adult migrants. We analysed vaccination policies for migrants in 32 EU/EEA countries and Switzerland. (Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease)
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - October 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sofanne J. Ravensbergen, Laura B. Nellums, Sally Hargreaves, Ymkje Stienstra, Jon S. Friedland, ESGITM Working Group on Vaccination in Migrants, with the support of the Executive Committee and Membership of ESGITM Source Type: research

The current syndemic in Venezuela: Measles, malaria and more co-infections coupled with a breakdown of social and healthcare infrastructure. Quo vadis?
What is a “syndemic” and how can it be applied to the current situation in Venezuela? Three concepts underlie the notion of a “syndemic”: disease concentration, disease interaction, and large-scale negative social forces that give rise to them [1]. The concept of disease concentration implies that two or more epidemics co-occur in the presence of temporal and geographical factors coupled with harmful social conditions [1]. Unfortunately, during the last five years, there has been no better example of a syndemic, than in Venezuela. (Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease)
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - October 13, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Alfonso J. Rodr íguez-Morales, José Antonio Suárez, Alejandro Risquez, Lourdes Delgado-Noguera, Alberto Paniz-Mondolfi Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

The effect of wild thyme and bergamot essential oils on the growth of Rickettsia slovaca and Rickettsia conorii caspia in Vero cell line
Coastal region of Croatia, a favourite holiday destination yearly visited by millions of people is known as an endemic area for Rickettsia conorii. Moreover, several other pathogenic rickettsiae including R. slovaca were detected in Croatian ticks [1]. Essential oils, complex mixtures of secondary plant metabolites of low molecular weight were confirmed to have antimicrobial properties against wide range of extracellular and intracellular bacteria including multidrug resistant strains [2,3]. As their effect on obligate intracellular tick borne pathogens has yet to be elucidated, the aim of this study was to test the influe...
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - October 11, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Katar ína Štefanidesová, Ľudovít Škultéty, Viera Friedländerová, Andrej Šáner, Eva Špitalská Source Type: research

Detection of zoonotic agents and a new Rickettsia strain in ticks from donkeys from South Africa: Implications for travel medicine
This study aimed to investigate the presence of spotted fever group Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and Coxiella species in these arthropods. (Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease)
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - October 9, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ali Halajian, Ana M. Palomar, Ar ánzazu Portillo, Heloise Heyne, Lourdes Romero, José A. Oteo Source Type: research

Measles vaccination status among Japanese university students participating in short-term study abroad programs
Imported measles outbreaks starting with travelers have been successively observed in Japan and non-endemic countries despite a global effort towards measles elimination [1,2]. The Japanese government has been strongly promoting overseas study for young generations including those who were not born and raised in the era of two-dose MR vaccination policy in Japan. Specifically, those aged 19 –28 years (as of 2018) seem to have received a second-dose measles-containing vaccine as target populations for the governmental MR catch-up vaccination campaign [3]; however, vaccination coverage of the campaign did not reach an ...
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - October 9, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Michiyo Yamakawa, Megumi Sasai, Mayumi Ono, Toshihide Tsuda Source Type: research

Histoplamosis in an immunocompetent man returning from Brazil: A diagnostic challenge helped by 18 FDG PET CT
A 43-year-old French man presented with fever, arthralgia, headache, night sweats and dry cough, 3 weeks after returning from Brazil. Physical examination was normal. He reported a visit at the botanic garden of Rio de Janeiro during a 7-day-trip. Blood tests revealed lymphocytosis (5.28G/L), C-reactive protein at 50mg/L, and cholestatic hepatitis (ASAT 148UI/L, ALAT 319UI/L, gamma-GT: 523UI/L, alkaline phosphatase: 234UI/L). Microbiological investigations were negative for the following: blood cultures, malaria quick test, Legionella pneumophila, Streptococcus pneumonia antigenuria; serology for HIV, Histoplasma, Brucella...
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - October 6, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Cl émentine Montagnac, Carole Eldin, Anais Thouret, Stéphane Ranque, Philippe Brouqui Source Type: research

