Assessment of Socio-demographic Profile, Pattern, and Outcomes of Poisoning Cases in Emergency Department of A Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital – A Prospective Study
Conclusion It is observed that the pesticides are the most common agents implicated in intentional as well accidental poisonings. Providing immediate information on management of poisoning cases results in better treatment outcomes. Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 23, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Application of Mulberry nigra to absorb heavy metal, mercury, from the environment of green space city
Publication date: Available online 21 May 2018 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Seyed Armin Hashemi, Sahar Tabibian Phytoremediation is one of the methods for Bioremediation of the soils which has been noticed in recent decades. Two years sapling of Mulberry nigra selected and Mercury(II) nitrate solution with 30,50 and 70 mg/L concentrations, after add solutions in to soil of sapling Mulberry nigra, eight months’ later leaf, stem and roots were selected and Measuring mercury was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. The maximum level of mercury accumulation in the leaf, stem and root was 55.67, 50 and...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 22, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Assessment of metal levels in foodstuffs from the Region of Valencia Region (Spain)
Publication date: Available online 21 May 2018 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Silvia Marín, Olga Pardo, Alfredo Sanchez, Yovana Sanchis, Dinoraz Vélez, Vicenta Devesa, Guillermina Font, Vicent Yusà Concentrations of lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic, tin, copper and chromium were measured in a study carried out in 2010-2011. A total of 8100 food samples were collected and composite samples for 12 food groups were analysed for metal concentration levels. Metal levels were, in general, below the maximum levels set by the current European legislation. The fish group presented the highest Cd, Hg and A...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 22, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Kobophenol A Isolated from Roots of Caragana sinica (Buc ’hoz) Rehder Exhibits Anti-inflammatory Activity by Regulating NF-κB Nuclear Translocation in J774A.1 Cells
This study aims to find out whether KPA isolated from roots of C. sinica can act as a potential substance on inflammation and analyze the molecular mechanism using the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated J774 A.1 macrophage cell line. We showed that KPA treatment significantly suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO) by inhibiting inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity. In the KPA also inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression and production, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in LPS-stimulated J774 A.1 cells. As c...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 19, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Evaluation of Genotoxicity of Euphorbia triaculeata Forssk. extract on Mice Bone Marrow Cells in vivo
This study also deals with the effect of E. triaculeata on the standard drug cyclophosphamide (CP) treatment in mice. Three different doses 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight were selected. In micronucleus assay, single oral dose administration of Euphorbia triaculeata extract at the three doses did not increase the number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. Similarly, a single oral administration of Euphorbia triaculeata extract showed no significant changes on mitotic indices or in induction of chromosomal aberrations in mice bone marrow cells. Pretreatment with E. triaculeata extract significantly reduced t...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 18, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Acute toxicity of water and aqueous extract of soils from Champot ón river in Lactuca sativa L.
Publication date: Available online 17 May 2018 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Carlos A. Chan-Keb, Claudia M. Agraz-Hernández, Roman A. Perez-Balan, Mónica I. Gómez-Solano, Teresita DNJ Maldonado-Montiel, Baldemar Ake-Canche, Eduardo J. Gutiérrez-Alcántara The seeds germination, stem and root elongation of water lettuces (Lactuca sativa L) were used to evaluate the phytotoxicity of water and soil of Champotón River, Campeche, Mexico. water and soil sample were collected from two sampling sites. Lettuce seeds were exposed to three different dilutions of water and aqueous extra...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 17, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

HPLC-DAD Fingerprinting analysis, antioxidant activities of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray Leaves and its inhibition of Key enzymes linked to Alzheimer ’s disease
This study characterized the phenolic constituents, evaluated the antioxidant properties of phenolic extracts from T. diversifolia leaves used as traditional medicine in Africa and its inhibition of key enzymes linked to Alzheimer’s disease. The extract was rich in phenolic acids (gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid) and flavonoids (apigenin) and had 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil radical scavenging abilities (IC50 = 41.05 µg. mL-1), 2,2-Azino-bis3-ethylbenthiazoline-6sulphonic acid radical scavenging ability (IC50 = 33.51 µg. mL-1), iron chelation (IC50 = 38.50...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 16, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Capsaicinoids improve consequences of physical activity
