Sympathomimetic amine compounds and hepatotoxicity: Not all are alike—Key distinctions noted in a short review
Publication date: 2019Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 6Author(s): Cyril WillsonAbstractSympathomimetic amine compounds are often pooled together and incorrectly assumed to be interchangeable with respect to potential adverse effects. A brief and specific review of sympathomimetic compounds and one instance (i.e., hepatotoxicity) where these compounds have been improperly grouped together is covered. A review of the proposed mechanisms through which known hepatotoxic sympathomimetic agents (e.g., 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine or MDMA, methamphetamine and amphetamine) cause liver injury, along with a corresponding rev...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 8, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Preclinical evaluation of Amblyomin-X, a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor with antitumor activity
Publication date: Available online 1 December 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Durvanei A. Maria, Sonia Elisabete A.L. Will, Rosemary V. Bosch, Jean G. Souza, Juliana M. Sciani, Mauricio B. Goldfeder, Giuliana G. Rondon, Ana M. Chudzinski-TavassiAbstractAmblyomin-X, a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor, is a recombinant protein that selectively induces apoptosis in tumor cells and promotes tumor reduction in vivo in melanoma animal models. Furthermore, Amblyomin-X was able to drastically reduce lung metastasis in a mice orthotopic kidney tumor model. Due to its antitumor activity, Amblyomin-X potential to become a new ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 2, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Sympathomimetic Amine Compounds and Hepatotoxicity: Not All Are Alike. Key Distinctions Noted in a Short Review
Publication date: Available online 1 December 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Cyril WillsonAbstractSympathomimetic amine compounds are often pooled together and incorrectly assumed to be interchangeable with respect to potential adverse effects. A brief and specific review of sympathomimetic compounds and one instance (i.e., hepatotoxicity) where these compounds have been improperly grouped together is covered. A review of the proposed mechanisms through which known hepatotoxic sympathomimetic agents (e.g., 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine or MDMA, methamphetamine and amphetamine) cause liver injury, along with ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 2, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Gentamicin induced acute renal damage and its evaluation using urinary biomarkers in rats
This study was undertaken to evaluate recently identified urinary biomarkers use in identifying acute kidney injury compared to traditional serum markers in experimentally induced nephrotoxicity in male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in Sprague Dawley rats is commonly detected using serum markers and histological evaluation of kidneys. Gentamicin, an aminoglycoside was administered at 30 and 100 mg/kg/day dose (subcutaneous) for seven consecutive days to induce nephrotoxicity. On day 4 and day 8 post treatment, serum and urine samples from these rats were analyzed for traditional serum/u...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 1, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Risk assessment and exposure to levels of naturally occurring aflatoxins in some packaged cereals and cereal based foods consumed in Accra, Ghana
Publication date: Available online 29 November 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Nii Korley Kortei, Akwasi Akomeah Agyekum, Felicia Akuamoa, Vincent Kyei- Baffour, Huseini Wiisibie AliduABSTRACTAflatoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of fungal origin that contaminate agricultural commodities before, during and after harvest periods. A total of fifty-three (53) different foods (27 rice brands, 20 cereal based food brands and 6 pasta brands) were randomly obtained from the market and assessed for their different aflatoxin constitution (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) as well as the total levels of the aflatoxins using H...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 30, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

An imazamox-based herbicide causes apoptotic changes in rat liver and pancreas
Publication date: Available online 19 November 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Çiğdem Sevim, Selim Çomaklı, Ali Taghizadehghalehjoughi, Mustafa Özkaraca, Robin Mesnage, Leda Kovatsi, Tatyana I. Burykina, Alexandra Kalogeraki, Michael N Antoniou, Aristidis M. TsatsakisAbstractWe studied the acute toxicity of an imazamox-based herbicide at 12, 24 and 36 mg/kg body (bw) weight imazamox equivalent dose on the liver and pancreatic tissue in Sprague Dawley rats. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, glucose, calcium as well as creatinine, were determined ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 21, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Influence of smoking on levels of urinary 8-iso Prostaglandin F2α
