NiO nanoparticles induce cytotoxicity mediated through ROS generation and impairing the antioxidant defense in the human lung epithelial cells (A549): Preventive effect of Pistacia lentiscus essential oil
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Khiari Mohamed, Kechrid Zine, Klibet Fahima, Elfeki Abdelfattah, Shaarani Md. Sharifudin, Krishnaiah DudukuAbstractNickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO NPs) have attracted increasing attention owing to potential capacity to penetrate to several human cell systems and exert a toxic effect. Elsewhere, the use of medicinal plants today is the form of the most widespread medicine worldwide. Utilizing aromatic plants as interesting source of phytochemicals constitute one of the largest scientific concerns. Thus this study was focused to investigate antioxidant and ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Essential oil from Cymbopogon flexuosus as the potential inhibitor for HSP90
This study shows the anticancer mechanism exhibited by the essential oil of C. flexuosus is by the inhibition of the important chaperone protein HSP90.Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Oral toxicity study of sports nutritional powder in Wistar rats: A 90 day repeated dose study
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Joby Jacob, Augustine Amalraj, Chandradhara Divya, Suresh Janadri, P.M. Manjunatha, Sreeraj GopiAbstractFitnox is a newly developed dietary ingredient for physical endurance composed of the extracts of Moinga oleifera leaf (45–50%), Kaempferia parviflora (black ginger) root (15–20%) and Punica granatum peel (25–30%). The aim of this study was to assess the subchronic oral toxicity of Fitnox (test substance) - in Wistar albino rats. Forty rats equally divided into 4 groups (control male, control female, treatment male and treatment female...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

What is the meaning of ‘A compound is carcinogenic’?
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Schrenk DieterAbstractChemical Carcinogens are compounds which can cause cancer in humans and experimental animals. This property is attributed to many chemicals in the public discussion, resulting in a widespread perception of danger and threat. In contrast, a scientific analysis of the wide and non-critical use of the term ‚carcinogenic’ is warranted. First, it has to be clarified if the compound acts in a genotoxic or non-genotoxic manner. In the latter case, an ineffective (safe) threshold dose without cancer risk can be assumed. In additi...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Effects of formaldehyde exposure on the development of pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin in mice
In conclusion our study showed that FA exposure aggravates the lung neutrophils influx and collagen production, but did not alter the lung elastance, mucus production, oedema and interstitial tickening. This work contributes to understand the effects of pollution in the development of PF.Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Biochemical effects of commercial feedstuffs on the fry of climbing perch (Anabas testudineus) and its impact on Swiss albino mice as an animal model
This study assesses the biochemical effects of commercially available fish feedstuffs on the fry of climbing perch (Anabas testudineus). Subsequently, its impact on experimental animal, Swiss albino mice, is also examined. In order to access the impact of commercial fish feed and feed consumption fish on the experimental animal, the proximate, biochemical and histopathological analyses were done using standard methods. The proximate composition as well as the concentrations of Pb, Ni, Mn, As, Zn, and Cd in the fish feed, different parts of the A. testudineus fish and different parts of the A. testudineus fish-treated exper...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Evaluation of the systemic toxicity and mutagenicity of OLIGOPIN®, procyanidolic oligomers (OPC) extracted from French Maritime Pine Bark extract