Microbiological features of indigenous typhoid cases in Taiwan and relatedness to imported cases, 2001 –2014: A cross-sectional analysis
Typhoid fever was rare in Taiwan but approximately two-third of the cases were indigenous. The transmission source of the indigenous cases and the relatedness to the imported cases remained unknown. (Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease)
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - October 6, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Shao-Chieh Chien, Tsong-Him Iap, Yin-Rong Chiu, Shian-Sen Shie, Chih-Jung Chen Source Type: research

Occurrence of intestinal parasites among asylum seekers in Italy: A cross-sectional study
In recent years Europe has experienced a dramatic increase in migration flows. Nevertheless, limited data is available about the occurrence of neglected parasitic diseases among migrant population. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal and urinary parasites in newly arrived asylum seekers. (Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease)
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - October 6, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lucia Fontanelli Sulekova, Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Marco Pombi, Rozenn Esvan, Maurizio Lopalco, Serena Vita, Simonetta Mattiucci, Simona Gabrielli, Sanitary Bureau of the Asylum Seekers Center of Castelnuovo di Porto Source Type: research

Influenza vaccination coverage among US-Mexico land border crossers: 2009 H1N1 pandemic and 2011 –2012 influenza season
The high volume of US-Mexico land border crossings can facilitate international dissemination of influenza viruses. (Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease)
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - October 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Alfonso Rodriguez-Lainz, Carla DeSisto, Stephen Waterman, Monica Sovero Wiedemann, Conschetta Wright Moore, Walter W. Williams, Kathleen Moser Source Type: research

Factors associated with severity of tick-borne encephalitis: A prospective observational study
Information on parameters associated with the severity of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is limited. (Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease)
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - October 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Petra Bogovi č, Stanka Lotrič-Furlan, Tatjana Avšič-Županc, Lara Lusa, Franc Strle Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “ An extra priming dose of hepatitis A vaccine to adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis and drug induced immunosuppression – A prospective, open-label, multi-center study” [Trav. Med. Infect. Dis. 21, January–February 2018, 43–50]
The authors regret that after publication of the original paper An extra priming dose of hepatitis A vaccine to adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis and drug induced immunosuppression-A prospective open-lable, multi-center study [1] one important error concerning the description of the results came to the authors ’ attention. (Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease)
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - October 3, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Anja Rosdahl, Christian Herzog, Gert Fr ösner, Torbjörn Norén, Lars Rombo, Helena H. Askling Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

Are the 2014 –2016 Zika and Chikungunya epidemics in Colombia associated with a higher use of antihistamines?
Concomitant circulation and epidemic peaks of the Zika (ZIKV), Chikungunya (CHIKV) and Dengue (DENV) viruses have been identified as public health problems in Latin America and the Caribbean [1]. The cutaneous manifestations of these arboviruses are reported for ZIKV as a nonspecific and diffuse rash consisting of macules and papules that appear 3 –12 days after initial infection, and the eruption may be pruritic [2,3]. Due to the relative frequency of these manifestations and the availability of antihistamines for the symptomatic management of pruritus and other dermatological reactions, it was proposed to study the...
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - October 3, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Manuel E. Machado-Duque, Jorge E. Machado-Alba, Alfonso J. Rodr íguez-Morales Source Type: research

Are probiotics and prebiotics effective in the prevention of travellers ’ diarrhea: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Travellers ’ diarrhea (TD) impacts annually over 20 million tourists, business travellers and military troops on a worldwide basis. Reliance on antibiotic prophylaxis and educational programs has not lead to a significant reduction in TD rates. Previous reviews of probiotics for TD have not accounted for the strain-specificity of probiotic efficacy nor have investigated prebiotics for the prevention of TD. (Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease)
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - September 29, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lynne V. McFarland, Shan Goh Source Type: research