Publication date: Available online 15 May 2018 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Kazim Sahin, Cemal Orhan, Mehmet Tuzcu, Nurhan Sahin, Fusun Erten, Vijaya Juturu The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of capsaicinoids (CAPs) on lipid metabolism, inflammation, antioxidant status and the changes in gene products involved in these metabolic functions in exercised rats. A total of 28 male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 7) (i) No exercise and no CAPs, (ii) No exercise + CAPs (iii) Regular exercise, (iv) Regular exercise + CAPs. Rats were administered as 0.2 mg ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 16, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The return of an old nemesis: Survival after severe tricyclic antidepressant toxicity, a case report
Publication date: 2018 Source:Toxicology Reports, Volume 5 Author(s): Al Giwa, Edwin Oey Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) were first approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use as antidepressants in the 1950s. Although their function as an antidepressant in the U.S. has largely been replaced by newer and safer alternatives, they are still prescribed for various conditions, including chronic pain and intractable depression. We will discuss a case of a TCA overdose presenting with generalized tonic-clonic seizures and multiple recurrent cardiac arrests. This is a case of a 34 year-old female who was brought i...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 9, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Bio-evaluation of crustacean and fungal nano-chitosan for applying as food ingredient
Publication date: 2018 Source:Toxicology Reports, Volume 5 Author(s): Osama M. Darwesh, Yousef Y. Sultan, Mohamed M. Seif, Diaa A. Marrez Chitosan, bio-polyaminosacharide, is derived from chitin. Two sources (shrimp wastes and fungus biomass) were used to produce chitosan. And then the chitosan was produced in the nano-form followed by characterization by transmission electron microscopy. The images obtained clearly showed that the size of nano-chitosan ranged between 7 and 13 and 3–6 nm with spherical shape for shrimp and fungal sources, respectively. The antimicrobial activities of the tested concentrations of c...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 9, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Hematologic and serologic status of military working dogs given standard diet containing natural botanical supplements
Publication date: 2018 Source:Toxicology Reports, Volume 5 Author(s): Eunchae Lee, Jun-Ha Choi, Ha-Jeong Jeong, Sung-Gu Hwang, Sangrak Lee, Jae-Wook Oh The health of military working dogs (MWDs) deployed with Korean troops is of prime importance. The aim of our study was to investigate the hematologic and serologic status of Korean MWDs given natural botanical supplements. To do this, 11 natural botanicals were selected based on relevant references and combined to supplement MWDs. Throughout the 16-week experimental periods, there was no significant difference in body weights of individual dogs. The Hemoglobin (HGB), hema...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 9, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Phytofabrication of Silver nanoparticles: Novel Drug to overcome hepatocellular ailments
This study aimed to treat hepatocellular ailments with biologically prepared silver nanoparticle (AgNPs). AgNPs were formulated using Morus alba leaf extract and their synthesis and characterization were determined by UV–visible spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Scanning Electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Zeta analysis. In vitro studies on HepG2 cell lines for cytotoxic effect and in vivo studies in a rat model for hepatoprotective effect were carried out using biologically prepared AgNPs as curing agents. Dose response cytotoxic...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 9, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Acetonic extract of Vernonia amygdalina (Del.) attenuates Cd-induced liver injury: Potential application in adjuvant heavy metal therapy
This study aimed at determining the effects of acetonic extract of Vernonia amygdalina leaf (AEVAL) in a Wistar rat model of Cd-induced liver injury. Phytochemical screening of the extract was carried out and its oral LD50 was determined to guide the choice of therapeutic doses. Thereafter, thirty male Wistar rats were recruited for this study. The experimental groups received 4 weeks oral graded doses of the extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) following Cd-induced liver injury. Cd-induced liver injury (5 mg/kg i.p for 5 consecutive days) was characterized by deleterious alterations in the levels of AST, ALT, ALP, total b...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 9, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Montivipera bornmuelleri venom has immunomodulatory effects mainly up-regulating pro-inflammatory cytokines in the spleens of mice
This study also shows that 1 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg of M. bornmuelleri venom are able to modulate the levels of cytokines in the spleen of mice, as assessed by ELISA. In fact, this snake’s venom up-regulates TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1ß and IL-17 with a trend in decreasing IL-4 and IL-10. Therefore, by favoring Th1 and Th17 over Th2 and Treg responses, M. bornmuelleri venom might have important clinical implication especially in the field of cancer immunotherapy. Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 9, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Efficacy of Lactobacillus plantarum in prevention of inflammatory bowel disease
Publication date: 2018 Source:Toxicology Reports, Volume 5 Author(s): Bao Le, Seung Hwan Yang The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing globally. Altered gut bacteria and bacterial metabolic pathways are two important factors in the initiation and progression of IBD. Lactobacillus plantarum is distributed in a variety of ecological niches, has a proven ability to survive gastric transit, and can colonize the intestinal tract of human and other mammals. Several studies have described the effects of L. plantarum consumption on human physiology. This review summarizes the safety and the effects of L. pl...