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): L Segal, MG Penman, Y PiriouAbstractThe potential systemic toxicity of Oligopin®, a French Maritime Pine Bark extract (FMPBE) rich in procyanidolic oligomers, was evaluated in an acute oral limit test and a 90-day repeated dose oral toxicity study with Sprague Dawley rats. The potential mutagenicity was assessed in a bacterial reverse mutation assay and in vitro mammalian chromosome aberration assay with human lymphocytes. The results indicate that Oligopin® was nongenotoxic in both bacterial and human cell assays, was not acutely toxic via oral a...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Development, qualification, validation and application of the Ames test using a VITROCELL® VC10® smoke exposure system
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Kathy Fowler, Wanda Fields, Victoria Hargreaves, Lesley Reeve, Betsy BombickAbstractThe Ames test has established use in the assessment of potential mutagenicity of tobacco products but has generally been performed using partitioned exposures (e.g. total particulate matter [TPM], gas vapor phase [GVP]) rather than whole smoke (WS). The VITROCELL®VC10® smoke exposure system offers multiple platforms for air liquid interface (ALI), or air agar interface (AAI) in the case of the Ames test exposure to mimic in vivo-like conditions for assessing the to...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Black bean peptides inhibit glucose uptake in Caco-2 adenocarcinoma cells by blocking the expression and translocation pathway of glucose transporters
The objective was to evaluate the effect of black bean protein fraction (PFRA), and its derived peptides on glucose uptake, SGLT1 and GLUT2 expression and translocation on Caco-2 cells. The effect of treatments was evaluated on glucose uptake, protein expression and localization and gene expression on Caco-2 cells. PFRA (10 mg/mL) lowered glucose uptake from 27.4% after 30 min to 33.9% after 180 min of treatment compared to untreated control (p 
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Influence of smoking and smoking cessation on levels of urinary 11-dehydro thromboxane B2
ConclusionsUrinary 11-dehydrothromboxaneB2 levels are increased in cigarette smokers, however, more data are needed to elucidate the effects of smoking cessation on urinary 11-dehydrothromboxaneB2 excretion. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Neuro- and nephroprotective effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract against carboplatin and thalidomide through modulation of inflammation, tumor suppressor protein p53, neurotransmitters, oxidative stress and histology
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Mokhtar Ibrahim Yousef, Dina K.A.M. Khalil, Heba M. AbdouAbstractThe combination of thalidomide and carboplatin is one of the most potent chemotherapeutic strategies for the treatment of cancer. However, limited studies have been conducted on the neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of both chemotherapeutic agents. The aim of our study was to assess the toxicity of thalidomide and carboplatin combination on brain and kidney and investigate the protective effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE). Thalidomide and carboplatin induced up-regulation of...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Methylmercury promotes breast cancer cell proliferation
Discussion and conclusionsClarifying the effects of MeHg on breast cancer will improve our understanding of how environmental toxins affect tumor progression and may lead to the development of future therapeutic strategies.Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

HPLC-DAD fingerprinting analysis, antioxidant activities of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray leaves and its inhibition of key enzymes linked to Alzheimer’s disease
This study characterized the phenolic constituents, evaluated the antioxidant properties of phenolic extracts from T. diversifolia leaves used as traditional medicine in Africa and its inhibition of key enzymes linked to Alzheimer’s disease. The extract was rich in phenolic acids (gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid) and flavonoids (apigenin) and had 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil radical scavenging abilities (IC50 = 41.05 μg. mL−1), 2,2-Azino-bis3-ethylbenthiazoline-6sulphonic acid radical scavenging ability (IC50 = 33.51 μg. mL−1), iron chelation (IC50 =...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Acute toxicity of water and aqueous extract of soils from Champotón river in Lactuca sativa L.