War, migration and Cystic Echinococcosis
Recently we came across a publication on helminthic infections in returning travelers and migrants with eosinophilia in Germany [1], which prompted us to point out an important health issue in migrants and travelers in European countries. These countries face a number of risk factors related to development, transmission, and spread of zoonotic diseases such as helminth infections. (Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease)
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - September 28, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Aisha Khan, Haroon Ahmed, Sami Simsek Source Type: research

Epidemiology of Japanese Encephalitis in China (2004 –2015)
We read the paper on surveillance of mosquito-borne infections in China with interest [1] and would like to analyze the epidemiological information of Japanese encephalitis (JE) outbreaks in different places of China to frame its control strategies. (Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease)
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - September 26, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hui Zhang, Yaping Wang, Kun Li, Khalid Mehmood, Rui Gui, Jiakui Li Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Should travellers be offered vaccination against the dengue virus?
Dengue fever is expanding into new areas due to travel, climate change, urbanization, and the widening geographic range of the main vectors Ae.aegypti and Ae.albopictus [1].The newly licensed, tetravalent vaccine, Dengvaxia (CYD-TDV) by Sanofi Pasteur,has surprisingly been shown to increase the risk of severe dengue virus disease in persons not previously exposed to dengue virus. This has halted the roll out of the vaccine in endemic areas. In this editorial we argue that the new vaccine may have a place for travellers from non-endemic to endemic areas, who have previously experienced a dengue virus infection. (Source: Tra...
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - September 26, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Emilie Javelle, Asma Al Balushi, Sanne Jespersen, Seif Al Abri, Philippe Gautret, Eskild Petersen Source Type: research

Travel and tick-borne diseases: Lyme disease and beyond
On a global scale, ticks are second only to mosquitoes as the most important of vectors of infectious disease agents of humans [1]. Ticks transmit a greater diversity of viral, bacterial and protozoan infections than any other arthropod on earth, and in many temperate regions of the world, including Europe and the United States, tick-borne diseases (TBD) are the most widespread and medically important of all vector-borne infections. Lyme borreliosis, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species and transmitted by various Ixodes spp., afflicts tens and possibly hundreds of thousands of persons in the Northern Hemispher...
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - September 26, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Philippe Parola, Christopher D. Paddock Source Type: research

No detection of Zika virus infection in asymptomatic Dutch military personnel after deployment in high endemic areas (Belize, Curacao, Saint Martin) from December 2016 to December 2017
Dear Editor, at the start of the Zika outbreak we reported on imported infections in Dutch travellers [1]. Since late 2015, a large outbreak of Zika virus disease has spread across South and Central America. Concurrently, strong evidence has emerged that the virus, which usually only causes mild disease in adults, is the cause of various degrees of fetal developmental disorders, which was dramatically illustrated by an unusual number of microcephaly cases among newborns in Brazil. An important and unanswered question to date is the actual risk of sexual transmission from (symptomatic or asymptomatic) males returning from Z...
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - September 20, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Cornelis A. De Pijper, Martin P. Grobusch, Abraham Goorhuis, Cornelis Stijnis, Gerrit Koen, Janke Schinkel Source Type: research

Alcoholism in internally displaced people of Colombia: An ecological study
United Nations estimated that over 65 million people worldwide are currently displaced by war, armed conflict or persecution [1]. Most of the conflict-affected populations, internally displaced people (IDPs) and refugees, are concentrated in low- and middle-income countries, in different regions of the world [1,2]. Colombia is the Latin American country identified as the one with the highest amount of IDPs in the world. (Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease)
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - September 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mariana Lagos-Gallego, Julio C ésar Gutiérrez-Segura, Guillermo J. Lagos-Grisales, Alfonso J. Rodríguez-Morales Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Performance of the point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) urine cassette test for follow-up after treatment of S. mansoni infection in Eritrean refugees
Point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) urine cassette testing has become a popular approach to screen for Schistosoma infection. Since the test is also increasingly used for following-up of treatment success, we assessed the assay's diagnostic accuracy after praziquantel treatment of S. mansoni infection among Eritrean refugees in Switzerland. (Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease)
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - September 17, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Andreas Neumayr, Afona Chernet, V éronique Sydow, Kerstin Kling, Esther Kuenzli, Hanspeter Marti, Daniel H. Paris, Beatrice Nickel, Niklaus D. Labhardt Source Type: research