ConclusionsDue to the high heterogeneity among the studies included in these meta-analyses, it is difficult to generalize the results; however, our study indicates increased levels of 8-epi-PGF2α and therefore increased oxidative stress in smokers compared with nonsmokers. More studies are still needed to assess if 8-epi-PGF2α levels are reversible after cessation. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 21, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Potential Health Risk Consequences of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Surface Water, Shrimp (Macrobrachium macrobrachion) and Fish (Brycinus longipinnis) from Benin River, Nigeria
Publication date: Available online 17 November 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Lawrence I. Ezemonye, Princewill O. Adebayo, Alex A. Enuneku, Isioma Tongo, Emmanuel OgbomidaAbstractHealth risk consequences of consumption of heavy metal-contaminated water, shrimp (Macrobrachium macrobrachion) and fish (Brycinus longipinnis) from Benin River in Nigeria were evaluated. Three stations around Koko Community (Abialegbe, Ebenco/Optima and Total Facility) with known anthropogenic activities (industrial and petrochemical installations and loading) were studied. Samples of surface water, shrimp and fish were collected and an...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 18, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Screening of biopolymeric materials for cardiovascular surgery toxicity – evaluation of their surface relief with assessment of morphological aspects of Monocyte/Macrophage Polarization in Atherosclerosis Patients
Publication date: Available online 16 November 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Natalia G. Menzyanova, Svetlana А. Pyatina, Elena D. Nikolaeva, Alexander V. Shabanov, Ivan V. Nemtsev, Dmitry P. Stolyarov, Dmitry B. Dryganov, Eugene V. Sakhnov, Ekaterina I. ShishatskayaAbstractThe morphotypes of human macrophages (MPh) were studied in the culture on nano-structured biopolymer substrates, made from polyhydroxyalcanoates (PHAs) of five various monomer compositions, followed by the solvent evaporation. Its surface relief, which was further in direct contact with human cells in vitro, was analyzed by atomic force micro...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 17, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

TOLERANCE OF Tithonia diversifolia AND Chromolaena odorata IN HEAVY METAL SIMULATED-POLLUTED SOILS AND THREE SELECTED DUMPSITES
This study showed Tithonia diversifolia and C. odorata were capable of reducing heavy metals in polluted soils. Thus the plants are good candidates for the phytoextraction of heavy metals from polluted soils. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 14, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Safety assessment of a standardized cucumber extract (Q-Actin™): Oral repeat-dose toxicity and mutagenicity studies
The objective of the present study was to investigate the general toxicity and mutagenic effects of an aqueous extract of cucumber (Q-Actin), standardized to ≥1% (1–2%) ido-BR1 iminosugar. Single dose of Q-Actin was well tolerated without mortality at 2000 mg/kg body weight (bw) in Sprague Dawley rats. Oral (gavage) administration of Q-Actin up to 1000 mg/kg bw/day was well tolerated followed by repeated administration for a maximum period of 90 days in Sprague-Dawley rats. There were no treatment related changes in clinical observations, ophthalmic examinations, body weights and body weight gains or...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 8, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Alterations of blood chemistry, hepatic and renal function, and blood cytometry in acrylamide-treated rats
Publication date: Available online 6 November 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Eduardo Rivadeneyra-Domínguez, Yesenia Becerra-Contreras, Alma Vázquez-Luna, Rafaél Díaz-Sobac, J.F. Rodríguez-LandaAbstractAcrylamide is a vinyl monomer that is widely used for the synthesis of polyacrylamides, the treatment of drinking water, and as an additive in cosmetics. Acrylamide is also produced during the thermal processing of carbohydrate-rich foods. Although the potential toxic effects of acrylamide have been reported, few studies have evaluated biochemical parameters in blood. The present s...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 8, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The role of toxic stimuli combinations in determining safe exposure limits
