Pathobiology of cigarette smoke-induced invasive cancer of the renal pelvis and its prevention by vitamin C
Publication date: Available online 5 October 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Shinjini Ganguly, Ayan Chandra, Indu B ChatterjeeAbstractUrothelial cancer of the renal pelvis (CRP) is predominantly associated with cigarette smoking. However, the molecular pathogenesis of initiation and progression of cigarette smoke (CS)-induced CRP is unknown. Majority of CRP is high grade and high stage at presentation and has a high recurrence rate even after surgery. Earlier we reported that prolonged treatment (24 weeks) of a guinea pig model with p-benzoquinone (p-BQ), a product of CS in vivo, produced carcinoma in situ in the ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - October 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

A dose-dependent effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on lipid content, cell viability and oxidative stress in 3T3-L1 adipocytes
Publication date: Available online 4 October 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Phiwayinkosi V. Dludla, Babalwa Jack, Amsha Viraragavan, Carmen Pheiffer, Rabia Johnson, Johan Louw, Christo J.F. MullerAbstractDimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is an effective solvent and cytoprotectant agent that can induce diverse actions in experimental settings, ranging from metabolic stress to cytotoxic effects depending on concentration used. Therefore, for the quality of experiments and reproducibility of results it is essential to establish a precise and non-toxic dose of DMSO within a specific cell system. 3T3-L1 adipocytes, represent ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - October 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Ameliorating effect of Alstonia scholaris L. bark extract on histopathological changes following viper envenomation in animal models
ConclusionThe present paper thus highlights the histopathological changes associated with Vipera russelli venom and systemic venom neutralization potential of Aqueous Alstonia scholaris (AAS) in animal models.Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - October 6, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Orientin, a flavanoid, mitigates 1, 2 dimethylhydrazine-induced colorectal lesions in Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet
Publication date: Available online 27 September 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Kalaiyarasu Thangaraj, Karthi Natesan, Mariyappan Palani, Manju VaiyapuriAbstractOrientin, a c- glycosyl flavonoid found copiously in roobios tea and various medicinal plants is well known for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor effects. The present study aims to investigate the anti-cancer efficacy of orientin on 1,2 dimethyl hydrazine induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and cell proliferation in Wistar rats. Rats were randomly divided into six groups and fed with high fat diet. Group 1 left as untreated control. G...
Source: Toxicology Reports - October 5, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Nephrotoxicity and highly active antiretroviral therapy: Mitigating action of Momordica charantia
Publication date: Available online 20 September 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Ugochukwu Offor, Edwin Coleridge Naidu, Oluwatosin Olalekan Ogedengbe, Ayoola Isaac Jegede, Aniekan Imo Peter, Onyemaechi Okpara AzuAbstractMomordica charantia (M. charantia) is known for its antioxidant and antidiabetic properties. The aim of this study is to investigate the renoprotective effects of M. charantia in rats following treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen triplavar. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 178.1–220.5 g (n = 36) were divided into six groups (A–...
Source: Toxicology Reports - September 21, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

KALGAE™ (Klebsormidium flaccidum var. ZIVO) dried algal biomass - 90-day dietary toxicity study and genotoxicity studies
Publication date: Available online 20 September 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Julie A. Brickel, Ray A. Matulka, Amy E. SteffekAbstractConsumers are demanding plant-based alternative protein sources to complement traditional animal-based protein sources to fulfill their dietary protein requirements. KALGAE™, a dried algal biomass derived from Klebsormidium flaccidum var. ZIVO, is a potential source of plant-based protein that has been evaluated for safety to support its use as a food ingredient. There were no treatment-related adverse effects observed in the 14-day palatability/toxicity or 90-day dietary to...
