Acute toxicity of water and aqueous extract of soils from Champotón river in Lactuca sativa L.
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Carlos A. Chan-Keb, Claudia M. Agraz-Hernández, Roman A. Perez-Balan, Mónica I. Gómez-Solano, Teresita D.N.J. Maldonado-Montiel, Baldemar Ake-Canche, Eduardo J. Gutiérrez-AlcántaraAbstractThe seeds germination, stem and root elongation of water lettuces (Lactuca sativa L) were used to evaluate the phytotoxicity of water and soil of Champotón River, Campeche, Mexico. water and soil sample were collected from two sampling sites. Lettuce seeds were exposed to three different dilutions of water and aqueous extract of ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Capsaicinoids improve consequences of physical activity
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Kazim Sahin, Cemal Orhan, Mehmet Tuzcu, Nurhan Sahin, Fusun Erten, Vijaya JuturuAbstractThe purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of capsaicinoids (CAPs) on lipid metabolism, inflammation, antioxidant status and the changes in gene products involved in these metabolic functions in exercised rats. A total of 28 male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 7) (i) No exercise and no CAPs, (ii) No exercise + CAPs (iii) Regular exercise, (iv) Regular exercise + CAPs. Rats were administered as 0.2 mg capsaicin...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Cissus quadrangularis extract (CQR-300) inhibits lipid accumulation by downregulating adipogenesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells
The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-obesity activity and the action mechanism of Cissus quadrangularis extracts (CQR-300) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Cissus quadrangularis was extracted with hot water, resulting in CQR-300. The anti-obesity activity of CQR-300 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes was examined by Oil-red O staining. Possible mechanisms of CQR-300 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were determined by real-time PCR and western blot. Treatment with CQR-300 inhibited lipid accumulation without showing cytotoxicity to 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Furthermore, CQR-300 decreased adipogenesis/lipogenesis-related mRNA expression levels of fatty...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Carcinogenic activity of pentabrominated diphenyl ether mixture (DE-71) in rats and mice
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): J.K. Dunnick, A.R. Pandiri, B.A. Merrick, G.E. Kissling, H. Cunny, E. Mutlu, S. Waidyanatha, R. Sills, H.L. Hong, TV. Ton, T. Maynor, L. Recio, S.L. Phillips, M.J. Devito, A. BrixAbstractPentabrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants have been phased out in Europe and in the United States, but these lipid soluble chemicals persist in the environment and are found human and animal tissues. PBDEs have limited genotoxic activity. However, in a 2-year cancer study of a PBDE mixture (DE-71) (0, 3, 15, or 50 mg/kg (rats); 0, 3, 30, or 100 mg/kg (mic...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Evaluation of genotoxicity of Euphorbia triaculeata Forssk. extract on mice bone marrow cells in vivo
This study also deals with the effect of E. triaculeata on the standard drug cyclophosphamide (CP) treatment in mice. Three different doses 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight were selected. In micronucleus assay, single oral dose administration of Euphorbia triaculeata extract at the three doses did not increase the number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. Similarly, a single oral administration of Euphorbia triaculeata extract showed no significant changes on mitotic indices or in induction of chromosomal aberrations in mice bone marrow cells. Pretreatment with E. triaculeata extract significantly reduced t...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Short-term biodistribution and clearance of intravenously administered silica nanoparticles
We examined the biodistribution and excretion in female Sprague-Dawley rats of NM-200, a well characterized nanostructured silica representative for food applications. A single intravenous injection of NM-200 was applied at a dose of 20 mg/kgbw, followed by autopsy after 6 and 24 h. The main organs where silicon accumulated were liver and spleen. The silicon concentration significantly decreased in spleen between 6 and 24 h. In liver the tendency was the same but the effect was not significant. This could be due to clearance of the spleen to the liver via the splenic vein, while liver clearance takes more time due to...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The determination of some biogenic amines in Turkish fermented sausages consumed in Van
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Kamil Ekici, Abdullah Khalid OmerAbstractBiogenic amines, has been implicated as the causative agent in several outbreaks of food poisoning. Fermented food such as Turkish style fermented sausages can also contain biogenic amines, microorganisms possessing the enzymes decarboxylase, which converts amino acids to biogenic amines, are responsible for the formation of biogenic amines in fermented sausages. The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of biogenic amines in Turkish fermented sausage consumed in Van in Turkey, and to evaluate their con...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Application of Mulberry nigra to absorb heavy metal, mercury, from the environment of green space city
