Safety profile of 40% Garcinol from Garcinia indica in experimental rodents
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Muhammed Majeed, Sarang Bani, Beena Bhat, Anjali Pandey, Lakshmi Mundkur, Prakriti NeupaneAbstractThe present study was taken up to evaluate the single dose acute toxicity, 28 days and 90 days repeated dose toxicity and reproductive/developmental toxicity of standardized 40% Garcinol in experimental rodents. The studies were conducted in compliance with OECD principles of good laboratory practice, guidelines for testing of chemicals no.420, 407, 408 and 421 respectively. Single dose acute oral toxicity was conducted on female Wistar rats as sighting study...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Short term exposure to titanium, aluminum and vanadium (Ti 6Al 4V) alloy powder drastically affects behavior and antioxidant metabolites in vital organs of male albino mice
In conclusion, our results indicated that short term exposure to 25 mg/ml solvent/Kg body weight of Ti-6Al-4V alloy powder supplementation had adversely affected selected aspects of behavior of albino mice in a gender specific manner. Analysis of antioxidant parameters in vital organs has demonstrated that the applied dose of Ti-6Al-4V alloy powder can disturb the H₂O₂ associated metabolic pathways in albino mice, especially in female mice. As this alloy is part of surgical implants, so we recommend that their effects in living systems must be extensively explored under variable dose and exposure time conditions to k...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

A retrospective study of clinico-epidemiological profile of snakebite related deaths at a Tertiary care hospital in Midnapore, West Bengal, India
ConclusionSnake bite is a neglected, life-threatening emergency in developing countries such as India and demands immediate anti-venom therapy. Hospital studies are a key source of information about snake bites. The ready availability and appropriate use of AVS, close monitoring of patients, the institution of ventilator support and if required, early referral to a larger hospital all help to reduce the mortality. Thus knowledge of the varied clinical manifestations of snake bite is important for effective management in hospitals by a complete health care team.Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Longitudinal survey of lead, cadmium, and copper in seagrass Syringodium filiforme from a former bombing range (Vieques, Puerto Rico)
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Elba Díaz, Dustin Pérez, Johanna Delgado Acevedo, Arturo Massol-DeyáAbstractTrace element composition in plant biomass could be used as an indicator of environmental stress, management practices and restoration success. A longitudinal study was conducted to compare Pb, Cd, and Cu content in seagrass Syringodium filiforme collected at a former bombing range in Puerto Rico with those of a Biosphere Reserve under similar geoclimatic conditions. Trace elements were measured by atomic absorption after dry-ashing of samples and extraction w...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Clinical value of drugs of abuse point of care testing in an emergency department setting
ConclusionsThe use of point of care TST-U in an Emergency Department helps physicians to understand the clinical condition of a patient. They influence the way a patient is treated to a lesser extent. These tests are most helpful in patients with decreased consciousness, psychiatric or neurological symptoms and mostly unhelpful in patients who, upon admission, are already known to be intoxicated.Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Evaluation of acute and sublethal effects of chloroquine (C18H26CIN3) on certain enzymological and histopathological biomarker responses of a freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio
In this study the toxicity of antimalarial drug chloroquine (CQ) on certain enzymological (GOT, GPT and LDH) and histopathological alterations (Gill, liver and kidney) of a freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio was studied after acute (96 h) and sublethal (35 days) exposure. The median lethal concentration (96 h) of CQ was 31.62 mg/ml. During acute treatment (CQ at 31.62 mg/ml) the treated fish groups showed a significant increase in GOT and GPT activities in blood plasma; whereas LDH activity was decreased when compare to control groups. To analyse the effects of drug at the lowest concentration, the fi...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Sex, pregnancy, and age-specific differences of blood manganese levels in relation to iron status; what does it mean?