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Carlos A. Chan-Keb, Claudia M. Agraz-Hernández, Roman A. Perez-Balan, Mónica I. Gómez-Solano, Teresita D.N.J. Maldonado-Montiel, Baldemar Ake-Canche, Eduardo J. Gutiérrez-AlcántaraAbstractThe seeds germination, stem and root elongation of water lettuces (Lactuca sativa L) were used to evaluate the phytotoxicity of water and soil of Champotón River, Campeche, Mexico. water and soil sample were collected from two sampling sites. Lettuce seeds were exposed to three different dilutions of water and aqueous extract of ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Capsaicinoids improve consequences of physical activity
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Kazim Sahin, Cemal Orhan, Mehmet Tuzcu, Nurhan Sahin, Fusun Erten, Vijaya JuturuAbstractThe purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of capsaicinoids (CAPs) on lipid metabolism, inflammation, antioxidant status and the changes in gene products involved in these metabolic functions in exercised rats. A total of 28 male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 7) (i) No exercise and no CAPs, (ii) No exercise + CAPs (iii) Regular exercise, (iv) Regular exercise + CAPs. Rats were administered as 0.2 mg capsaicin...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Cissus quadrangularis extract (CQR-300) inhibits lipid accumulation by downregulating adipogenesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells
The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-obesity activity and the action mechanism of Cissus quadrangularis extracts (CQR-300) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Cissus quadrangularis was extracted with hot water, resulting in CQR-300. The anti-obesity activity of CQR-300 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes was examined by Oil-red O staining. Possible mechanisms of CQR-300 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were determined by real-time PCR and western blot. Treatment with CQR-300 inhibited lipid accumulation without showing cytotoxicity to 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Furthermore, CQR-300 decreased adipogenesis/lipogenesis-related mRNA expression levels of fatty...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Carcinogenic activity of pentabrominated diphenyl ether mixture (DE-71) in rats and mice
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): J.K. Dunnick, A.R. Pandiri, B.A. Merrick, G.E. Kissling, H. Cunny, E. Mutlu, S. Waidyanatha, R. Sills, H.L. Hong, TV. Ton, T. Maynor, L. Recio, S.L. Phillips, M.J. Devito, A. BrixAbstractPentabrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants have been phased out in Europe and in the United States, but these lipid soluble chemicals persist in the environment and are found human and animal tissues. PBDEs have limited genotoxic activity. However, in a 2-year cancer study of a PBDE mixture (DE-71) (0, 3, 15, or 50 mg/kg (rats); 0, 3, 30, or 100 mg/kg (mic...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Evaluation of genotoxicity of Euphorbia triaculeata Forssk. extract on mice bone marrow cells in vivo
This study also deals with the effect of E. triaculeata on the standard drug cyclophosphamide (CP) treatment in mice. Three different doses 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight were selected. In micronucleus assay, single oral dose administration of Euphorbia triaculeata extract at the three doses did not increase the number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. Similarly, a single oral administration of Euphorbia triaculeata extract showed no significant changes on mitotic indices or in induction of chromosomal aberrations in mice bone marrow cells. Pretreatment with E. triaculeata extract significantly reduced t...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Short-term biodistribution and clearance of intravenously administered silica nanoparticles
We examined the biodistribution and excretion in female Sprague-Dawley rats of NM-200, a well characterized nanostructured silica representative for food applications. A single intravenous injection of NM-200 was applied at a dose of 20 mg/kgbw, followed by autopsy after 6 and 24 h. The main organs where silicon accumulated were liver and spleen. The silicon concentration significantly decreased in spleen between 6 and 24 h. In liver the tendency was the same but the effect was not significant. This could be due to clearance of the spleen to the liver via the splenic vein, while liver clearance takes more time due to...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The determination of some biogenic amines in Turkish fermented sausages consumed in Van