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Seyed Armin Hashemi, Sahar TabibianAbstractPhytoremediation is one of the methods for Bioremediation of the soils which has been noticed in recent decades. Two years sapling of Mulberry nigra selected and Mercury(II) nitrate solution with 30, 50 and 70 mg/L concentrations, after add solutions in to soil of sapling Mulberry nigra, eight months’ later leaf, stem and roots were selected and Measuring mercury was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. The maximum level of mercury accumulation in the leaf, stem and root was 55.67, 50 and 65 mg...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Kobophenol A Isolated from Roots of Caragana sinica (Buc’hoz) Rehder Exhibits Anti-inflammatory Activity by Regulating NF-κB Nuclear Translocation in J774A.1 Cells
This study aims to find out whether KPA isolated from roots of C. sinica can act as a potential substance on inflammation and analyze the molecular mechanism using the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated J774 A.1 macrophage cell line. We showed that KPA treatment significantly suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO) by inhibiting inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity. In the KPA also inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression and production, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in LPS-stimulated J774 A.1 cells. As c...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Assessment of metal levels in foodstuffs from the Region of Valencia (Spain)
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Silvia Marín, Olga Pardo, Alfredo Sánchez, Yovana Sanchis, Dinoraz Vélez, Vicenta Devesa, Guillermina Font, Vicent YusàAbstractConcentrations of lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic, tin, copper and chromium were measured in a study carried out in 2010–2011. A total of 8100 food samples were collected and composite samples for 12 food groups were analysed for metal concentration levels. Metal levels were, in general, below the maximum levels set by the current European legislation. The fish group presented the highest Cd, Hg...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 in cow milk in El Salvador: Results from a two-year survey
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Oscar Peña-Rodas, Roxana Martinez-Lopez, Roberto Hernandez-RaudaAbstractAflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a metabolite of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and is excreted through cow´s milk. AFM1 contamination of milk is extended geographically and there might be seasons-related variations for both prevalence and contents, with higher than average values in regions with long periods of drought like El Salvador. Therefore, this project quantified AFM1 levels in raw cow milk and AFs in cattle feedstuffs, during the transitional dry-rainy seasons of two consecutive yea...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Assessment of rabbit spermatozoa characteristics after amygdalin and apricot seeds exposure in vivo
This study evaluates rabbit spermatozoa motility parameters after in vivo administration of amygdalin and apricot seeds during a 28-day period. Apricot seeds are potentially useful in human nutrition and amygdalin is the major cyanogenic glycoside present therein. The rabbits were randomly divided into the five groups (Ctrl-Control, P1, P2, P3, P4) with 4 males in each group. Control group received no amygdalin/apricot seeds while the experimental groups P1 and P2 received a daily intramuscular injection of amygdalin at a dose 0.6 and 3.0 mg/kg b.w. respectively during 28 days. P3 and P4 received a daily dose 60 and 300...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Immunosuppressant drug tacrolimus induced mitochondrial nephrotoxicity, modified PCNA and Bcl-2 expression attenuated by Ocimum basilicum L. in CD1 mice
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Atif Abdulwahab A. Oyouni, Shalini Saggu, Ehab Tousson, Hasibur RehmanAbstractTacrolimus (TAC) is used sporadically as an immunosuppressive agent for organ transplantation, but its clinical used is limited due to its marked nephrotoxicity. Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) (OB) had been shown to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and nephroprotective activity, and effective at improving renal inflammation and glomerular. In our study, we aim to evaluate the efficacy of the OB against TAC-induced mitochondrial nephrotoxicity in CD1 mice. Mice were random...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxicological safety evaluation of freeze-dried Protaetia brevitarsis larva powder
In this study, as part of the preclinical toxicity program, we evaluated the toxicity of freeze-dried P. brevitarsis larva powder to develop a novel food material. In a single-dose oral toxicity study in rats, there were no changes in mortality, clinical observations, and body weight in rats administered 5000 mg/kg P. brevitarsis larva powder. In a 13-week oral repeated dose toxicity study in rats, there were no adverse effects or changes in mortality, clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, ophthalmology, clinical pathology, necropsy, organ weight, and histopathology at doses of 300, 1000, and 3000 mg/kg...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxicodynamics of Lead, Cadmium, Mercury and Arsenic- induced kidney toxicity and treatment strategy: A mini review