Publication date: Available online 7 November 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Ronald N. Kostoff, Marina Goumenou, Aristidis TsatsakisAbstractThis editorial addresses the effects of toxic stimuli combinations on determination of safe Exposure Limits. Examination of thousands of Medline abstracts showed typically that combinations of toxic stimuli can produce damage even when the exposure level of each member of the combination is less than the lowest exposure level of the member that produced damage when tested in isolation. The synergy of the toxic stimuli in combination means less of each component stimulus is re...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 8, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Alteration in thiols homeostasis, protein and lipid peroxidation in renal tissue following subacute oral exposure of imidacloprid and arsenic in Wistar rats
Publication date: Available online 3 November 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Lakshay Mahajan, Pawan Kumar Verma, Rajinder Raina, Nrip K. Pankaj, Shilpa Sood, Maninder SinghAbstractThe aim of present study was to assess whether No Observed Effect Level (NOEL) of imidacloprid (IMI) potentiates the arsenic induced renal toxicity at its maximum contaminant level in drinking water in Wistar rats. Significant elevation of lipid and protein oxidation with reduced level of total thiols and antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-s-transferase) in ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 4, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxicological evaluation of a saponin-rich standardized extract of fenugreek seeds (FenuSMART®): Acute, sub-chronic and genotoxicity studies
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): D. Sureshkumar, Shamshad Begum, N.M. Johannah, Balu Maliakel, I.M. KrishnakumarAbstractThe present study investigated the safety of a saponin-rich standardized extract of fenugreek seeds (FenuSMART®; FHE), that has been clinically shown to be effective in ameliorating the postmenopausal discomforts and establishing hormonal balance. The safety was assessed by oral acute (2500 mg/kg b. wt. for 14 days) and subchronic (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg b. wt. for 90 days) toxicity studies on Wistar rats and mutagenicity studies employing Salmonella ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 3, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Metabolism and removal of anthracene and lead by a B. subtilis-produced biosurfactant
In this study, Bacillus subtilis resistant to anthracene and lead was isolated from Persian Gulf sediments. Biosurfactant production was demonstrated using three methods, drop collapse, blood agar and oil spreading. Evaluation of optical density by spectrophotometer showed the bacterial growth in presence of 30 mg/l of anthracene and 50 mg/l of lead. Considerable proportion of anthracene (69.95%) was reduced after 120 h and the maximum percentage of lead absorption (82%) was observed after 150 minutes. The results indicated that the isolated bacterium was capable of removing anthracene and lead....
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 3, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The clinical toxicology of caffeine: A review and case study
Publication date: Available online 3 November 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Cyril WillsonAbstractCaffeine is a widely recognized psychostimulant compound with a long history of consumption by humans. While it has received a significant amount of attention there is still much to be learned with respect to its toxicology in humans, especially in cases of overdose. A review of the history of consumption and the clinical toxicology of caffeine including clinical features, pharmacokinetics, toxicokinetics, a thorough examination of mechanism of action and management/treatment strategies are undertaken. While higher (...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 3, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

A case series involving young children presenting with accidental ingestion of amphetamine based stimulants
Publication date: Available online 3 November 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Kelly E. Wood, Patrick J. McCarthy, Matthew D. Krasowski, Kelly E. Wood (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 3, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Anti-melanogenic and anti-oxidant activities of ethanol extract of Kummerowia striata: Kummerowia striata regulate anti-melanogenic activity through down-regulation of TRP-1, TRP-2 and MITF expression
Publication date: Available online 3 November 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Jae Yeon Lee, Young-Rak Cho, Ju Hyoung Park, Eun-Kyung Ahn, Wonsik Jeong, Hyoung Seok Shin, Mi-Sun Kim, Seung Hwan Yang, Joa Sub OhAbstractKummerowia striata (K. striata) is used as a traditional medicine for inflammation-related therapy. To determine whether it has beneficial anti-melanogenic and anti-oxidant activities, we investigated the biological activities of the ethanol extract of Kummerowia striata (EKS) using a variety of in vitro and cell culture model systems. The anti-melanogenic activity was assessed in B16F10 melanoma cell...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 3, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Antidotes for aluminum phosphide poisoning – An update