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Kamil Ekici, Abdullah Khalid OmerAbstractBiogenic amines, has been implicated as the causative agent in several outbreaks of food poisoning. Fermented food such as Turkish style fermented sausages can also contain biogenic amines, microorganisms possessing the enzymes decarboxylase, which converts amino acids to biogenic amines, are responsible for the formation of biogenic amines in fermented sausages. The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of biogenic amines in Turkish fermented sausage consumed in Van in Turkey, and to evaluate their con...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Application of Mulberry nigra to absorb heavy metal, mercury, from the environment of green space city
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Seyed Armin Hashemi, Sahar TabibianAbstractPhytoremediation is one of the methods for Bioremediation of the soils which has been noticed in recent decades. Two years sapling of Mulberry nigra selected and Mercury(II) nitrate solution with 30, 50 and 70 mg/L concentrations, after add solutions in to soil of sapling Mulberry nigra, eight months’ later leaf, stem and roots were selected and Measuring mercury was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. The maximum level of mercury accumulation in the leaf, stem and root was 55.67, 50 and 65 mg...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Kobophenol A Isolated from Roots of Caragana sinica (Buc’hoz) Rehder Exhibits Anti-inflammatory Activity by Regulating NF-κB Nuclear Translocation in J774A.1 Cells
This study aims to find out whether KPA isolated from roots of C. sinica can act as a potential substance on inflammation and analyze the molecular mechanism using the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated J774 A.1 macrophage cell line. We showed that KPA treatment significantly suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO) by inhibiting inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity. In the KPA also inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression and production, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in LPS-stimulated J774 A.1 cells. As c...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Assessment of metal levels in foodstuffs from the Region of Valencia (Spain)
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Silvia Marín, Olga Pardo, Alfredo Sánchez, Yovana Sanchis, Dinoraz Vélez, Vicenta Devesa, Guillermina Font, Vicent YusàAbstractConcentrations of lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic, tin, copper and chromium were measured in a study carried out in 2010–2011. A total of 8100 food samples were collected and composite samples for 12 food groups were analysed for metal concentration levels. Metal levels were, in general, below the maximum levels set by the current European legislation. The fish group presented the highest Cd, Hg...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 in cow milk in El Salvador: Results from a two-year survey
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Oscar Peña-Rodas, Roxana Martinez-Lopez, Roberto Hernandez-RaudaAbstractAflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a metabolite of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and is excreted through cow´s milk. AFM1 contamination of milk is extended geographically and there might be seasons-related variations for both prevalence and contents, with higher than average values in regions with long periods of drought like El Salvador. Therefore, this project quantified AFM1 levels in raw cow milk and AFs in cattle feedstuffs, during the transitional dry-rainy seasons of two consecutive yea...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Assessment of rabbit spermatozoa characteristics after amygdalin and apricot seeds exposure in vivo
This study evaluates rabbit spermatozoa motility parameters after in vivo administration of amygdalin and apricot seeds during a 28-day period. Apricot seeds are potentially useful in human nutrition and amygdalin is the major cyanogenic glycoside present therein. The rabbits were randomly divided into the five groups (Ctrl-Control, P1, P2, P3, P4) with 4 males in each group. Control group received no amygdalin/apricot seeds while the experimental groups P1 and P2 received a daily intramuscular injection of amygdalin at a dose 0.6 and 3.0 mg/kg b.w. respectively during 28 days. P3 and P4 received a daily dose 60 and 300...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Immunosuppressant drug tacrolimus induced mitochondrial nephrotoxicity, modified PCNA and Bcl-2 expression attenuated by Ocimum basilicum L. in CD1 mice
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Atif Abdulwahab A. Oyouni, Shalini Saggu, Ehab Tousson, Hasibur RehmanAbstractTacrolimus (TAC) is used sporadically as an immunosuppressive agent for organ transplantation, but its clinical used is limited due to its marked nephrotoxicity. Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) (OB) had been shown to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and nephroprotective activity, and effective at improving renal inflammation and glomerular. In our study, we aim to evaluate the efficacy of the OB against TAC-induced mitochondrial nephrotoxicity in CD1 mice. Mice were random...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxicological safety evaluation of freeze-dried Protaetia brevitarsis larva powder