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Mohammad Nasiruddin Rana, Jitbanjong Tangpong, Md. Masudur RahmanAbstractEnvironmental pollution has become a concerning matter to human beings. Flint water crisis in the USA pointed out that pollution by heavy metal is getting worse day by day, predominantly by Lead, Cadmium, Mercury and Arsenic. Despite of not having any biological role in flora and fauna, they exhibit detrimental effect following exposure (acute or chronic). Even at low dose, they affect brain, kidney and heart. Oxidative stress has been termed as cause and effect in heavy metal-induce...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The investigation of effect of alpha lipoic acid against damage on neonatal rat lung to maternal tobacco smoke exposure
This study was carried out to determine the changes in the lungs of the rat pups exposed to tobacco smoke during pregnancy period and to investigate the protective effects of alpha lipoic acid, which is administered during pregnancy, on these changes.Spraque-Dawley female rats were divided into four groups: control, tobacco smoke (TS), tobacco smoke + alpha lipoic acid (TS + ALA) and alpha lipoic acid (ALA). The rats in control group were untreated. Rats were exposed to TS twice a day for one hour starting from eight weeks before mating and during pregnancy. 20 mg / kg of ALA was administered to rats. On 7th and ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Crosstalk between GSK-3, c-Fos, NFκB and TNF-α signaling pathways play an ambitious role in Chitosan Nanoparticles Cancer Therapy
This article is concerned with the therapeutic index of chitosan nanoparticles against diethyl nitrosamine (DEN) induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC was induced in rats via repeated DEN administration in a dose of 200 mg/kg BW IP, 2 weeks later rats received (2 ml/kg BW) CCl4 orally for 2 months followed by daily treatment with chitosan nanoparticles in an oral dose of 12 mg/kg for 1 month. Then the gene expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), (c-FOS), nuclear factor kappa-B (NFκB) and tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α) were reported in rats sera and the correlation between GSK-3, C-...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxic effects of Lambda-cyhalothrin, on the rat thyroid: Involvement of oxidative stress and ameliorative effect of ginger extract
This study evaluates the antioxidant effect of ginger extract on thyroid toxicity induced by LCT in albino rats. Adult Rats were divided into 4 experimental groups: Group 1: control, Group 2: oral ginger treatment (24 mg/ml, 3 days/week for 4 weeks), Group 3: oral LCT treatment (1/100 LD50, 3 days/week for 4 weeks), Group 4: oral LCT and ginger mixture treatment. The histological results of LCT group showed degenerated follicles with reduced colloids, congestion of blood vessels and hyperaemia between the follicles. Histochemically, depletion of glycogen and proteins was recorded in follicular cells and colloids. The bio...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Complex toxicity as disruption of adipocyte or osteoblast differentiation in human mesenchymal stem cells under the mixed condition of TBBPA and TCDD
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Hideki Kakutani, Tomohiro Yuzuriha, Ema Akiyama, Teruyuki Nakao, Souichi OhtaAbstractPeople are frequently and unintentionally exposed to many chemical compounds, such as environmental pollutants and endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), in food and from the atmosphere. In particular, endocrine-disrupting TBBPA and dioxins are found in human breast milk and in the body. Conventional studies evaluate toxicity by administering a single substance to cells or animals, but evaluation of the toxicity of mixtures of these ingested compounds is essential for &ld...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Contamination by neonicotinoid insecticides and their metabolites in Sri Lankan black tea leaves and Japanese green tea leaves
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Yoshinori Ikenaka, Kazutoshi Fujioka, Tomonori Kawakami, Takahiro Ichise, Nesta Bortey-Sam, Shouta M.M. Nakayama, Hazuki Mizukawa, Kumiko Taira, Keisuke Takahashi, Keisuke Kato, Koji Arizono, Mayumi IshizukaAbstractTea is one of the world’s most popular beverages due to health promoting effects. Despite these, there have been concerns about the adverse effects of tea contamination by neonicotinoid insecticides. Only a handful of studies on neonicotinoid insecticides in tea have been carried out and this study was therefore performed to determine the...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Bio-evaluation of crustacean and fungal nano-chitosan for applying as food ingredient
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Osama M. Darwesh, Yousef Y. Sultan, Mohamed M. Seif, Diaa A. MarrezAbstractChitosan, bio-polyaminosacharide, is derived from chitin. Two sources (shrimp wastes and fungus biomass) were used to produce chitosan. And then the chitosan was produced in the nano-form followed by characterization by transmission electron microscopy. The images obtained clearly showed that the size of nano-chitosan ranged between 7 and 13 and 3–6 nm with spherical shape for shrimp and fungal sources, respectively. The antimicrobial activities of the tested concentrations...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Acute and subacute (28 days) toxicity, hemolytic and cytotoxic effect of Artocarpus heterophyllus seed extracts