This article reviews the afore-mentioned chemicals suggested to specifically treat AlP poisoning and discusses their protective mechanisms and main outcomes. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - October 31, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Antidotes for aluminum phosphide poisoning - an update
This article reviews the afore-mentioned chemicals suggested to specifically treat AlP poisoning and discusses their protective mechanisms and main outcomes. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - October 29, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Safety assessment of a standardized cucumber extract (Q-ActinTM): Oral repeat-dose toxicity and mutagenicity studies
The objective of the present study was to investigate the general toxicity and mutagenic effects of an aqueous extract of cucumber (Q-Actin), standardized to ≥1% (1-2%) ido-BR1 iminosugar. Single dose of Q-Actin was well tolerated without mortality at 2000 mg/kg body weight (bw) in Sprague Dawley rats. Oral (gavage) administration of Q-Actin up to 1000 mg/kg bw/day was well tolerated followed by repeated administration for a maximum period of 90 days in Sprague-Dawley rats. There were no treatment related changes in clinical observations, ophthalmic examinations, body weights and body weight gains or feed ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - October 29, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Syringic acid may attenuate the oral mucosal carcinogenesis via improving cell surface glycoconjugation and modifying cytokeratin expression
Publication date: Available online 28 October 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Velu Periyannan, Vinothkumar VeerasamyAbstractSyringic acid (SRA) is an excellent anti-oxidant and anti-cancer property in various in vitro and in vivo studies. In the present study was modifying effect of SRA on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced cell surface glycoconjugates (GCs) abnormalities in the plasma and buccal mucosa of golden Syrian hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis (HBPCs). Topical application of DMBA three times a week for 10 weeks on the buccal pouches of the hamsters resulted in well developed squamous cell ca...
Source: Toxicology Reports - October 29, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Consolidating probiotic with dandelion, coriander and date palm seeds extracts against mercury neurotoxicity and for maintaining normal testosterone levels in male rats
ConclusionAdministration of the herbal extracts and their mixture with probiotics enhance the body defense and contain protective factor against mercury neurotoxicity and for maintaining normal testosterone levels in male rats. Also, treatment restored the normal control levels of biochemical attributes and histological architecture. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - October 27, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Soy supplementation: Impact on gene expression in different tissues of ovariectomized rats and evaluation of the rat model to predict (post)menopausal health effect
Publication date: Available online 24 October 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Mohammed A. Islam, Guido J.E.J. Hooiveld, Johannes H.J. van den Berg, Vera van der Velpen, Albertinka J. Murk, Ivonne M.C.M. Rietjens, F.X. Rolaf van LeeuwenAbstractThis toxicogenomic study was conducted to predict (post)menopausal human health effects of commercial soy supplementation using ovariectomized rats as a model. Different target tissues (i.e. breast, uterus and sternum) and non-target tissues (i.e. peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), adipose and liver) of ovariectomized F344 rats exposed to a commercially available soy ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - October 25, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

In-Vivo & In-Vitro Toxicity Test of Molecularly Engineered PCMS: A Potential Drug for Wireless Remote Controlled Treatment
Publication date: Available online 22 October 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Subrata Ghosh, Anirban Roy, Anup Singhania, Somnath Chatterjee, Snehasikta Swarnakar, Daisuke Fujita, Anirban BandyopadhyayAbstractPC, PCM, PCS, and PCMS are our designed & synthesized ~8 nm PAMAM dendrimer (P) -based organic supramolecular systems, for example, PCMS has 32 molecular motors (M), 4 pH sensors (S) and 2 multi-level molecular electronic switches (C). We have reported earlier following a preliminary in-vitro test that the synthesized PCMS can selectively target cancer cell nucleotides if triggered wirelessl...