In conclusion, the differences between a physiological and a pathological hypermanganesemia complicate interpretation of the dose-response relationship.Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Hepatoprotective effect of food preservatives (butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene) on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rat
This study was carried out to establish the hepatoprotective measures of food preservative antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytolune (BHA, BHT) when mixed with food towards carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxication (230 mg/ kg b wt/rat/day) in rat. Biochemical markers like serum glutamate pyruvate tranaminase (AST), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin content, antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT, GPx, and malondialdehyde (MDA) as the end product of lipid peroxidanion were measured. The results had shown the elevated level of AST (121.16...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxic effect of Moringa peregrina seeds on histological and biochemical analyses of adult male Albino rats
In this study, Moringa peregrina seeds, grown in high elevation mountain in Saint Catherin area, were investigated and evaluated for their toxicity with respect to its topological potential through histological and biochemical studies in Albino rats. Daily doses of 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight of dry seed of M. peregrina were administered orally to 4 groups of rats for 14 days. Biochemical and histopathological results were evaluated by standard methods. Measured biochemical parameters, insulin, albumin, total protein, creatinine, urea, uric acid, Follicle-stimulating hormone, Luteinizing hormone and T...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

New research highlights: Impact of chronic ingestion of white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Beldia) on small-intestinal disaccharidase activity in Wistar rats
The objective of this study was to assess the gavage effects of a raw Beldia bean variety on the brush border disaccharidase activities in the jejunal mucosa of Wistar rats. Twenty young adult male rats were randomly assigned into 2 groups of 10 rats each: Control, rats were gavaged with 300 mg of a rodent pellet flour suspension (RPFS); Experimental, rats were orogastrically fed a dose of 300 mg Beldia bean flour suspension (BBFS). Prior to determining the disaccharidase activity by Dahlqvist method, the blood and stool specimens were collected on day 10. The sera and feces were screened for the presence of lectins by...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Effects of intragastrically-administered Tepary bean lectins on digestive and immune organs: Preclinical evaluation
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Julia María Alatorre-Cruz, Wendoline Pita-López, Rosa Guadalupe López-Reyes, Roberto Augusto Ferriz-Martínez, Ricardo Cervantes-Jiménez, María de Jesús Guerrero Carrillo, Paola Jazmín Aranda Vargas, Gabriela López-Herrera, Adriana Jheny Rodríguez-Méndez, Aarón Zamora-Arroyo, Héctor Gutiérrez-Sánchez, Tércia Reis de Souza, Alejandro Blanco-Labra, Teresa García-GascaAbstractPrevious work showed that Tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) lecti...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Lateral flow immunoassay and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay as effective immunomethods for the detection of synthetic cannabinoid JWH-200 based on the newly synthesized hapten
In this study, we developed a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) and an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of JWH-200 in oral fluids. For this purpose a new hapten was prepared using a ten-step synthetic route. The developed immuno methods are based on antibodies obtained from rabbit immunized with synthesized hapten conjugated to carrier protein. The proposed methods are highly sensitive (LODLFIA = 0.08 ± 0.04 ng mL−1; LODELISA = 0.04 ± 0.02 ng mL−1). They were applied to the quantification of JHW-200 in spiked oral fluids. The recoveries ranged from ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Bisphenol A (BPA) the mighty and the mutagenic
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Nasir Jalal, Austin R. Surendranath, Janak L. Pathak, Shi Yu, Chang Y. ChungAbstractBisphenol A (BPA) is one of the most widely used synthetic compounds on the planet. Upon entering the diet, its highest concentration (1–104 ng/g of tissue) has been recorded in the placenta and fetus. This accumulation of BPA can have many health hazards ranging from the easy to repair single strand DNA breaks (SSBs) to error prone double strand DNA breaks (DSBs). Although the Human liver can efficiently metabolize BPA via glucuronidation and sulfation pathways, h...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Evaluation of acute toxicity of triazophos and deltamethrin and their inhibitory effect on AChE activity in Channa punctatus