ConclusionsWith this results we can conclude that Artocarpus heterophyllus seeds presents no toxicity, and is very effective in determinated cancer cell lines, requiring further studies to validate their use as active natural product against cancer cells.Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Assessment of Socio-demographic Profile, Pattern, and Outcomes of Poisoning Cases in Emergency Department of A Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital– A Prospective Study
Publication date: Available online 22 May 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Prashar Abhimanyu, Ramesh MadhanAbstractObjectivesTo assess the socio-demographic profile, pattern of poisonings and treatment outcomes of the poisoning cases.MethodsA prospective interventional study was conducted at the department of emergency medicine of a South Indian tertiary care hospital for a period of one year to study socio - demographic profile, pattern and outcomes of poisoning cases. All the patients admitted to department of emergency medicine with accidental/ intentional poisoning were followed and all the required details wer...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Safety profile of 40% Garcinol from Garcinia indica in experimental rodents
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Muhammed Majeed, Sarang Bani, Beena Bhat, Anjali Pandey, Lakshmi Mundkur, Prakriti NeupaneAbstractThe present study was taken up to evaluate the single dose acute toxicity, 28 days and 90 days repeated dose toxicity and reproductive/developmental toxicity of standardized 40% Garcinol in experimental rodents. The studies were conducted in compliance with OECD principles of good laboratory practice, guidelines for testing of chemicals no.420, 407, 408 and 421 respectively. Single dose acute oral toxicity was conducted on female Wistar rats as sighting study...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Short term exposure to titanium, aluminum and vanadium (Ti 6Al 4V) alloy powder drastically affects behavior and antioxidant metabolites in vital organs of male albino mice
In conclusion, our results indicated that short term exposure to 25 mg/ml solvent/Kg body weight of Ti-6Al-4V alloy powder supplementation had adversely affected selected aspects of behavior of albino mice in a gender specific manner. Analysis of antioxidant parameters in vital organs has demonstrated that the applied dose of Ti-6Al-4V alloy powder can disturb the H₂O₂ associated metabolic pathways in albino mice, especially in female mice. As this alloy is part of surgical implants, so we recommend that their effects in living systems must be extensively explored under variable dose and exposure time conditions to k...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

A retrospective study of clinico-epidemiological profile of snakebite related deaths at a Tertiary care hospital in Midnapore, West Bengal, India
ConclusionSnake bite is a neglected, life-threatening emergency in developing countries such as India and demands immediate anti-venom therapy. Hospital studies are a key source of information about snake bites. The ready availability and appropriate use of AVS, close monitoring of patients, the institution of ventilator support and if required, early referral to a larger hospital all help to reduce the mortality. Thus knowledge of the varied clinical manifestations of snake bite is important for effective management in hospitals by a complete health care team.Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Longitudinal survey of lead, cadmium, and copper in seagrass Syringodium filiforme from a former bombing range (Vieques, Puerto Rico)
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Elba Díaz, Dustin Pérez, Johanna Delgado Acevedo, Arturo Massol-DeyáAbstractTrace element composition in plant biomass could be used as an indicator of environmental stress, management practices and restoration success. A longitudinal study was conducted to compare Pb, Cd, and Cu content in seagrass Syringodium filiforme collected at a former bombing range in Puerto Rico with those of a Biosphere Reserve under similar geoclimatic conditions. Trace elements were measured by atomic absorption after dry-ashing of samples and extraction w...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Clinical value of drugs of abuse point of care testing in an emergency department setting
ConclusionsThe use of point of care TST-U in an Emergency Department helps physicians to understand the clinical condition of a patient. They influence the way a patient is treated to a lesser extent. These tests are most helpful in patients with decreased consciousness, psychiatric or neurological symptoms and mostly unhelpful in patients who, upon admission, are already known to be intoxicated.Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Evaluation of acute and sublethal effects of chloroquine (C18H26CIN3) on certain enzymological and histopathological biomarker responses of a freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio
In this study the toxicity of antimalarial drug chloroquine (CQ) on certain enzymological (GOT, GPT and LDH) and histopathological alterations (Gill, liver and kidney) of a freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio was studied after acute (96 h) and sublethal (35 days) exposure. The median lethal concentration (96 h) of CQ was 31.62 mg/ml. During acute treatment (CQ at 31.62 mg/ml) the treated fish groups showed a significant increase in GOT and GPT activities in blood plasma; whereas LDH activity was decreased when compare to control groups. To analyse the effects of drug at the lowest concentration, the fi...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Sex, pregnancy, and age-specific differences of blood manganese levels in relation to iron status; what does it mean?