Source: Toxicology Reports - October 23, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Efficiency of the leaves and fruits of Aegle marmelos methanol extract (L.) Correa and their relative hepatotoxicity induced by CCL4 and identification of their active constituents by using LC/MS/MS
The objective of this study was to identify the active constituents of (MEL & MEF) of A. marmelos. Six, alkaloids namely aeglemarmelosine, marmesiline aegelinoside, shahidine, anhydromarmeline and N-2-methoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl) ethylcinnamide and two flavonoids, rutin and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside in leaves were identified. Two alkaloids marmesiline and shahidine in the methanol extracts of fruits, also have been identified. Moreover, the efficiency of extracts was performed for measuring the reducing hepatotoxicity effect induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in mice. Accordingly, several biochemical parameters were...
Source: Toxicology Reports - October 14, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxicological assessment of Xanthigen® nutraceutical extract combination: mutagenicity, genotoxicity and oral toxicity
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): L. López-Rios, T. Vega, R. Chirino, J.C. Jung, B. Davis, R. Pérez-Machín, J.C. WiebeAbstractXanthigen® is a nutraceutical combination for weight management capable of increasing energy expenditure via uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1) in white adipose tissue. It consists of brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifida extract, rich in the carotenoid fucoxanthin (FX) and pomegranate seed oil (PSO), rich in punicic acid. Xanthigen was screened to determine its genotoxicity and 90-days repeated oral toxicity. Genotoxicity was assess...
Source: Toxicology Reports - October 10, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Cefotaxime Induced Generalized Bullous Fixed Drug Eruption - A Case Report
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): R. Manikandan, A. Porselvi, G.C. Keerthana, K. Vaishnavi, S. Girija, Murali Narasimhan, TM. VijayakumarAbstractFixed drug eruption (FDE) is the most common cutaneous adverse drug reaction. Cefotaxime, a broad-spectrum third-generation cephalosporin, appeared to be a safe and effective therapy in greater than 90% of infections including cellulitis, abscesses and necrotizing ulcers of the skin and subcutaneous tissues but here we report a rare case of 36 years old female patient developed generalized bullous FDE after intravenous administra...
Source: Toxicology Reports - October 9, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxicological evaluation of a saponin-rich standardized extract of fenugreek seeds (FenuSMARTTM): Acute, sub-chronic and genotoxicity studies
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): D Sureshkumar, Shamshad Begum, N.M Johannah, Balu Maliakel, I.M KrishnakumarAbstractThe present study investigated the safety of a phytoestrogenic saponin-rich standardized extract of fenugreek seeds (FenuSMARTTM; FHE), that has been clinically shown to be effective in ameliorating the postmenopausal discomforts and establishing hormonal balance. The safety was assessed by oral acute (2500 mg/kg b. wt. for 14 days) and subchronic (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg b. wt. for 90 days) toxicity studies on Wistar rats and mutagenicity st...
Source: Toxicology Reports - October 9, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The dose response principle from philosophy to modern toxicology: the impact of ancient philosophy and medicine in modern toxicology science
Publication date: Available online 6 October 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): A.M. Tsatsakis, L. Vassilopoulou, L. Kovatsi, C. Tsitsimpikou, M. Karamanou, G. Leon, J. Liesivuori, A.W. Hayes, D.A. SpandidosAbstractSince ancient times the concept of dose response, from a toxicological perspective, has been a matter of concern. Already by the 8th century BC and over the years, many enlightened people have attempted to interpret this phenomenon, observing and coming across its results and practical implementation through exposure to chemical substances, either from natural or synthetic sources. Nowadays, the environmen...