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Shikha Singh, Rishikesh K. Tiwari, Ravi S. PandeyAbstractPesticides are applied to control the pests indoor and outdoor; however, their remarkable amount reaches to the aquatic system through various routes like run-off, leaching, spray-drift, effluent from factories. These are reported to have negative metabolic impact on different non-target aquatic organisms like fishes. Thus, present study is aimed to evaluate the acute toxicity of two groups of pesticides, organophosphate and pyrethroid, namely triazophos and deltamethrin, respectively. The test was ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Diclofenac – induced hepatotoxicity: Low dose of omega-3 fatty acids have more protective effects
In conclusion, the pre-administration of N-3, preferably at a low dose, could reduce hepatotoxicity that could result from subsequent exposure to DF.Graphical abstractA schematic diagram showing the protective effects of omega-3 fatty acids in diclofenac sodium − induced hepatotoxicity. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Sex-dependent impact of Roundup on the rat gut microbiome
In conclusion, we revealed that an environmental concentration of R (0.1 ppb) and other two concentrations (400 ppm and 5,000 ppm) have a sex-dependent impact on rat gut microbiome composition and thus warrants further investigation.Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Antimutagenic activity of compounds isolated from Ajuga bracteosa Wall ex. Benth against EMS induced mutagenicity in mice
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Hilal Ahmad Ganaie, Md. Niamat Ali, Bashir A. Ganai, Samirul BashirAbstractAjuga bracteosa Wall ex. Benth. (Lamiaceae) has been reported to possess many biological activities including antibacterial, antifungal, antispasmodic and antioxidant activity but there is no report as such on its mutagenic and/or anti-mutagenic activity. The aim of the present study was to isolate compounds from the methanol extract of the aerial parts of Ajuga bracteosa and determine their anti-mutagenic activity against the mutagen, EMS in animal model mice. The study was undert...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

CYP1A gene expression as a basic factor for fipronil toxicity in Caspian kutum fish
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Rashid Alijani Ardeshir, Hossein Zolgharnein, Abdolali Movahedinia, Negin Salamat, Ebrahim ZabihiAbstractThe aim of this study was to assess the effects of fipronil insecticide on the Caspian kutum fish at different levels of biological organizations and to find possible relationship between these biomarkers. Different doses of fipronil (65, 130 and 200 mg/kg) were intraperitoneally administered to the fish for 2 weeks. After 7 and 14 days of exposure, alterations in organ-somatic index, tissue and DNA structure, oxidative stress and CYP1A gene expres...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Imidacloprid exposure cause the histopathological changes, activation of TNF-α, iNOS, 8-OHdG biomarkers, and alteration of caspase 3, iNOS, CYP1A, MT1 gene expression levels in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Selçuk Özdemir, Serdar Altun, Harun ArslanAbstractImidacloprid (IMI) is a neonicotinoid that is widely used for the protection of crops and carnivores from insects and parasites, respectively. It is well known that imidacloprid exposure has a harmful effect on several organisms. However, there is little information about imidacloprid toxicity in aquatic animals, particularly fish. Thus, in the current study, we assessed the histopathological changes; activation of iNOS, 8-OHdG and TNF-α; and expression levels of caspase 3, iNOS, CYP1A an...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Hyperosmolal vaginal lubricants markedly reduce epithelial barrier properties in a three-dimensional vaginal epithelium model
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Seyoum Ayehunie, Ying-Ying Wang, Timothy Landry, Stephanie Bogojevic, Richard A. ConeAbstractMost of the widely used vaginal lubricants in the U.S. and Europe are strongly hyperosmolal, formulated with high concentrations of glycerol, propylene glycol, polyquaternary compounds or other ingredients that make these lubricants 4 to 30 times the osmolality of healthy vaginal fluid. Hyperosmolal formulations have been shown to cause marked toxicity to human colorectal epithelia in vivo, and significantly increase vaginal transmission of genital herpes infectio...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Aging related changes in circulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) and protein carbonyls are indicative of liver oxidative injury
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Cristina Luceri, Elisabetta Bigagli, Angelo Pietro Femia, Giovanna Caderni, Lisa Giovannelli, Maura LodoviciAbstractOxidative stress, defined as an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defense mechanisms, plays a major role in inducing oxidative damage and cellular impairment, resulting in a general decline of the physiological functions. The aim of this work was to evaluate age-related changes in circulating ROS levels and plasma protein carbonyls, in very young (2 months aged), young (8 months aged) and in mi...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Nigella sativa oil protects against tartrazine toxicity in male rats