Source: Toxicology Reports - September 20, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Improved effect of pumpkin seed oil against the bisphenol-A adverse effects in male mice
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Eissa I. Fawzy, Aida I. El Makawy, M. Mahmoud El-Bamby, H. Osama ElhamalawyAbstractThe present study was conducted to evaluate the ameliorative role of pumpkin seed oil (PSO) against potential adverse effects of bisphenol-A (BPA) in male mice. BPA was administered to the mice orally at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight once a day for 28 successive days. While, PSO was administered to the mice orally at 1 mL/kg b w either before, with or after treatment of BPA, once a day for 28 successive days. The studied parameters were DNA damage evaluation ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - September 14, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Elevated CPK levels after hydrazine inhalation exposure in an F16 aircraft technician
We present four ground crew technicians who were exposed to hydrazine for less than one minute, due to a voltage fall in an F-16 jet. Physical examinations were normal and none of the technicians were symptomatic for toxicity. One of the technicians had abnormal blood chemistry levels for liver and muscle enzymes: serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase(SGOT)-321U/L, serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT)-123U/L, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) 3300U/L. The CPK level peaked during hospitalization to 20960U/L at 36 hours after the exposure, and subsequently declined. Upon release from the hospital, 48 h...
Source: Toxicology Reports - September 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Therapeutic activity of sour orange albedo extract and abundant flavanones loaded silica nanoparticles against acrylamide-induced hepatotoxicity
Publication date: Available online 9 September 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): M.Z. Rizk, D.M. Abo-El-matty, H.F. Aly, H.I. Abd-Alla, S.M. Saleh, E.A. Younis, A.M. Elnahrawy, A.A. HarounAbstractThe current research aims to demonstrate the therapeutic effect of sour orange albedo extract (SOAE) and two flavanones loaded-tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) using sol-gel technique, in adose100 mg/kg body weight taken orally or45 days against acrylamide (ACR)toxicity in rats. This was achieved through measuring the activities of specific biochemical parameters related to liver functions in tissue of ACR intoxicated ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - September 10, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Co-exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (NpTiO2) and lead at environmentally relevant concentrations in the Neotropical fish species Hoplias intermedius
Publication date: Available online 8 September 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Taynah Vicari, Ana Carolina Dagostim, Tatiane Klingelfus, Gabrieli Limberger Galvan, Patrícia Sampaio Monteiro, Letícia da Silva Pereira, Helena Cristina Silva de Assis, Marta Margarete CestariAbstractGrowing production and utilization of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (NpTiO2) invariably lead to their accumulation in oceans, rivers and other water bodies, thus increasing the risk to the welfare of this ecosystem. The progressive launch of these nanoparticles in the environment has been accompanied by concern in understand...
Source: Toxicology Reports - September 9, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Endophytic Fusarium solani: A Rich Source of Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Napthaquinone and Aza-anthraquinone Derivatives
This study reports the chemical investigation and bioactivity of the secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Fusarium solani isolated from Cassia alata Linn. growing in Bangladesh. This plant was collected from conservation forest in Bangladesh and belongs to the Caesalpiniaceae family. The endophytic fungus Fusarium solani was isolated from the tissue of root of this plant. The fungal strain was identified by morphological characters and DNA sequencing. The crude organic extract of the fungal strain was proven to be active when tested for cytotoxicity against Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay, antimicrobial ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - September 4, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Characterization and cytotoxic effect of biogenic silver nanoparticles on mitotic chromosomes of Drimia polyantha (Blatt. & McCann) Stearn
Publication date: Available online 31 August 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Azharuddin Daphedar, Tarikere C. TaranathAbstractNoble metal nanoparticles afford a tool for investigation and its application in biological systems has had the greatest impact in biology and biomedicine. The present work reports an ecofriendly approach for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using an aqueous leaf extract of Getonia floribunda. The silver nanoparticles were characterized by using following instruments viz. UV-Vis spectrophotometer, FTIR, XRD AFM and HR-TEM. The UV-vis spectrum showed a characteristic absorption ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

SDS-PAGE technique as biomarker for fish toxicological studies
In this study we introduced the importance of those parameters and their importance as biomarkers in fish toxicology from previous literature and as new findings. Hemato-biochemical parameters were widely used in fish toxicological studies. Many researches have used the protein electrophoresis as a valid tool to determining intra and inter-specific variation among species. Protein profile was extensively used in determining the health of fish, as indicators of anemia or other diseases provide information about the existence of the disease, and in the diagnosis of disease. So, to carry out the aim of this study, we reported...