In this study, as part of the preclinical toxicity program, we evaluated the toxicity of freeze-dried P. brevitarsis larva powder to develop a novel food material. In a single-dose oral toxicity study in rats, there were no changes in mortality, clinical observations, and body weight in rats administered 5000 mg/kg P. brevitarsis larva powder. In a 13-week oral repeated dose toxicity study in rats, there were no adverse effects or changes in mortality, clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, ophthalmology, clinical pathology, necropsy, organ weight, and histopathology at doses of 300, 1000, and 3000 mg/kg...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxicodynamics of Lead, Cadmium, Mercury and Arsenic- induced kidney toxicity and treatment strategy: A mini review
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Mohammad Nasiruddin Rana, Jitbanjong Tangpong, Md. Masudur RahmanAbstractEnvironmental pollution has become a concerning matter to human beings. Flint water crisis in the USA pointed out that pollution by heavy metal is getting worse day by day, predominantly by Lead, Cadmium, Mercury and Arsenic. Despite of not having any biological role in flora and fauna, they exhibit detrimental effect following exposure (acute or chronic). Even at low dose, they affect brain, kidney and heart. Oxidative stress has been termed as cause and effect in heavy metal-induce...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The investigation of effect of alpha lipoic acid against damage on neonatal rat lung to maternal tobacco smoke exposure
This study was carried out to determine the changes in the lungs of the rat pups exposed to tobacco smoke during pregnancy period and to investigate the protective effects of alpha lipoic acid, which is administered during pregnancy, on these changes.Spraque-Dawley female rats were divided into four groups: control, tobacco smoke (TS), tobacco smoke + alpha lipoic acid (TS + ALA) and alpha lipoic acid (ALA). The rats in control group were untreated. Rats were exposed to TS twice a day for one hour starting from eight weeks before mating and during pregnancy. 20 mg / kg of ALA was administered to rats. On 7th and ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Crosstalk between GSK-3, c-Fos, NFκB and TNF-α signaling pathways play an ambitious role in Chitosan Nanoparticles Cancer Therapy
This article is concerned with the therapeutic index of chitosan nanoparticles against diethyl nitrosamine (DEN) induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC was induced in rats via repeated DEN administration in a dose of 200 mg/kg BW IP, 2 weeks later rats received (2 ml/kg BW) CCl4 orally for 2 months followed by daily treatment with chitosan nanoparticles in an oral dose of 12 mg/kg for 1 month. Then the gene expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), (c-FOS), nuclear factor kappa-B (NFκB) and tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α) were reported in rats sera and the correlation between GSK-3, C-...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxic effects of Lambda-cyhalothrin, on the rat thyroid: Involvement of oxidative stress and ameliorative effect of ginger extract
This study evaluates the antioxidant effect of ginger extract on thyroid toxicity induced by LCT in albino rats. Adult Rats were divided into 4 experimental groups: Group 1: control, Group 2: oral ginger treatment (24 mg/ml, 3 days/week for 4 weeks), Group 3: oral LCT treatment (1/100 LD50, 3 days/week for 4 weeks), Group 4: oral LCT and ginger mixture treatment. The histological results of LCT group showed degenerated follicles with reduced colloids, congestion of blood vessels and hyperaemia between the follicles. Histochemically, depletion of glycogen and proteins was recorded in follicular cells and colloids. The bio...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Complex toxicity as disruption of adipocyte or osteoblast differentiation in human mesenchymal stem cells under the mixed condition of TBBPA and TCDD
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Hideki Kakutani, Tomohiro Yuzuriha, Ema Akiyama, Teruyuki Nakao, Souichi OhtaAbstractPeople are frequently and unintentionally exposed to many chemical compounds, such as environmental pollutants and endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), in food and from the atmosphere. In particular, endocrine-disrupting TBBPA and dioxins are found in human breast milk and in the body. Conventional studies evaluate toxicity by administering a single substance to cells or animals, but evaluation of the toxicity of mixtures of these ingested compounds is essential for &ld...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Contamination by neonicotinoid insecticides and their metabolites in Sri Lankan black tea leaves and Japanese green tea leaves