This study aimed to evaluate the protective role of Nigella sativa oil against the adverse effects of tartrazine on male rats. 18 albino rats were divided randomly into four groups (n = 6). The first (G1) is the negative control, the second group (G2) is the positive control received 10 mg/kg b.w. tartrazine in the diet and the third (G3) received the same dose of tartrazine as in G2 and co-treated with Nigella sativa oil for 8 weeks. Tartrazine decreased total protein, antioxidants and high density lipoproteins, whereas increased liver enzyme, kidney function parameters, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxicity of formulants and heavy metals in glyphosate-based herbicides and other pesticides
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): N. Defarge, J. Spiroux de Vendômois, G.E. SéraliniAbstractThe major pesticides of the world are glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH), and their toxicity is highly debated. To understand their mode of action, the comparative herbicidal and toxicological effects of glyphosate (G) alone and 14 of its formulations were studied in this work, as a model for pesticides. GBH are mixtures of water, with commonly 36–48% G claimed as the active principle. As with other pesticides, 10–20% of GBH consist of chemical formulants. We previously iden...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Interaction of anthraquinones of Cassia occidentalis seeds with DNA and Glutathione
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Gati Krushna Panigrahi, Neeraj Verma, Nivedita Singh, Somya Asthana, Shailendra K. Gupta, Anurag Tripathi, Mukul DasAbstractConsumption of Cassia occidentalis (CO) seeds has been associated with the hepatomyoencephalopathy (HME) in children. Recently, we have characterized the toxic anthraquinones (AQs) such as Emodin, Rhein, Aloe-emodin, Chrysophanol and Physcion in CO seeds and detected these moieties in the bio fluids of CO poisoning cases. As AQs were detected in the serum of HME patients, their interaction with key biomolecules including protein, DNA...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Assessing heavy metal toxicity in sediments of Chennai Coast of Tamil Nadu using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (EDXRF) with statistical approach
This study provides a relatively novel technique for identifying and mapping the distribution of metal pollutants and their sources in sediment.Graphical abstractPlot of locations versus EF values of heavy metals. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Application of mutagen sensitivity assay in a glioma case-control study
In this study, MSA was used to assess its applicability to a glioma case-control study and to test the hypothesis that subjects with glioma may have lower DNA repair capacity after exposure to selected potential human neurocarcinogens (i.e. acrylamide), compared to controls. Approximately 50 case and 50 control subjects were identified from a clinic-based study that investigated environmental risk factors for glioma, who completed an exposure survey, and had frozen immortalized lymphocytes available. A total of 50 metaphase spreads were read and reported for each participant. The association of case-control status with MSA...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Malathion, an organophosphate insecticide, provokes metabolic, histopathologic and molecular disorders in liver and kidney in prepubertal male mice
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Slimen Selmi, Kais Rtibi, Dhekra Grami, Hichem Sebai, Lamjed MarzoukiAbstractThe present study was undertaken to determine the effects of malathion exposure on oxidative stress, functional and metabolic parameters in kidney and liver of prepubertal male mice. For this reason, two separated groups of prepubertal male mice were used in this experiment. Animals were divided into two groups, group 1 served as a control and received the corn oil and group 2 was treated with 200 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) of malathion for 30 days. In result, we found that the...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Mutagenicity and genotoxicity of ClearTaste
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): B.K. Soni, J.P. LanganAbstractThe present study investigates whether ClearTaste is mutagenic/genotoxic by employing it as a test article in bacterial reverse mutation (Ames test) and in vitro human peripheral blood lymphocyte micronucleus assays conducted by a Good Laboratory Practice certified third party as parameterized by the United States Food and Drug Administration. ClearTaste is a taste modulator derived from the filtrate of submerged Cordyceps sinensis and is typically processed into a powder. It functions as a bitter, sour, astringency, metallic...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Clarification and lessons learned for reporting studies with hydrates. Citation: Roberts et al., 2016. Toxicology Reports 3: 531–538