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 14, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Dose-dependent effects on rat liver miRNAs 200a/b and 429: potential early biomarkers of liver carcinogenesis
Publication date: 2018 Source:Toxicology Reports, Volume 5 Author(s): S.M. Plummer, J. Wright, R.A. Currie An increased incidence of liver tumours in the long term rodent bioassay is not an uncommon finding, invariably as a result of a non-genotoxic mode of action. Non-genotoxic liver carcinogenesis has been found to involve activation of certain nuclear hormone receptors (NHR) including the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) and arylhydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and more recently the induction of specific microRNAs (miRs), has also been demonstrated following...
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 14, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Exposure to sub-lethal dose of a combination insecticide during early embryogenesis influences the normal patterning of mesoderm resulting in incomplete closure of ventral body wall of chicks of domestic hen
Publication date: 2018 Source:Toxicology Reports, Volume 5 Author(s): Shashikant Sharma, Gowri K. Uggini, Venus Patel, Isha Desai, Suresh Balakrishnan Pesticide exposure to the non target groups especially during embryonic development has quite often resulted in congenital malformations. A commercially available combination insecticide (Ci, 50% chlorpyrifos and 5% cypermethrin) is known to induce ventral body wall defects (VBWDs) wherein abdominal viscera protrude out of the ventral body wall. Herein, an attempt was made to understand the mechanistic insight into Ci induced VBWDs. For this, before incubation, the chick em...
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 14, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Dietary soy isoflavones during pregnancy suppressed the immune function in male offspring albino rats
In conclusion, male offspring born to dams fed different levels of soy isoflavones showed marked immunosuppression after PHA stimulation. This effect was mediated through the reduced IFN-γ that interacts with the IL-12 production pathway. Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 14, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish species from the Meiliang Bay, Taihu Lake, China
Publication date: 2018 Source:Toxicology Reports, Volume 5 Author(s): Sivakumar Rajeshkumar, Xiaoyu Li In the present study, the bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Cd, Pb) content were determined in freshwater edible fishes Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus and Pelteobagrus fluvidraco, which were caught from the Meiliang Bay, Taihu Lake, a large, shallow and eutrophic lake of China. The results showed that the Cr, Cu, Cd and Pb content in the edible parts of the two fish species were much lower than Chinese Food Health Criterion (1994). However, the results showed marked differences in the four analyzed metal content between...
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 14, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The consequence of NAC on sodium arsenite-induced uterine oxidative stress
We examined the electrozymographic imprint of three different enzymatic antioxidants in uterine tissue. Rats fed with sodium arsenite exhibited a significant lessening in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Uterine DNA breakage, necrosis, ovarian and uterine tissue damage, disruption in steroidogenesis were also found in arsenic treated rats. Co-administration of NAC at different doses (50 mg/kg body weight, 100 mg/kg body weight, respectively) significantly reversed the action of uterine oxidative stress markers like malondialdehyde (MDA), conjugated dienes (CD) and...