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Yoshinori Ikenaka, Kazutoshi Fujioka, Tomonori Kawakami, Takahiro Ichise, Nesta Bortey-Sam, Shouta M.M. Nakayama, Hazuki Mizukawa, Kumiko Taira, Keisuke Takahashi, Keisuke Kato, Koji Arizono, Mayumi IshizukaAbstractTea is one of the world’s most popular beverages due to health promoting effects. Despite these, there have been concerns about the adverse effects of tea contamination by neonicotinoid insecticides. Only a handful of studies on neonicotinoid insecticides in tea have been carried out and this study was therefore performed to determine the...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Bio-evaluation of crustacean and fungal nano-chitosan for applying as food ingredient
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Osama M. Darwesh, Yousef Y. Sultan, Mohamed M. Seif, Diaa A. MarrezAbstractChitosan, bio-polyaminosacharide, is derived from chitin. Two sources (shrimp wastes and fungus biomass) were used to produce chitosan. And then the chitosan was produced in the nano-form followed by characterization by transmission electron microscopy. The images obtained clearly showed that the size of nano-chitosan ranged between 7 and 13 and 3–6 nm with spherical shape for shrimp and fungal sources, respectively. The antimicrobial activities of the tested concentrations...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Acute and subacute (28 days) toxicity, hemolytic and cytotoxic effect of Artocarpus heterophyllus seed extracts
ConclusionsWith this results we can conclude that Artocarpus heterophyllus seeds presents no toxicity, and is very effective in determinated cancer cell lines, requiring further studies to validate their use as active natural product against cancer cells.Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Assessment of Socio-demographic Profile, Pattern, and Outcomes of Poisoning Cases in Emergency Department of A Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital– A Prospective Study
Publication date: Available online 22 May 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Prashar Abhimanyu, Ramesh MadhanAbstractObjectivesTo assess the socio-demographic profile, pattern of poisonings and treatment outcomes of the poisoning cases.MethodsA prospective interventional study was conducted at the department of emergency medicine of a South Indian tertiary care hospital for a period of one year to study socio - demographic profile, pattern and outcomes of poisoning cases. All the patients admitted to department of emergency medicine with accidental/ intentional poisoning were followed and all the required details wer...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Glutathione and inter- α-trypsin inhibitor heavy Chain 3 (Itih3) mRNA levels in nicotine-treated Cd44 knockout mice
Publication date: Available online 22 June 2018 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Rochelle N. Wickramasekara, Seth Morrill, Yasmine Farhat, Sarah J. Smith, Deniz Yilmazer-Hanke Cluster of differentiation 44 (Cd44), a hyaluronan receptor, and the secreted hyaluronan-binding protein Inter-α-trypsin Inhibitor Heavy chain 3 (Itih3) play an important role in cancer and oxidative stress. Smoking of tobacco reduces Itih3 in the plasma and activates hyaluronan signaling through Cd44, but the impact of Cd44 on Itih3 expression is unknown. Here, we studied changes induced by the tobacco component nicotine on the glutathion...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 23, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Safety profile of 40% Garcinol from Garcinia indica in experimental rodents
Publication date: Available online 19 June 2018 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Muhammed Majeed, Sarang Bani, Beena Bhat, Anjali Pandey, Lakshmi Mundkur, Prakriti Neupane The present study was taken up to evaluate the single dose acute toxicity, 28 days and 90 days repeated dose toxicity and reproductive/developmental toxicity of standardized 40% Garcinol in experimental rodents. The studies were conducted in compliance with OECD principles of good laboratory practice, guidelines for testing of chemicals no.420, 407, 408 and 421 respectively. Single dose acute oral toxicity was conducted on female Wistar rats as sigh...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 20, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Contamination by neonicotinoid insecticides and their metabolites in Sri Lankan black tea leaves and Japanese green tea leaves