In conclusion, the differences between a physiological and a pathological hypermanganesemia complicate interpretation of the dose-response relationship.Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Hepatoprotective effect of food preservatives (butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene) on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rat
This study was carried out to establish the hepatoprotective measures of food preservative antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytolune (BHA, BHT) when mixed with food towards carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxication (230 mg/ kg b wt/rat/day) in rat. Biochemical markers like serum glutamate pyruvate tranaminase (AST), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin content, antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT, GPx, and malondialdehyde (MDA) as the end product of lipid peroxidanion were measured. The results had shown the elevated level of AST (121.16...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxic effect of Moringa peregrina seeds on histological and biochemical analyses of adult male Albino rats
In this study, Moringa peregrina seeds, grown in high elevation mountain in Saint Catherin area, were investigated and evaluated for their toxicity with respect to its topological potential through histological and biochemical studies in Albino rats. Daily doses of 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight of dry seed of M. peregrina were administered orally to 4 groups of rats for 14 days. Biochemical and histopathological results were evaluated by standard methods. Measured biochemical parameters, insulin, albumin, total protein, creatinine, urea, uric acid, Follicle-stimulating hormone, Luteinizing hormone and T...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

New research highlights: Impact of chronic ingestion of white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Beldia) on small-intestinal disaccharidase activity in Wistar rats
The objective of this study was to assess the gavage effects of a raw Beldia bean variety on the brush border disaccharidase activities in the jejunal mucosa of Wistar rats. Twenty young adult male rats were randomly assigned into 2 groups of 10 rats each: Control, rats were gavaged with 300 mg of a rodent pellet flour suspension (RPFS); Experimental, rats were orogastrically fed a dose of 300 mg Beldia bean flour suspension (BBFS). Prior to determining the disaccharidase activity by Dahlqvist method, the blood and stool specimens were collected on day 10. The sera and feces were screened for the presence of lectins by...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Effects of intragastrically-administered Tepary bean lectins on digestive and immune organs: Preclinical evaluation
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Julia María Alatorre-Cruz, Wendoline Pita-López, Rosa Guadalupe López-Reyes, Roberto Augusto Ferriz-Martínez, Ricardo Cervantes-Jiménez, María de Jesús Guerrero Carrillo, Paola Jazmín Aranda Vargas, Gabriela López-Herrera, Adriana Jheny Rodríguez-Méndez, Aarón Zamora-Arroyo, Héctor Gutiérrez-Sánchez, Tércia Reis de Souza, Alejandro Blanco-Labra, Teresa García-GascaAbstractPrevious work showed that Tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) lecti...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Lateral flow immunoassay and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay as effective immunomethods for the detection of synthetic cannabinoid JWH-200 based on the newly synthesized hapten
In this study, we developed a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) and an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of JWH-200 in oral fluids. For this purpose a new hapten was prepared using a ten-step synthetic route. The developed immuno methods are based on antibodies obtained from rabbit immunized with synthesized hapten conjugated to carrier protein. The proposed methods are highly sensitive (LODLFIA = 0.08 ± 0.04 ng mL−1; LODELISA = 0.04 ± 0.02 ng mL−1). They were applied to the quantification of JHW-200 in spiked oral fluids. The recoveries ranged from ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Bisphenol A (BPA) the mighty and the mutagenic
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Nasir Jalal, Austin R. Surendranath, Janak L. Pathak, Shi Yu, Chang Y. ChungAbstractBisphenol A (BPA) is one of the most widely used synthetic compounds on the planet. Upon entering the diet, its highest concentration (1–104 ng/g of tissue) has been recorded in the placenta and fetus. This accumulation of BPA can have many health hazards ranging from the easy to repair single strand DNA breaks (SSBs) to error prone double strand DNA breaks (DSBs). Although the Human liver can efficiently metabolize BPA via glucuronidation and sulfation pathways, h...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Evaluation of acute toxicity of triazophos and deltamethrin and their inhibitory effect on AChE activity in Channa punctatus