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 14, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Protective role of Emblica officinalis hydro-ethanolic leaf extract in cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in Rats
Publication date: 2018 Source:Toxicology Reports, Volume 5 Author(s): Rupal Purena, Rohit Seth, Renu Bhatt Nephrotoxicity is a major limiting factor in cisplatin treatment. In the present study hydro-ethanolic leaf extract of Emblica officinalis was investigated for its protective role in cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity. The experiment was designed for 14 days and male Wistar rats were divided into 9 groups (n = 5). Group 1 served as control (with no treatment), group 2 served as a vehicle control and received 0.9% NaCl intraperitoneally (i.p.) on 11th day of the treatment, group 3 received a single dose of cisplat...
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 14, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Nevada desert dust with heavy metals suppresses IgM antibody production
Publication date: 2018 Source:Toxicology Reports, Volume 5 Author(s): Deborah E. Keil, Brenda Buck, Dirk Goossens, Brett McLaurin, Lacey Murphy, Mallory Leetham-Spencer, Yuanxin Teng, James Pollard, Russell Gerads, Jamie C. DeWitt Systemic health effects from exposure to a complex natural dust containing heavy metals from the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area (NDRA) near Las Vegas, NV, were evaluated. Several toxicological parameters were examined following lung exposure to emissive dust from three geologic sediment types heavily used for recreational off-road activities: yellow sand very rich in arsenic (termed CBN 5); a shal...
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 14, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Assessment of the antioxidant and antimutagenic activity of extracts from goji berry of Greek cultivation
Publication date: 2018 Source:Toxicology Reports, Volume 5 Author(s): Prodromos Skenderidis, Efthalia Kerasioti, Eleftheria Karkanta, Dimitrios Stagos, Demetrios Kouretas, Konstantinos Petrotos, Christos Hadjichristodoulou, Andreas Tsakalof The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of ultrasound assisted aqueous extracts from dry goji berry fruits cultivated in Greece. The extracts’ free radical scavenging activity was assessed by the DPPH and ABTS + assays. The results from both assays demonstrated that the extracts exhibited strong radical scavenging activity with IC50 values...
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 14, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Whole-food phytochemicals antioxidative potential in alloxan-diabetic rats
Conclusion Whole foods containing naturally occurring phytochemicals and antioxidant vitamins such as legumes and whole grains are recommended, alongside medication, for controlling hyperglycaemia, blood lipids and oxidative status in diabetes. Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 14, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Acute and sub acute studies of catechol derivatives from Semecarpus anacardium
Publication date: 2018 Source:Toxicology Reports, Volume 5 Author(s): Ramalingam Sundaram, Muthu Karuppaiah, Palanivelu Shanthi, Panchanatham Sachdanandam The present study was aimed at evaluating the acute and subacute toxicity of catechol derivatives (I–IV, isolated from Semecarpus anacardium nuts) in Wistar Albino rats. In acute study (14 days), catechol derivatives I–IV 800 mg/kg caused no behavioral adverse effects and mortality. Fifty percent (LD50) of mortality was observed in catechol derivatives I–III (1600 mg/kg b.wt) and catechol derivative IV (1250 mg/kg b.wt). In subacute study, dail...
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 14, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Morphologic and chemical composition of particulate matter in motorcycle engine exhaust
In conclusion, it can be pointed out that the agglomeration of particles can lead to the reduction in the toxicity of particles emissions originated from two wheeled-vehicles. Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 14, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Mutagenicity comparison of nine bioselenocompounds in three Salmonella typhimurium strains
In this study, we evaluated the mutagenicity of nine naturally occurring Se compounds or the so-called bioselenocompounds, including selenite, selenate, selenocyanate, selenomethionine, selenocystine, Se-methylselenocysteine, selenohomolanthionine, N-acetylgalactosamine-type selenosugar, and trimethylselenonium ion, by using the Ames test. Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, and TA1535 were used for the mutagenicity evaluation in the presence or absence of S9 mix, a metabolic activator. Only selenate showed weak mutagenicity even in the absence of S9 mix. None of the bioselenocompounds except selenate exhibited mutagenicit...