Publication date: Available online 19 June 2018 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Yoshinori Ikenaka, Kazutoshi Fujioka, Tomonori Kawakami, Takahiro Ichise, Nesta Bortey-Sam, Shouta M.M. Nakayama, Hazuki Mizukawa, Kumiko Taira, Keisuke Takahashi, Keisuke Kato, Koji Arizono, Mayumi Ishizuka Tea is one of the world’s most popular beverages due to health promoting effects. Despite these, there have been concerns about the adverse effects of tea contamination by neonicotinoid insecticides. Only a handful of studies on neonicotinoid insecticides in tea have been carried out and this study was therefore performed to det...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 20, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Complex toxicity as disruption of adipocyte or osteoblast differentiation in human mesenchymal stem cells under the mixed condition of TBBPA and TCDD
Publication date: Available online 13 June 2018 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Hideki Kakutani, Tomohiro Yuzuriha, Ema Akiyama, Teruyuki Nakao, Souichi Ohta People are frequently and unintentionally exposed to many chemical compounds, such as environmental pollutants and endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), in food and from the atmosphere. In particular, endocrine-disrupting TBBPA and dioxins are found in human breast milk and in the body. Conventional studies evaluate toxicity by administering a single substance to cells or animals, but evaluation of the toxicity of mixtures of these ingested compounds is essenti...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 13, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Short term exposure to Titanium, Aluminum and Vanadium (Ti 6Al 4V) alloy powder drastically affects behavior and antioxidant metabolites in vital organs of male albino mice
In conclusion, our results indicated that short term exposure to 25 mg/ml solvent/Kg body weight of Ti-6 A l-4 V alloy powder supplementation had adversely affected selected aspects of behavior of albino mice in a gender specific manner. Analysis of antioxidant parameters in vital organs has demonstrated that the applied dose of Ti-6 A l-4 V alloy powder can disturb the H₂O₂ associated metabolic pathways in albino mice, especially in female mice. As this alloy is part of surgical implants, so we recommend that their effects in living systems must be extensively explored under variable dose and exposure ti...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 13, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxic effects of Lambda-cyhalothrin, on the rat thyroid: Involvement of oxidative stress and ameliorative effect of ginger extract
This study evaluates the antioxidant effect of ginger extract on thyroid toxicity induced by LCT in albino rats. Adult Rats were divided into 4 experimental groups: Group 1: control, Group 2: oral ginger treatment (24 mg/ml, 3 days/week for 4 weeks), Group 3: oral LCT treatment (1/100 LD50, 3 days/week for 4 weeks), Group 4: oral LCT and ginger mixture treatment. The histological results of LCT group showed degenerated follicles with reduced colloids, congestion of blood vessels and hyperaemia between the follicles. Histochemically, depletion of glycogen and proteins was recorded in follicular cells and colloids. The bio...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 12, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Crosstalk between GSK-3, c-Fos, NF κB and TNF-α signaling pathways play an ambitious role in Chitosan Nanoparticles Cancer Therapy
This article is concerned with the therapeutic index of chitosan nanoparticles against diethyl nitrosamine (DEN) induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC was induced in rats via repeated DEN administration in a dose of 200 mg/kg BW IP, 2 weeks later rats received (2 ml/kg BW) CCl4 orally for 2 months followed by daily treatment with chitosan nanoparticles in an oral dose of 12 mg/kg for 1 month. Then the gene expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), (c-FOS), nuclear factor kappa-B (NFκB) and tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α) were reported in rats sera and the correlation between GSK-3, C-...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 8, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The Investigation of Effect of Alpha Lipoic Acid Against Damage on Neonatal Rat Lung to Maternal Tobacco Smoke Exposure
This study was carried out to determine the changes in the lungs of the rat pups exposed to tobacco smoke during pregnancy period and to investigate the protective effects of alpha lipoic acid, which is administered during pregnancy, on these changes. Spraque-Dawley female rats were divided into four groups: control, tobacco smoke (TS), tobacco smoke + alpha lipoic acid (TS + ALA) and alpha lipoic acid (ALA). The rats in control group were untreated. Rats were exposed to TS twice a day for one hour starting from eight weeks before mating and during pregnancy. 20 mg / kg of ALA was administered to rats. On 7th and...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 5, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 in cow milk in El Salvador: results from a two-year survey