Failure of intravenous artesunate treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in a splenectomized traveller: A diagnostic challenge
A 55-year-old caucasian traveller was admitted to the intensive care unit of Hospital Clinic of Barcelona for severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria after a 4-day business trip to Sierra Leona. His past medical history included hypertension, dyslipidaemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity and a splenectomy after a car crash, 15 years before the current episode. The patient only took antimalarial chemoprophylaxis with atovaquone/proguanil during the first 4 days of his stay in the malaria endemic region. (Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease)
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - September 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Javier Marco-Hern ández, Daniel Camprubí, Cristian Aylagas, Himanshu Gupta, Pedro Castro Tags: Diagnostic Challenge Source Type: research

Lack of seasonal variation of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)
Seasonality of disease, mainly of respiratory pathogens, is a key feature [1]. The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a newly emerging respiratory viral infection and causes asymptomatic or mild infection and may result in a life threatening disease with a high case fatality rate. As reported by the World Health Organization, the virus caused a total of the WHO reported 2143 laboratory-confirmed cases from 27 countries, including 750 (35%) deaths. It is important to understand the transmission of the virus as well as if there is any seasonal variation in the transmission between humans and animals. ...
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - September 12, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jaffar A. Al-Tawfiq, Ziad A. Memish Source Type: research

Post-malaria neurological syndrome: Imported case series and literature review to unscramble the auto-immune hypothesis
Post-malaria neurological syndrome (PMNS) is a complication that occurs after recovery from a severe Plasmodium falciparum attack. Over the past two decades, the description of several imported cases has confirmed that this syndrome is a clearly distinct entity, different from other post malarial neurological disorders. However, the underlying mechanisms are not yet elucidated. Herein, we present five imported PMNS cases managed in Marseille, France. The detection of neuronal surface antibodies to an encephalitic syndrome of unknown origin allowed us to reveal positivity of anti Voltage-Gated-Potassium Chanel antibodies (a...
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - September 11, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Antoine Poulet, Hanna Bou Ali, Helene Savini, Elsa Kaphan, Philippe Parola Tags: Review Source Type: research

A cross-sectional analysis of Zika virus infection in symptomatic and asymptomatic non-pregnant travellers: Experience of a European reference center during the outbreak in the Americas
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection a concern to travellers because of potential sexual transmission and adverse pregnancy outcomes. (Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease)
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - September 8, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ralph Huits, Ula Maniewski, Dorien Van Den Bossche, Erica Lotgering, Achilleas Tsoumanis, Lieselotte Cnops, Jan Jacobs, Marjan Van Esbroeck, Emmanuel Bottieau Source Type: research

Tick-borne pathogens in removed ticks Veneto, northeastern Italy: A cross-sectional investigation
In Italy, the incidence of tick-borne diseases in humans is underestimated, as they are not obligatorily notifiable. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of tick-borne pathogens in ticks removed from human subjects in Veneto region (northeastern Italy), an area for which no published studies are yet available. (Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease)
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - September 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Anna Beltrame, Maureen Laroche, Monica Degani, Francesca Perandin, Zeno Bisoffi, Didier Raoult, Philippe Parola Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease)
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - September 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Measles control in a measles-eliminated country, Japan
Measles elimination demonstrates the interruption of local chains of transmission, but the heterogeneity of the immune landscape continues to complicate measles control even in highly vaccinated countries, with a substantial risk of outbreak given imported cases from neighboring areas [1]. Including Japan, only eight out of thirty-three member state countries of the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region (WPR) has been verified of the measles elimination [2 –4]. Even after elimination in Japan, outbreaks following importation has been frequently observed. (Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease)
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - August 31, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ryo Kinoshita, Kazuki Shimizu, Hiroshi Nishiura Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Severe imported falciparum malaria. Dilemmas regarding treatment availability and tolerability
Dear Editor, (Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease)
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - August 29, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Spinello Antinori, Salvatore Sollima, Mario Corbellino, Anna Lisa Ridolfo Source Type: research