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 14, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Moringa oleifera extract (Lam) attenuates Aluminium phosphide-induced acute cardiac toxicity in rats
Conclusions This study suggested that Moringa oleifera extract could possibly restore the altered cardiac histopathology and some antioxidant power in AlP intoxicated rats, and it could even be used as adjuvant therapy against AlP-induced cardiotoxicity. Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 14, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Mutagenicity and genotoxicity of ClearTaste
Publication date: 2018 Source:Toxicology Reports, Volume 5 Author(s): B.K. Soni, J.P. Langan The present study investigates whether ClearTaste is mutagenic/genotoxic by employing it as a test article in bacterial reverse mutation (Ames test) and in vitro human peripheral blood lymphocyte micronucleus assays conducted by a Good Laboratory Practice certified third party as parameterized by the United States Food and Drug Administration. ClearTaste is a taste modulator derived from the filtrate of submerged Cordyceps sinensis and is typically processed into a powder. It functions as a bitter, sour, astringency, metallic and ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 14, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Acute and subacute (28  days) toxicity, hemolytic and cytotoxic effect of Artocarpus heterophyllus seed extracts
Conclusions With this results we can conclude that Artocarpus heterophyllus seeds presents no toxicity, and is very effective in determinated cancer cell lines, requiring further studies to validate their use as active natural product against cancer cells. Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 14, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Treatment of Acetaminophen Overdose in an Adolescent Female with Delayed Presentation: A Case Report
We describe a 14-year-old female with no significant past medical history who presented 12 hours after ingesting 15 grams (291.8 mg/kg) of acetaminophen. Despite her treatment with NAC, the patient developed severe hepatotoxicity and risk of hepatic failure. Discussion NAC is less efficacious in preventing severe hepatotoxicity when given after 12–24 hours after acetaminophen ingestion. However, due to the favorable side effect profile of NAC, it is our opinion that it should be administered to all patients with known or suspected acetaminophen ingestion, despite having a delayed presentation, unknown serum con...
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 14, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Cissus quadrangularis extract (CQR-300) inhibits lipid accumulation by downregulating adipogenesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells
The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-obesity activity and the action mechanism of Cissus quadrangularis extracts (CQR-300) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Cissus quadrangularis was extracted with hot water, resulting in CQR-300. The anti-obesity activity of CQR-300 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes was examined by Oil-red O staining. Possible mechanisms of CQR-300 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were determined by real-time PCR and western blot. Treatment with CQR-300 inhibited lipid accumulation without showing cytotoxicity to 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Furthermore, CQR-300 decreased adipogenesis/lipogenesis-related mRNA expression levels of fatty...
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 14, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Effects of formaldehyde exposure on the development of pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin in mice
In conclusion our study showed that FA exposure aggravates the lung neutrophils influx and collagen production, but did not alter the lung elastance, mucus production, oedema and interstitial tickening. This work contributes to understand the effects of pollution in the development of PF. Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 14, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

What is the meaning of ‘A compound is carcinogenic’?
Publication date: Available online 7 April 2018 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Schrenk Dieter Chemical Carcinogens are compounds which can cause cancer in humans and experimental animals. This property is attributed to many chemicals in the public discussion, resulting in a widespread perception of danger and threat. In contrast, a scientific analysis of the wide and non-critical use of the term ‚carcinogenic’ is warranted. First, it has to be clarified if the compound acts in a genotoxic or non-genotoxic manner. In the latter case, an ineffective (safe) threshold dose without cancer risk can be assumed....
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 14, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Anti-allergic activity of ethanol extractives of Quisqualis Indica Linn. by In-vitro compound 48/80 induced mast cell degranulation and In-vivo Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) model
Publication date: Available online 10 April 2018 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Rajnish Srivastava, Deepa Chaudhary, Hemant Nagar, Harinarayan Singh Chandel The present study was aimed to investigate the anti-allergic potential of ethanol extractives of Quisqualis indica Linn. (EEQI) by in-vitro and in-vivo murine models. In-vitro study was done on de-granulated mesenteric mast cells induced by compound 48/80 and in-vivo study was done by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) model. In the in-vitro study degranulated mesenteric cells were grouped into negative control (compound 48/80 treated), positive control (Disodi...