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Georgia K. Roberts, Matthew D. Stout, Brian Sayers, Dawn M. Fallacara, Milton R. Hejtmancik, Suramya Waidyanatha, Michelle J. Hooth (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Moringa oleifera extract (Lam) attenuates Aluminium phosphide-induced acute cardiac toxicity in rats
ConclusionsThis study suggested that Moringa oleifera extract could possibly restore the altered cardiac histopathology and some antioxidant power in AlP intoxicated rats, and it could even be used as adjuvant therapy against AlP-induced cardiotoxicity.Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

28-day inhalation toxicity of 3-methoxybutyl chloroformate in rats
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Hyeon-Yeong Kim, Eun-Sang ChoAbstractThe 28-day repeated inhalation study was applied for hazard assessment of 3-methoxybutyl chloroformate (3-MBCF) in Sprague Dawley rats. Groups of five rats per sex were exposed 6 h/day, 5 days per week for 4 weeks to test substance concentration (ranging from 3 to 12 ppm) using a whole-body exposure system. At the terminal sacrifice, following blood collection and gross pathological examination, organ weights were determined and fixed organs were examined. The micronucleus test was performed using bone marrow cel...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Mutagenicity comparison of nine bioselenocompounds in three Salmonella typhimurium strains
In this study, we evaluated the mutagenicity of nine naturally occurring Se compounds or the so-called bioselenocompounds, including selenite, selenate, selenocyanate, selenomethionine, selenocystine, Se-methylselenocysteine, selenohomolanthionine, N-acetylgalactosamine-type selenosugar, and trimethylselenonium ion, by using the Ames test. Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, and TA1535 were used for the mutagenicity evaluation in the presence or absence of S9 mix, a metabolic activator. Only selenate showed weak mutagenicity even in the absence of S9 mix. None of the bioselenocompounds except selenate exhibited mutagenicit...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Morphologic and chemical composition of particulate matter in motorcycle engine exhaust
In conclusion, it can be pointed out that the agglomeration of particles can lead to the reduction in the toxicity of particles emissions originated from two wheeled-vehicles.Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Acute and sub acute studies of catechol derivatives from Semecarpus anacardium
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Ramalingam Sundaram, Muthu Karuppaiah, Palanivelu Shanthi, Panchanatham SachdanandamAbstractThe present study was aimed at evaluating the acute and subacute toxicity of catechol derivatives (I–IV, isolated from Semecarpus anacardium nuts) in Wistar Albino rats. In acute study (14 days), catechol derivatives I–IV 800 mg/kg caused no behavioral adverse effects and mortality. Fifty percent (LD50) of mortality was observed in catechol derivatives I–III (1600 mg/kg b.wt) and catechol derivative IV (1250 mg/kg b.wt). In subacute study,...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Whole-food phytochemicals antioxidative potential in alloxan-diabetic rats
ConclusionWhole foods containing naturally occurring phytochemicals and antioxidant vitamins such as legumes and whole grains are recommended, alongside medication, for controlling hyperglycaemia, blood lipids and oxidative status in diabetes.Graphical abstractJohar_Illustration 1 (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Assessment of the antioxidant and antimutagenic activity of extracts from goji berry of Greek cultivation
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Prodromos Skenderidis, Efthalia Kerasioti, Eleftheria Karkanta, Dimitrios Stagos, Demetrios Kouretas, Konstantinos Petrotos, Christos Hadjichristodoulou, Andreas TsakalofAbstractThe aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of ultrasound assisted aqueous extracts from dry goji berry fruits cultivated in Greece. The extracts’ free radical scavenging activity was assessed by the DPPH and ABTS+ assays. The results from both assays demonstrated that the extracts exhibited strong radical scavenging activity with IC50 va...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Nevada desert dust with heavy metals suppresses IgM antibody production
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Deborah E. Keil, Brenda Buck, Dirk Goossens, Brett McLaurin, Lacey Murphy, Mallory Leetham-Spencer, Yuanxin Teng, James Pollard, Russell Gerads, Jamie C. DeWittAbstractSystemic health effects from exposure to a complex natural dust containing heavy metals from the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area (NDRA) near Las Vegas, NV, were evaluated. Several toxicological parameters were examined following lung exposure to emissive dust from three geologic sediment types heavily used for recreational off-road activities: yellow sand very rich in arsenic (termed CBN 5); a...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Protective role of Emblica officinalis hydro-ethanolic leaf extract in cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in Rats