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Shikha Singh, Rishikesh K. Tiwari, Ravi S. PandeyAbstractPesticides are applied to control the pests indoor and outdoor; however, their remarkable amount reaches to the aquatic system through various routes like run-off, leaching, spray-drift, effluent from factories. These are reported to have negative metabolic impact on different non-target aquatic organisms like fishes. Thus, present study is aimed to evaluate the acute toxicity of two groups of pesticides, organophosphate and pyrethroid, namely triazophos and deltamethrin, respectively. The test was ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Diclofenac – induced hepatotoxicity: Low dose of omega-3 fatty acids have more protective effects
In conclusion, the pre-administration of N-3, preferably at a low dose, could reduce hepatotoxicity that could result from subsequent exposure to DF.Graphical abstractA schematic diagram showing the protective effects of omega-3 fatty acids in diclofenac sodium − induced hepatotoxicity. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Sex-dependent impact of Roundup on the rat gut microbiome
In conclusion, we revealed that an environmental concentration of R (0.1 ppb) and other two concentrations (400 ppm and 5,000 ppm) have a sex-dependent impact on rat gut microbiome composition and thus warrants further investigation.Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Antimutagenic activity of compounds isolated from Ajuga bracteosa Wall ex. Benth against EMS induced mutagenicity in mice
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Hilal Ahmad Ganaie, Md. Niamat Ali, Bashir A. Ganai, Samirul BashirAbstractAjuga bracteosa Wall ex. Benth. (Lamiaceae) has been reported to possess many biological activities including antibacterial, antifungal, antispasmodic and antioxidant activity but there is no report as such on its mutagenic and/or anti-mutagenic activity. The aim of the present study was to isolate compounds from the methanol extract of the aerial parts of Ajuga bracteosa and determine their anti-mutagenic activity against the mutagen, EMS in animal model mice. The study was undert...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

CYP1A gene expression as a basic factor for fipronil toxicity in Caspian kutum fish
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Rashid Alijani Ardeshir, Hossein Zolgharnein, Abdolali Movahedinia, Negin Salamat, Ebrahim ZabihiAbstractThe aim of this study was to assess the effects of fipronil insecticide on the Caspian kutum fish at different levels of biological organizations and to find possible relationship between these biomarkers. Different doses of fipronil (65, 130 and 200 mg/kg) were intraperitoneally administered to the fish for 2 weeks. After 7 and 14 days of exposure, alterations in organ-somatic index, tissue and DNA structure, oxidative stress and CYP1A gene expres...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Imidacloprid exposure cause the histopathological changes, activation of TNF-α, iNOS, 8-OHdG biomarkers, and alteration of caspase 3, iNOS, CYP1A, MT1 gene expression levels in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Selçuk Özdemir, Serdar Altun, Harun ArslanAbstractImidacloprid (IMI) is a neonicotinoid that is widely used for the protection of crops and carnivores from insects and parasites, respectively. It is well known that imidacloprid exposure has a harmful effect on several organisms. However, there is little information about imidacloprid toxicity in aquatic animals, particularly fish. Thus, in the current study, we assessed the histopathological changes; activation of iNOS, 8-OHdG and TNF-α; and expression levels of caspase 3, iNOS, CYP1A an...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Hyperosmolal vaginal lubricants markedly reduce epithelial barrier properties in a three-dimensional vaginal epithelium model
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Seyoum Ayehunie, Ying-Ying Wang, Timothy Landry, Stephanie Bogojevic, Richard A. ConeAbstractMost of the widely used vaginal lubricants in the U.S. and Europe are strongly hyperosmolal, formulated with high concentrations of glycerol, propylene glycol, polyquaternary compounds or other ingredients that make these lubricants 4 to 30 times the osmolality of healthy vaginal fluid. Hyperosmolal formulations have been shown to cause marked toxicity to human colorectal epithelia in vivo, and significantly increase vaginal transmission of genital herpes infectio...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Aging related changes in circulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) and protein carbonyls are indicative of liver oxidative injury