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 14, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Evaluation of the systemic toxicity and mutagenicity of OLIGOPIN ®, procyanidolic oligomers (OPC) extracted from French Maritime Pine Bark Extract
Publication date: Available online 10 April 2018 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): L Segal, MG Penman, Y Piriou The potential systemic toxicity of Oligopin®, a French Maritime Pine Bark extract (FMPBE) rich in procyanidolic oligomers, was evaluated in an acute oral limit test and a 90-day repeated dose oral toxicity study with Sprague-Dawley rats. The potential mutagenicity was assessed in a bacterial reverse mutation assay and in vitro mammalian chromosome aberration assay with human lymphocytes. The results indicate that Oligopin® was nongenotoxic in both bacterial and human cell assays, was not acutely toxic...
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 14, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Development, qualification, validation and application of the Ames test using a VITROCELL ® VC10® smoke exposure system
Publication date: Available online 12 April 2018 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Kathy Fowler, Wanda Fields, Victoria Hargreaves, Lesley Reeve, Betsy Bombick The Ames test has established use in the assessment of potential mutagenicity of tobacco products but has generally been performed using partitioned exposures (e.g. total particulate matter [TPM], gas vapor phase [GVP]) rather than whole smoke (WS). The VITROCELL®VC10® smoke exposure system offers multiple platforms for air liquid interface (ALI), or air agar interface (AAI) in the case of the Ames test exposure to mimic in vivo-like conditions for asses...
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 14, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Malathion, an organophosphate insecticide, provokes metabolic, histopathologic and molecular disorders in liver and kidney in prepubertal male mice
Publication date: Available online 9 January 2018 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Slimen Selmi, Kais Rtibi, Dhekra Grami, Hichem sebai, Lamjed Marzouki The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of malathion exposure on oxidative stress, functional and metabolic parameters in kidney and liver of prepubertal male mice. For this reason, two separated groups of prepubertal male mice were used in this experiment. Animals were divided into two groups, group 1 served as a control and received the corn oil and group 2 was treated with 200 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) of malathion for 30 days. In result, we foun...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 10, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Application of mutagen sensitivity assay in a glioma case-control study
In this study, MSA was used to assess its applicability to a glioma case-control study and to test the hypothesis that subjects with glioma may have lower DNA repair capacity after exposure to selected potential human neurocarcinogens (i.e. acrylamide), compared to controls. Approximately 50 case and 50 control subjects were identified from a clinic-based study that investigated environmental risk factors for glioma, who completed an exposure survey, and had frozen immortalized lymphocytes available. A total of 50 metaphase spreads were read and reported for each participant. The association of case-control status with MSA...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 9, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

28-day inhalation toxicity of 3-methoxybutyl chloroformate in rats
Publication date: Available online 9 January 2018 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Hyeon-Yeong Kim, Eun-Sang Cho The 28-day repeated inhalation study was applied for hazard assessment of 3-methoxybutyl chloroformate (3-MBCF) in Sprague Dawley rats. Groups of five rats per sex were exposed 6 h/day, 5 days per week for 4 weeks to test substance concentration (ranging from 3 to 12 ppm) using a whole-body exposure system. At the terminal sacrifice, following blood collection and gross pathological examination, organ weights were determined and fixed organs were examined. The micronucleus test was performed using bon...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 9, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Interaction of anthraquinones of Cassia occidentalis seeds with DNA and Glutathione
Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Gati Krushna Panigrahi, Neeraj Verma, Nivedita Singh, Somya Asthana, Shailendra K. Gupta, Anurag Tripathi, Mukul Das Consumption of Cassia occidentalis (CO) seeds has been associated with the hepatomyoencephalopathy (HME) in children. Recently, we have characterized the toxic anthraquinones (AQs) such as Emodin, Rhein, Aloe-emodin, Chrysophanol and Physcion in CO seeds and detected these moieties in the bio fluids of CO poisoning cases. As AQs were detected in the serum of HME patients, their interaction with key biomolecules including ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 4, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Clarification and Lessons Learned for Reporting Studies with Hydrates. Citation: Roberts et al., 2016. Toxicology Reports 3: 531 –538
Publication date: Available online 30 December 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Georgia K. Roberts, Matthew D. Stout, Brian Sayers, Dawn M. Fallacara, Milton R. Hejtmancik, Suramya Waidyanatha, Michelle J. Hooth (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 31, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxicity of formulants and heavy metals in glyphosate-based herbicides and other pesticides