Source: Toxicology Reports - October 7, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) in Some Personal Care Products in Nigeria
Publication date: Available online 5 October 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Abolanle Saheed Adekunle, John Adekunle Oyedele Oyekunle, Ibitomilola Janet Ola, Olaoluwa Ruth Obisesan, Nobanathi Wendy MaxakatoAbstractThe study was carried out to determine the presence and concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in some personal care products in Nigeria. Commonly used consumer care products grouped into four classes, namely: plastics, cosmetics, disinfectants and washing products, were purchased from some supermarkets in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The solid samples were pul...
Source: Toxicology Reports - October 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Pathobiology of cigarette smoke-induced invasive cancer of the renal pelvis and its prevention by vitamin C
Publication date: Available online 5 October 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Shinjini Ganguly, Ayan Chandra, Indu B ChatterjeeAbstractUrothelial cancer of the renal pelvis (CRP) is predominantly associated with cigarette smoking. However, the molecular pathogenesis of initiation and progression of cigarette smoke (CS)-induced CRP is unknown. Majority of CRP is high grade and high stage at presentation and has a high recurrence rate even after surgery. Earlier we reported that prolonged treatment (24 weeks) of a guinea pig model with p-benzoquinone (p-BQ), a product of CS in vivo, produced carcinoma in situ in the ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - October 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

A dose-dependent effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on lipid content, cell viability and oxidative stress in 3T3-L1 adipocytes
Publication date: Available online 4 October 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Phiwayinkosi V. Dludla, Babalwa Jack, Amsha Viraragavan, Carmen Pheiffer, Rabia Johnson, Johan Louw, Christo J.F. MullerAbstractDimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is an effective solvent and cytoprotectant agent that can induce diverse actions in experimental settings, ranging from metabolic stress to cytotoxic effects depending on concentration used. Therefore, for the quality of experiments and reproducibility of results it is essential to establish a precise and non-toxic dose of DMSO within a specific cell system. 3T3-L1 adipocytes, represent ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - October 5, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Ameliorating effect of Alstonia scholaris L. bark extract on histopathological changes following viper envenomation in animal models
ConclusionThe present paper thus highlights the histopathological changes associated with Vipera russelli venom and systemic venom neutralization potential of Aqueous Alstonia scholaris (AAS) in animal models.Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - October 5, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Orientin, a flavanoid, mitigates 1, 2 dimethylhydrazine-induced colorectal lesions in Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet
Publication date: Available online 27 September 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Kalaiyarasu Thangaraj, Karthi Natesan, Mariyappan Palani, Manju VaiyapuriAbstractOrientin, a c- glycosyl flavonoid found copiously in roobios tea and various medicinal plants is well known for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor effects. The present study aims to investigate the anti-cancer efficacy of orientin on 1,2 dimethyl hydrazine induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and cell proliferation in Wistar rats. Rats were randomly divided into six groups and fed with high fat diet. Group 1 left as untreated control. G...
Source: Toxicology Reports - October 5, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Nephrotoxicity and highly active antiretroviral therapy: Mitigating action of Momordica charantia
Publication date: Available online 20 September 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Ugochukwu Offor, Edwin Coleridge Naidu, Oluwatosin Olalekan Ogedengbe, Ayoola Isaac Jegede, Aniekan Imo Peter, Onyemaechi Okpara AzuAbstractMomordica charantia (M. charantia) is known for its antioxidant and antidiabetic properties. The aim of this study is to investigate the renoprotective effects of M. charantia in rats following treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen triplavar. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 178.1–220.5 g (n = 36) were divided into six groups (A–...
Source: Toxicology Reports - September 21, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

KALGAE™ (Klebsormidium flaccidum var. ZIVO) dried algal biomass - 90-day dietary toxicity study and genotoxicity studies
Publication date: Available online 20 September 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Julie A. Brickel, Ray A. Matulka, Amy E. SteffekAbstractConsumers are demanding plant-based alternative protein sources to complement traditional animal-based protein sources to fulfill their dietary protein requirements. KALGAE™, a dried algal biomass derived from Klebsormidium flaccidum var. ZIVO, is a potential source of plant-based protein that has been evaluated for safety to support its use as a food ingredient. There were no treatment-related adverse effects observed in the 14-day palatability/toxicity or 90-day dietary to...