Pneumococcal disease during Hajj and Umrah: Research agenda for evidence-based vaccination policy for these events
Pneumococcal disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide with a significant financial burden. Pneumococcal vaccines are available and recommended in many countries for at-risk populations including young children, the elderly and those with underlying medical conditions. The Hajj and Umrah mass gatherings attract millions of Muslim pilgrims to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia each year. These events increase the risk of pneumococcal disease especially among the large number of elderly pilgrims with co-morbidities. (Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease)
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - August 22, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Saber Yezli, Mark van der Linden, Robert Booy, Badriah AlOtaibi Source Type: research

Knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) survey regarding antibiotic use among pilgrims attending the 2015 Hajj mass gathering
Overuse and misuse of antibiotics have been reported in Hajj. However, little is known about Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) of pilgrims themselves in relation to these agents. (Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease)
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - August 14, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Saber Yezli, Yara Yassin, Abdulaziz Mushi, Fuad Maashi, Nibras Aljabri, Gamal Mohamed, Kingsley Bieh, Awam Awam, Badriah Alotaibi Source Type: research

Rickettsia massiliae infection after a tick bite on the eyelid
Dear Editor, we read with interest the paper [1] describing diverse rickettsial infections in Croatia and would like to describe a case of Rickettsia massiliae infection and highlight previously reported cases of this unusual infection. (Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease)
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - August 13, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Carole Eldin, Giulio Virgili, Luciano Attard, Sophie Edouard, Pierluigi Viale, Didier Raoult, Philippe Parola Source Type: research

Two cases of imported hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and systematic review of literature
Many factors are involved in the epidemiology of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). Imported cases, as well as those by emigrants, have been reported in literature worldwide. Our goal is to document two cases of HFRS, imported by two immigrants from two countries, and to make a review of the imported HFRS literature data. We performed a systematic literature review (PRISMA guidelines) of imported cases of HFRS and herein describe our two clinical cases. We found 20 published papers, with 16 of them in English and 4 in other languages. (Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease)
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - August 13, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Edmond Puca, Migena Qato, Pellumb Pipero, Ilir Akshija, Majlinda Kote, Dhimiter Kraja Source Type: research

Polio priority countries and the 2018 Hajj: Leveraging an opportunity
During the past three decades, since the 1988 World Health Assembly resolution to eradicate polio, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) efforts have decreased global polio incidence by 99.9%. GPEI efforts have benefitted over 16 million people who would otherwise have been paralysed, and approximately 1.5 million people whose lives would otherwise have been lost [1]. Now the task remains to tackle poliovirus transmission in its last few strongholds through parallel pursuits of wild poliovirus (WPV) eradication and vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) transmission elimination [2,3]. (Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease)
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - August 7, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Habida Elachola, Rohit A. Chitale, Shahul H. Ebrahim, Steve G.F. Wassilak, Ziad A. Memish Source Type: research

Nipah strikes in India; an urgent call for outbreak preparedness in Pakistan
We refer transmission of infections in India which have implications for Pakistan [1]. As compared to Pakistan, the range and burden of infectious diseases are enormous in India including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) contagion in 2002 –2003, Influenza A virus epidemic of 2006 (avian influenza), 2007 Equine influenza, Swine flu pandemic outbreaks in 2009 and 2014 [2]. Moreover, episodes of infectious diseases continue to rise in India, with a recent surge of chikungunya and dengue cases in 2016 [1]. (Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease)
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - August 3, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tauqeer Hussain Mallhi, Yusra Habib Khan, Tahir Mehmood Khan Source Type: research