Publication date: Available online 30 December 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): N. Defarge, J. Spiroux de Vendômois, G.E. Séralini The major pesticides of the world are glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH), and their toxicity is highly debated. To understand their mode of action, the comparative herbicidal and toxicological effects of glyphosate (G) alone and 14 of its formulations were studied in this work, as a model for pesticides. GBH are mixtures of water, with commonly 36–48% G claimed as the active principle. As with other pesticides, 10–20% of GBH consist of chemical formulants. We p...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 31, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Nigella sativa oil protects against tartrazine toxicity in male rats
This study aimed to evaluate the protective role of Nigella sativa oil against the adverse effects of tartrazine on male rats. 18 albino rats were divided randomly into four groups (n = 6). The first (G1) is the negative control, the second group (G2) is the positive control received 10 mg/kg b.w. tartrazine in the diet and the third (G3) received the same dose of tartrazine as in G2 and co-treated with Nigella sativa oil for 8 weeks. Tartrazine decreased total protein, antioxidants and high density lipoproteins, whereas increased liver enzyme, kidney function parameters, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 29, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Assessing heavy metal toxicity in sediments of Chennai Coast of Tamil Nadu using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (EDXRF) with statistical approach
This study provides a relatively novel technique for identifying and mapping the distribution of metal pollutants and their sources in sediment. Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 28, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Imidacloprid exposure cause the histopathological changes, activation of TNF- α, iNOS, 8-OHdG biomarkers, and alteration of caspase 3, iNOS, CYP1A, MT1 gene expression levels in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)
Publication date: Available online 27 December 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Selçuk Özdemir, Serdar Altun, Harun Arslan Imidacloprid (IMI) is a neonicotinoid that is widely used for the protection of crops and carnivores from insects and parasites, respectively. It is well known that imidacloprid exposure has a harmful effect on several organisms. However, there is little information about imidacloprid toxicity in aquatic animals, particularly fish. Thus, in the current study, we assessed the histopathological changes; activation of iNOS, 8-OHdG and TNF-α; and expression levels of caspase 3, ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 28, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Aging related changes in circulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) and protein carbonyls are indicative of liver oxidative injury
Publication date: Available online 21 December 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Cristina Luceri, Elisabetta Bigagli, Angelo Pietro Femia, Giovanna Caderni, Lisa Giovannelli, Maura Lodovici Oxidative stress, defined as an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defense mechanisms, plays a major role in inducing oxidative damage and cellular impairment, resulting in a general decline of the physiological functions. The aim of this work was to evaluate age-related changes in circulating ROS levels and plasma protein carbonyls, in very young (2 months aged), young (8 months a...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 22, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Antimutagenic activity of compounds isolated from Ajuga bracteosa Wall ex. Benth against EMS induced mutagenicity in mice
Publication date: Available online 22 December 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Hilal Ahmad Ganaie, Md. Niamat Ali, Bashir A Ganai, Samirul Bashir Ajuga bracteosa Wall ex. Benth. (Lamiaceae) has been reported to possess many biological activities including antibacterial, antifungal, antispasmodic, and antioxidant activity but there is no report as such on its mutagenic and/or anti-mutagenic activity. The aim of the present study was to isolate compounds from the methanol extract of the aerial parts of Ajuga bracteosa and determine their anti-mutagenic activity against the mutagen, EMS in animal model mice. The st...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 22, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Diclofenac – induced hepatotoxicity: Low dose of omega-3 fatty acids have more protective effects
In conclusion, the pre-administration of N-3, preferably at a low dose, could reduce hepatotoxicity that could result from subsequent exposure to DF. Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 22, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Sex-dependent impact of Roundup on the rat gut microbiome
In conclusion, we revealed that an environmental concentration of R (0.1 ppb) and other two concentrations (400 ppm and 5,000 ppm) have a sex-dependent impact on rat gut microbiome composition and thus warrants further investigation. Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 20, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research