Source: Toxicology Reports - September 20, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Improved effect of pumpkin seed oil against the bisphenol-A adverse effects in male mice
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Eissa I. Fawzy, Aida I. El Makawy, M. Mahmoud El-Bamby, H. Osama ElhamalawyAbstractThe present study was conducted to evaluate the ameliorative role of pumpkin seed oil (PSO) against potential adverse effects of bisphenol-A (BPA) in male mice. BPA was administered to the mice orally at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight once a day for 28 successive days. While, PSO was administered to the mice orally at 1 mL/kg b w either before, with or after treatment of BPA, once a day for 28 successive days. The studied parameters were DNA damage evaluation ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - September 14, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Elevated CPK levels after hydrazine inhalation exposure in an F16 aircraft technician
We present four ground crew technicians who were exposed to hydrazine for less than one minute, due to a voltage fall in an F-16 jet. Physical examinations were normal and none of the technicians were symptomatic for toxicity. One of the technicians had abnormal blood chemistry levels for liver and muscle enzymes: serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase(SGOT)-321U/L, serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT)-123U/L, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) 3300U/L. The CPK level peaked during hospitalization to 20960U/L at 36 hours after the exposure, and subsequently declined. Upon release from the hospital, 48 h...
Source: Toxicology Reports - September 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Therapeutic activity of sour orange albedo extract and abundant flavanones loaded silica nanoparticles against acrylamide-induced hepatotoxicity
Publication date: Available online 9 September 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): M.Z. Rizk, D.M. Abo-El-matty, H.F. Aly, H.I. Abd-Alla, S.M. Saleh, E.A. Younis, A.M. Elnahrawy, A.A. HarounAbstractThe current research aims to demonstrate the therapeutic effect of sour orange albedo extract (SOAE) and two flavanones loaded-tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) using sol-gel technique, in adose100 mg/kg body weight taken orally or45 days against acrylamide (ACR)toxicity in rats. This was achieved through measuring the activities of specific biochemical parameters related to liver functions in tissue of ACR intoxicated ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - September 10, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Co-exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (NpTiO2) and lead at environmentally relevant concentrations in the Neotropical fish species Hoplias intermedius
Publication date: Available online 8 September 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Taynah Vicari, Ana Carolina Dagostim, Tatiane Klingelfus, Gabrieli Limberger Galvan, Patrícia Sampaio Monteiro, Letícia da Silva Pereira, Helena Cristina Silva de Assis, Marta Margarete CestariAbstractGrowing production and utilization of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (NpTiO2) invariably lead to their accumulation in oceans, rivers and other water bodies, thus increasing the risk to the welfare of this ecosystem. The progressive launch of these nanoparticles in the environment has been accompanied by concern in understand...
Source: Toxicology Reports - September 9, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Endophytic Fusarium solani: A Rich Source of Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Napthaquinone and Aza-anthraquinone Derivatives
This study reports the chemical investigation and bioactivity of the secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Fusarium solani isolated from Cassia alata Linn. growing in Bangladesh. This plant was collected from conservation forest in Bangladesh and belongs to the Caesalpiniaceae family. The endophytic fungus Fusarium solani was isolated from the tissue of root of this plant. The fungal strain was identified by morphological characters and DNA sequencing. The crude organic extract of the fungal strain was proven to be active when tested for cytotoxicity against Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay, antimicrobial ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - September 4, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Characterization and cytotoxic effect of biogenic silver nanoparticles on mitotic chromosomes of Drimia polyantha (Blatt. & McCann) Stearn
Publication date: Available online 31 August 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Azharuddin Daphedar, Tarikere C. TaranathAbstractNoble metal nanoparticles afford a tool for investigation and its application in biological systems has had the greatest impact in biology and biomedicine. The present work reports an ecofriendly approach for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using an aqueous leaf extract of Getonia floribunda. The silver nanoparticles were characterized by using following instruments viz. UV-Vis spectrophotometer, FTIR, XRD AFM and HR-TEM. The UV-vis spectrum showed a characteristic absorption ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

SDS-PAGE technique as biomarker for fish toxicological studies
In this study we introduced the importance of those parameters and their importance as biomarkers in fish toxicology from previous literature and as new findings. Hemato-biochemical parameters were widely used in fish toxicological studies. Many researches have used the protein electrophoresis as a valid tool to determining intra and inter-specific variation among species. Protein profile was extensively used in determining the health of fish, as indicators of anemia or other diseases provide information about the existence of the disease, and in the diagnosis of disease. So, to carry out the aim of this study, we reported...