Hepatitis A in Switzerland: An analysis of 29 years of surveillance data and contemporary challenges
Hepatitis A (HA) incidence declined in most European countries in the past decades. We analysed HA notification data for Switzerland of 29 years looking for disease- and notification system-related factors possibly contributing to observed trends. (Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease)
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - August 2, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Claudia Schmutz, Daniel M äusezahl, Marianne Jost Source Type: research

A “lipo-tourist” with chronic cutaneous lesions after surgery in Ecuador: A diagnostic challenge
A 32-year-old woman had an abdominoplasty and mammoplasty surgery in Ecuador. Following surgery, pruritic and slightly suppurative nodular lesions appeared over the abdominal and mammary scars. During the following months, satellite papules and nodules arose on distant sites. All bacterial cultures performed grew methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and she received oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, levofloxacin and topical fusidic acid without improvement. She moved to Spain and was evaluated at our hospital two years after the surgery. (Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease)
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - August 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jara Llenas-Garc ía, José Vicente, Ma Montserrat Ruiz-García, Isabel Valencia-Ramírez, Mar Masiá Source Type: research

Microorganisms @ materials surfaces in aircraft: Potential risks for public health? – A systematic review
Civil air travel is increasingly recognized as an important potential source for the rapid spread of infectious diseases that were geographically confined in the past, creating international epidemics with great health and socio-economic impact. (Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease)
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - July 26, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bin Zhao, Carolin Dewald, Max Hennig, J örg Bossert, Michael Bauer, Mathias W. Pletz, Klaus D. Jandt Source Type: research

Utility of tuberculin skin test and IGRA for tuberculosis screening in internationally adopted children: Retrospective analysis from a single center in Florence, Italy
Most of internationally adopted children (IAC) come from countries in which tuberculosis (TB) is endemic. Interpretation of discordant Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) and Quantiferon-Gold In Tube (QFT) results is under debate. (Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease)
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - July 24, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Maria Vincenza Mastrolia, Sara Sollai, Camilla Totaro, Pasqua Putignano, Maurizio de Martino, Luisa Galli, Elena Chiappini Source Type: research

Utility of tuberculin skin test and IGRA for tuberculosis screening ininternationally adopted children: Retrospective analysis from a single center in florence, Italy
Most of internationally adopted children (IAC) come from countries in which tuberculosis (TB) is endemic. Interpretation of discordant Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) and Quantiferon-Gold In Tube (QFT) results is under debate. (Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease)
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - July 24, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Maria Vincenza Mastrolia, Sara Sollai, Camilla Totaro, Pasqua Putignano, Maurizio de Martino, Luisa Galli, Elena Chiappini Source Type: research

Could antibiotic treatment of traveller's diarrhoea even prolong elimination of pathogens?
The recent report by L ääveri et al. rightfully questions the liberal use of antibiotics (AB) for the treatment of traveller's diarrhoea (TD) [1]. It may shorten symptoms; however, the clinical benefit remains debatable. While AB may be indicated for immunocompromised individuals [2], the general use is doubtful, unless the TD is bloody and medical help cannot be immediately obtained. Of note, “severe diarrhoea” as criterion for AB use is dubious, as the case of norovirus infections demonstrate. (Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease)
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - July 17, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Thomas Hanscheid, Martin P. Grobusch Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Severe imported falciparum malaria – Clinical and drug supply challenges
We read with interest a case series on a cohort of Italian patients with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria treated in the intensive care unit with predominantly positive outcomes [1]. In light of lengthy processes of approval from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for drugs which are already routinely prescribed around the world, it has come to our attention that patients may not be receiving potentially life-saving antimalarial agents quickly enough to prevent rapid dissemination of parasite burden and eventual progression of disease. (Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease)
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - July 16, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Albert Anastasio, James Malcolm, Tommy T. Thomas, Tushar Patil Source Type: research