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Cristina Luceri, Elisabetta Bigagli, Angelo Pietro Femia, Giovanna Caderni, Lisa Giovannelli, Maura LodoviciAbstractOxidative stress, defined as an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defense mechanisms, plays a major role in inducing oxidative damage and cellular impairment, resulting in a general decline of the physiological functions. The aim of this work was to evaluate age-related changes in circulating ROS levels and plasma protein carbonyls, in very young (2 months aged), young (8 months aged) and in mi...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Nigella sativa oil protects against tartrazine toxicity in male rats
This study aimed to evaluate the protective role of Nigella sativa oil against the adverse effects of tartrazine on male rats. 18 albino rats were divided randomly into four groups (n = 6). The first (G1) is the negative control, the second group (G2) is the positive control received 10 mg/kg b.w. tartrazine in the diet and the third (G3) received the same dose of tartrazine as in G2 and co-treated with Nigella sativa oil for 8 weeks. Tartrazine decreased total protein, antioxidants and high density lipoproteins, whereas increased liver enzyme, kidney function parameters, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxicity of formulants and heavy metals in glyphosate-based herbicides and other pesticides
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): N. Defarge, J. Spiroux de Vendômois, G.E. SéraliniAbstractThe major pesticides of the world are glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH), and their toxicity is highly debated. To understand their mode of action, the comparative herbicidal and toxicological effects of glyphosate (G) alone and 14 of its formulations were studied in this work, as a model for pesticides. GBH are mixtures of water, with commonly 36–48% G claimed as the active principle. As with other pesticides, 10–20% of GBH consist of chemical formulants. We previously iden...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Interaction of anthraquinones of Cassia occidentalis seeds with DNA and Glutathione
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Gati Krushna Panigrahi, Neeraj Verma, Nivedita Singh, Somya Asthana, Shailendra K. Gupta, Anurag Tripathi, Mukul DasAbstractConsumption of Cassia occidentalis (CO) seeds has been associated with the hepatomyoencephalopathy (HME) in children. Recently, we have characterized the toxic anthraquinones (AQs) such as Emodin, Rhein, Aloe-emodin, Chrysophanol and Physcion in CO seeds and detected these moieties in the bio fluids of CO poisoning cases. As AQs were detected in the serum of HME patients, their interaction with key biomolecules including protein, DNA...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Assessing heavy metal toxicity in sediments of Chennai Coast of Tamil Nadu using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (EDXRF) with statistical approach
This study provides a relatively novel technique for identifying and mapping the distribution of metal pollutants and their sources in sediment.Graphical abstractPlot of locations versus EF values of heavy metals. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Application of mutagen sensitivity assay in a glioma case-control study
In this study, MSA was used to assess its applicability to a glioma case-control study and to test the hypothesis that subjects with glioma may have lower DNA repair capacity after exposure to selected potential human neurocarcinogens (i.e. acrylamide), compared to controls. Approximately 50 case and 50 control subjects were identified from a clinic-based study that investigated environmental risk factors for glioma, who completed an exposure survey, and had frozen immortalized lymphocytes available. A total of 50 metaphase spreads were read and reported for each participant. The association of case-control status with MSA...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Malathion, an organophosphate insecticide, provokes metabolic, histopathologic and molecular disorders in liver and kidney in prepubertal male mice
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Slimen Selmi, Kais Rtibi, Dhekra Grami, Hichem Sebai, Lamjed MarzoukiAbstractThe present study was undertaken to determine the effects of malathion exposure on oxidative stress, functional and metabolic parameters in kidney and liver of prepubertal male mice. For this reason, two separated groups of prepubertal male mice were used in this experiment. Animals were divided into two groups, group 1 served as a control and received the corn oil and group 2 was treated with 200 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) of malathion for 30 days. In result, we found that the...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research