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Rupal Purena, Rohit Seth, Renu BhattAbstractNephrotoxicity is a major limiting factor in cisplatin treatment. In the present study hydro-ethanolic leaf extract of Emblica officinalis was investigated for its protective role in cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity. The experiment was designed for 14 days and male Wistar rats were divided into 9 groups (n = 5). Group 1 served as control (with no treatment), group 2 served as a vehicle control and received 0.9% NaCl intraperitoneally (i.p.) on 11th day of the treatment, group 3 received a single dose of ci...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The consequence of NAC on sodium arsenite-induced uterine oxidative stress
We examined the electrozymographic imprint of three different enzymatic antioxidants in uterine tissue. Rats fed with sodium arsenite exhibited a significant lessening in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Uterine DNA breakage, necrosis, ovarian and uterine tissue damage, disruption in steroidogenesis were also found in arsenic treated rats. Co-administration of NAC at different doses (50 mg/kg body weight, 100 mg/kg body weight, respectively) significantly reversed the action of uterine oxidative stress markers like malondialdehyde (MDA), conjugated dienes (CD) and...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish species from the Meiliang Bay, Taihu Lake, China
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Sivakumar Rajeshkumar, Xiaoyu LiAbstractIn the present study, the bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Cd, Pb) content were determined in freshwater edible fishes Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus and Pelteobagrus fluvidraco, which were caught from the Meiliang Bay, Taihu Lake, a large, shallow and eutrophic lake of China. The results showed that the Cr, Cu, Cd and Pb content in the edible parts of the two fish species were much lower than Chinese Food Health Criterion (1994). However, the results showed marked differences in the four analyzed metal content be...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Dietary soy isoflavones during pregnancy suppressed the immune function in male offspring albino rats
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Ghada Gamal Gaffer, Rania Abdelrahman Elgawish, Heba M.A. Abdelrazek, Hala M. Ebaid, Hend M. TagAbstractPhytoestrogens have an impact on both animals and humans due to use of legumes in animal diets as well as the increase of vegetarian diets in some human populations. Phytoestrogens thought to have varieties of adverse effects, among which immune system was involved. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of prenatal exposure to dietary soy isoflavones on some immunological parameters in male albino rat offspring. The pregnant rats were divide...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Exposure to sub-lethal dose of a combination insecticide during early embryogenesis influences the normal patterning of mesoderm resulting in incomplete closure of ventral body wall of chicks of domestic hen
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Shashikant Sharma, Gowri K. Uggini, Venus Patel, Isha Desai, Suresh BalakrishnanAbstractPesticide exposure to the non target groups especially during embryonic development has quite often resulted in congenital malformations. A commercially available combination insecticide (Ci, 50% chlorpyrifos and 5% cypermethrin) is known to induce ventral body wall defects (VBWDs) wherein abdominal viscera protrude out of the ventral body wall. Herein, an attempt was made to understand the mechanistic insight into Ci induced VBWDs. For this, before incubation, the chi...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Dose-dependent effects on rat liver miRNAs 200a/b and 429: potential early biomarkers of liver carcinogenesis
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): S.M. Plummer, J. Wright, R.A. CurrieAbstractAn increased incidence of liver tumours in the long term rodent bioassay is not an uncommon finding, invariably as a result of a non-genotoxic mode of action. Non-genotoxic liver carcinogenesis has been found to involve activation of certain nuclear hormone receptors (NHR) including the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) and arylhydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and more recently the induction of specific microRNAs (miRs), has also been demonstrated foll...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Efficacy of Lactobacillus plantarum in prevention of inflammatory bowel disease