Slovakia reports highest occurrence of alimentary tick-borne encephalitis in Europe: Analysis of tick-borne encepahlitis outbreaks in Slovakia during 2007 –2016
Slovakia is well-known for tick-borne encephalitis alimentary (TBE) outbreaks in Europe for a long time. Since the first known and largest TBE alimentary outbreak in 1951 (at territory of Slovakia) until today, none of the European countries report a comparable number of TBE alimentary outbreaks with probable and laboratory confirmed food transmission factor as Slovakia. (Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease)
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - July 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jana Kerlik, M ária Avdičová, Mária Štefkovičová, Veronika Tarkovská, Martina Pántiková Valachová, Tomáš Molčányi, Roman Mezencev Source Type: research

Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae human infection: A diagnostic challenge
A 42-year-old female patient, with no prior medical history, and living in Les Pennes-Mirabeau, 20 km north of Marseille, southern France, was admitted to our emergency department, on July 30th, 2016. She had a 5-day history of fever, associated with fatigue, headaches and arthromyalgia. She mentioned an itching maculopapular rash that preceded the fever on July 24th along with two necrotic right upper quadrant skin lesions that were initially vesicular. She reported no recent travel, forest hiking or gardening though she had a garden. (Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease)
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - July 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pierre Rajoelison, Oleg Mediannikov, Emilie Javelle, Didier Raoult, Philippe Parola, Olivier Aoun Source Type: research

Seasonal variation in travel health information seeking
We recently evaluated access to yellow fever centres in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland [1] and have now completed an analysis of information seeking behaviours among users of a national travel health website. (Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease)
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - July 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jakob Petersen, Hilary Simons, Lisa Ford, Dipti Patel Source Type: research

From Hajj services to Mass Gathering Medicine: Saudi Arabia formalizes a novel discipline
As 2018 hajj season nears in August 2018, the global public health community faces the challenge of preparing the pilgrims for this occasion with all the preventative measures detailed in a recently published report [1]. Advancing pilgrim hosting as a top national strategy and civic duty. (Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease)
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - July 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Qanta A. Ahmed, Shahul Ebrahim, Ziad A. Memish Source Type: research

Outbreak of West Nile Virus disease in Israel (2015): A retrospective analysis of notified cases
West Nile Virus (WNV) is mosquito-borne virus that is endemic in Israel. In 2015, national disease surveillance demonstrated a sharp increase in disease cases, with 149 cases diagnosed. (Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease)
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - July 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Matanelle Salama, Ziva Amitai, Yaniv Lustig, Zohar Mor, Miriam Weiberger, Michal Chowers, Shlomo Maayan, Oren Zimhony, Ronen Ben-Ami, Bibiana Chazan, Nelly Zaltzman-Bershadsky, Regev Cohen, Evgenia Tsyba, Rivka Sheffer, Emilia Anis, Yael Glazer, Silvia Pe Source Type: research

Rabies pre-exposure prophylaxis: A 10-year experience of vaccination in international travelers
Letter to the editor of Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease. (Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease)
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - July 10, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eugene M. Tan, Abinash Virk, Sumit K. Agarwal, Jasmine R. Marcelin Source Type: research

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This book has been on my desk for a couple of weeks now and a number of people have enquired if I am resorted to reading comics. Indeed, the front cover is in comic-book style but this is actually a valuable and yes, sometimes, comic guide to infectious disease information. The format is simple but successful. On the left-hand page, the essential information on a particular infection is briefly summarized providing the name of the infection, synonyms, causative agent, lifecycle, incubation, geographic distribution, brief description of transmission pathways, symptoms of the infection, diagnostic testing and treatment. (Sou...
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - July 2, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Patricia Schlagenhauf Tags: Book review Source Type: research