Publication date: Available online 2 June 2018 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Oscar Peña-Rodas, Roxana Martinez-Lopez, Roberto Hernandez-Rauda Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a metabolite of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and is excreted through cow´s milk. AFM1 contamination of milk is extended geographically and there might be seasons-related variations for both prevalence and contents, with higher than average values in regions with long periods of drought like El Salvador. Therefore, this project quantified AFM1 levels in raw cow milk and AFs in cattle feedstuffs, during the transitional dry-rainy seasons of two consec...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 2, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Immunosuppressant drug tacrolimus induced mitochondrial nephrotoxicity, modified PCNA and Bcl-2 expression attenuated by Ocimum basilicum L. in CD1 mice
Publication date: Available online 2 June 2018 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Atif Abdulwahab A. Oyouni, Shalini Saggu, Ehab Tousson, Hasibur Rehman Tacrolimus (TAC) is used sporadically as an immunosuppressive agent for organ transplantation, but its clinical used is limited due to its marked nephrotoxicity. Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) (OB) had been shown to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and nephroprotective activity, and effective at improving renal inflammation and glomerular. In our study, we aim to evaluate the efficacy of the OB against TAC-induced mitochondrial nephrotoxicity in CD1 mice. Mice we...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 2, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxicological safety evaluation of freeze-dried Protaetia brevitarsis larva powder
In this study, as part of the preclinical toxicity program, we evaluated the toxicity of freeze-dried P. brevitarsis larva powder to develop a novel food material. In a single-dose oral toxicity study in rats, there were no changes in mortality, clinical observations, and body weight in rats administered 5000 mg/kg P. brevitarsis larva powder. In a 13-week oral repeated dose toxicity study in rats, there were no adverse effects or changes in mortality, clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, ophthalmology, clinical pathology, necropsy, organ weight, and histopathology at doses of 300, 1000, and 3000 mg/kg...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 2, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Assessment of rabbit spermatozoa characteristics after amygdalin and apricot seeds exposure in vivo
This study evaluates rabbit spermatozoa motility parameters after in vivo administration of amygdalin and apricot seeds during a 28-day period. Apricot seeds are potentially useful in human nutrition and amygdalin is the major cyanogenic glycoside present therein. The rabbits were randomly divided into the five groups (Ctrl-Control, P1, P2, P3, P4) with 4 males in each group. Control group received no amygdalin/apricot seeds while the experimental groups P1 and P2 received a daily intramuscular injection of amygdalin at a dose 0.6 and 3.0 mg/kg b.w. respectively during 28 days. P3 and P4 received a daily dose 60 and 300...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 31, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxicodynamics of Lead, Cadmium, Mercury and Arsenic- induced kidney toxicity and treatment strategy: A mini review
Publication date: Available online 26 May 2018 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Mohammad Nasiruddin Rana, Jitbanjong Tangpong, Md. Masudur Rahman Environmental pollution has become a concerning matter to human beings. Flint water crisis in the USA pointed out that pollution by heavy metal is getting worse day by day, predominantly by Lead, Cadmium, Mercury and Arsenic. Despite of not having any biological role in flora and fauna, they exhibit detrimental effect following exposure (acute or chronic). Even at low dose, they affect brain, kidney and heart. Oxidative stress has been termed as cause and effect in heavy met...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 26, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Short-term Biodistribution and Clearance of Intravenously Administered Silica Nanoparticles
We examined the biodistribution and excretion in female Sprague-Dawley rats of NM-200, a well characterized nanostructured silica representative for food applications. A single intravenous injection of NM-200 was applied at a dose of 20 mg/kgbw, followed by autopsy after 6 and 24 hours. The main organs where silicon accumulated were liver and spleen. The silicon concentration significantly decreased in spleen between 6 and 24 hours. In liver the tendency was the same but the effect was not significant. This could be due to clearance of the spleen to the liver via the splenic vein, while liver clearance takes more tim...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 24, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research