Source: Toxicology Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Assessment of Concentration and Toxicological (Cancer) Risk of Lead, Cadmium and Chromium in Tobacco Products Commonly Available in Bangladesh
This study aimed to assess the concentrations of heavy metal (‘lead (Pb)’‘cadmium (Cd)’, and ‘chromium (Cr)’) in various brands of four types of tobacco products (zarda, gul, cigarettes, and bidi) as well as calculate toxicological risk as a lifetime cancer risk for Pb, Cd, and Cr. In smokeless tobacco products, the metal concentration ranged from 0.99-10.02 µg/g for Pb, 1.05-3.53 µg/g for Cd, and 1.23-7.29 µg/g for Cr, respectively. Metal concentrations in the smoke-based tobacco products ranged from 0.98-3.07 µg/g for Pb, 0.91-3.46&th...
Source: Toxicology Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Induces Oxidative Stress and Liver toxicity in Rats following Oral Exposure
Publication date: Available online 31 August 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Anreddy Rama Narsimha ReddyAbstractThe present study aimed to evaluate the effect of Copper Oxide (CuO) Nanoparticles (NP) on liver following oral exposure in rats. A total of 18 male wister rats were used in the experiments including a control group (6 rats). NP were given to the rats with a doses (5, 50 mg/kg b.w./day) via oral gavage and a control group (received only 200 μl PBS). The treatment was continued for 14 days. The supernatants of rat Liver tissue homogenates were used to analyze for glutathione levels (GSH),...
Source: Toxicology Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The use of structural alerts to avoid the toxicity of pharmaceuticals
Publication date: Available online 31 August 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Carmen Limban, Diana C. Nuţă, Cornel Chiriţă, Simona Negreș, Andreea L. Arsene, Marina Goumenou, Spyros P. Karakitsios, Aristidis M. Tsatsakis, Dimosthenis A. SarigiannisAbstractIn order to identify compounds with potential toxicity problems, particular attention is paid to structural alerts, which are high chemical reactivity molecular fragments or fragments that can be transformed via bioactivation by human enzymes into fragments with high chemical reactivity. The concept has been introduced in order to reduce the likelihood that f...
Source: Toxicology Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Morphological alterations induced by the exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles in primary cortical neuron cultures and in the brain of rats
In conclusion, our study demonstrated clearly the toxic impact of TiO2 NPs on rat brain and neuronal cells and pointed about not yet referenced toxicity impacts of TiO2 such as the reduction of neuroblast proliferation both in vitro and in vivo.Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 25, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Microbiological evaluation of infant foods quality and molecular detection of Bacillus cereus toxins relating genes
Publication date: Available online 19 August 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Zeinab I. Sadek, Mohamed A. Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed S. Azab, Osama M. Darwesh, Mahmoud S. HassanAbstractA 205 samples representing eight different infant foods with various based materials were collected and analyzed for their microbiological properties. The contamination rate by aerobic spore formers was achieved 100 % in milk based infant food with fruit, vegetables, honey, rice and infant milk powder. While, it was detected in 95, 60 and 65% of the infant food with wheat milk based, ready to use (infant food with fruit) and ready to use ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 20, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research