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Bao Le, Seung Hwan YangAbstractThe incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing globally. Altered gut bacteria and bacterial metabolic pathways are two important factors in the initiation and progression of IBD. Lactobacillus plantarum is distributed in a variety of ecological niches, has a proven ability to survive gastric transit, and can colonize the intestinal tract of human and other mammals. Several studies have described the effects of L. plantarum consumption on human physiology. This review summarizes the safety and the effects of ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Montivipera bornmuelleri venom has immunomodulatory effects mainly up-regulating pro-inflammatory cytokines in the spleens of mice
This study also shows that 1 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg of M. bornmuelleri venom are able to modulate the levels of cytokines in the spleen of mice, as assessed by ELISA. In fact, this snake’s venom up-regulates TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1ß and IL-17 with a trend in decreasing IL-4 and IL-10. Therefore, by favoring Th1 and Th17 over Th2 and Treg responses, M. bornmuelleri venom might have important clinical implication especially in the field of cancer immunotherapy.Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Acetonic extract of Vernonia amygdalina (Del.) attenuates Cd-induced liver injury: Potential application in adjuvant heavy metal therapy
This study aimed at determining the effects of acetonic extract of Vernonia amygdalina leaf (AEVAL) in a Wistar rat model of Cd-induced liver injury. Phytochemical screening of the extract was carried out and its oral LD50 was determined to guide the choice of therapeutic doses. Thereafter, thirty male Wistar rats were recruited for this study. The experimental groups received 4 weeks oral graded doses of the extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) following Cd-induced liver injury. Cd-induced liver injury (5 mg/kg i.p for 5 consecutive days) was characterized by deleterious alterations in the levels of AST, ALT, ALP, total b...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Phytofabrication of Silver nanoparticles: Novel Drug to overcome hepatocellular ailments
This study aimed to treat hepatocellular ailments with biologically prepared silver nanoparticle (AgNPs). AgNPs were formulated using Morus alba leaf extract and their synthesis and characterization were determined by UV–visible spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Scanning Electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Zeta analysis. In vitro studies on HepG2 cell lines for cytotoxic effect and in vivo studies in a rat model for hepatoprotective effect were carried out using biologically prepared AgNPs as curing agents. Dose response cytotoxic...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Hematologic and serologic status of military working dogs given standard diet containing natural botanical supplements
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Eunchae Lee, Jun-Ha Choi, Ha-Jeong Jeong, Sung-Gu Hwang, Sangrak Lee, Jae-Wook OhAbstractThe health of military working dogs (MWDs) deployed with Korean troops is of prime importance. The aim of our study was to investigate the hematologic and serologic status of Korean MWDs given natural botanical supplements. To do this, 11 natural botanicals were selected based on relevant references and combined to supplement MWDs. Throughout the 16-week experimental periods, there was no significant difference in body weights of individual dogs. The Hemoglobin (HGB),...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Glutathione and Inter-α-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 3 (Itih3) mRNA levels in nicotine-treated Cd44 knockout mice
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Rochelle N. Wickramasekara, Seth Morrill, Yasmine Farhat, Sarah J. Smith, Deniz Yilmazer-HankeAbstractCluster of differentiation 44 (Cd44), a hyaluronan receptor, and the secreted hyaluronan-binding protein Inter-α-trypsin Inhibitor Heavy chain 3 (Itih3) play an important role in cancer and oxidative stress. Smoking of tobacco reduces Itih3 in the plasma and activates hyaluronan signaling through Cd44, but the impact of Cd44 on Itih3 expression is unknown. Here, we studied changes induced by the tobacco component nicotine on the glutathione (GSH) an...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The return of an old nemesis: Survival after severe tricyclic antidepressant toxicity, a case report
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Al Giwa, Edwin OeyAbstractTricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) were first approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use as antidepressants in the 1950s. Although their function as an antidepressant in the U.S. has largely been replaced by newer and safer alternatives, they are still prescribed for various conditions, including chronic pain and intractable depression. We will discuss a case of a TCA overdose presenting with generalized tonic-clonic seizures and multiple recurrent cardiac arrests. This is a case of a 34 year-old female who was brou...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research