Source: Toxicology Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Assessment of Concentration and Toxicological (Cancer) Risk of Lead, Cadmium and Chromium in Tobacco Products Commonly Available in Bangladesh
This study aimed to assess the concentrations of heavy metal (‘lead (Pb)’‘cadmium (Cd)’, and ‘chromium (Cr)’) in various brands of four types of tobacco products (zarda, gul, cigarettes, and bidi) as well as calculate toxicological risk as a lifetime cancer risk for Pb, Cd, and Cr. In smokeless tobacco products, the metal concentration ranged from 0.99-10.02 µg/g for Pb, 1.05-3.53 µg/g for Cd, and 1.23-7.29 µg/g for Cr, respectively. Metal concentrations in the smoke-based tobacco products ranged from 0.98-3.07 µg/g for Pb, 0.91-3.46&th...
Source: Toxicology Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Induces Oxidative Stress and Liver toxicity in Rats following Oral Exposure
Publication date: Available online 31 August 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Anreddy Rama Narsimha ReddyAbstractThe present study aimed to evaluate the effect of Copper Oxide (CuO) Nanoparticles (NP) on liver following oral exposure in rats. A total of 18 male wister rats were used in the experiments including a control group (6 rats). NP were given to the rats with a doses (5, 50 mg/kg b.w./day) via oral gavage and a control group (received only 200 μl PBS). The treatment was continued for 14 days. The supernatants of rat Liver tissue homogenates were used to analyze for glutathione levels (GSH),...
Source: Toxicology Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The use of structural alerts to avoid the toxicity of pharmaceuticals
Publication date: Available online 31 August 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Carmen Limban, Diana C. Nuţă, Cornel Chiriţă, Simona Negreș, Andreea L. Arsene, Marina Goumenou, Spyros P. Karakitsios, Aristidis M. Tsatsakis, Dimosthenis A. SarigiannisAbstractIn order to identify compounds with potential toxicity problems, particular attention is paid to structural alerts, which are high chemical reactivity molecular fragments or fragments that can be transformed via bioactivation by human enzymes into fragments with high chemical reactivity. The concept has been introduced in order to reduce the likelihood that f...
Source: Toxicology Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Morphological alterations induced by the exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles in primary cortical neuron cultures and in the brain of rats
In conclusion, our study demonstrated clearly the toxic impact of TiO2 NPs on rat brain and neuronal cells and pointed about not yet referenced toxicity impacts of TiO2 such as the reduction of neuroblast proliferation both in vitro and in vivo.Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 25, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Microbiological evaluation of infant foods quality and molecular detection of Bacillus cereus toxins relating genes
Publication date: Available online 19 August 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Zeinab I. Sadek, Mohamed A. Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed S. Azab, Osama M. Darwesh, Mahmoud S. HassanAbstractA 205 samples representing eight different infant foods with various based materials were collected and analyzed for their microbiological properties. The contamination rate by aerobic spore formers was achieved 100 % in milk based infant food with fruit, vegetables, honey, rice and infant milk powder. While, it was detected in 95, 60 and 65% of the infant food with wheat milk based, ready to use (infant food with fruit) and ready to use ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 20, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Effects of repeated cigarette smoke extract exposure over one month on human bronchial epithelial organotypic culture
Publication date: Available online 18 August 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Shigeaki Ito, Kanae Ishimori, Shinkichi IshikawaAbstractCigarette smoke is a known risk factor for inflammatory diseases in the respiratory tract, and inflammatory exacerbation is considered pivotal to the pathogenesis of these diseases. Here, we performed two repeated exposure studies in which we exposed human bronchial epithelial tissues in an organotypic culture model to cigarette smoke extract (CSE); the first study was conducted over a four-day period to determine the suitable dose range for the extended exposure period, and the seco...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 19, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Ameliorative Effect of Pumpkin Seed Oil Against The Bisphenol-A Adverse Effects In Male Mice
Publication date: Available online 17 August 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Eissa I. Fawzy, Aida I. El Makawy, M. Mahmoud El-Bamby, H. Osama ElhamalawyAbstractThe present study was conducted to evaluate the ameliorative role of pumpkin seed oil (PSO) against potential adverse effects of bisphenol-A (BPA) in male mice. BPA was administered to the mice orally at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight once a day for 28 successive days. While, PSO was administered to the mice orally at 1 mL/kg b w either before, with or after treatment of BPA, once a day for 28 successive days. The studied parameters were DNA d...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 18, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Snake bite in India: a few matters to note
Publication date: Available online 17 August 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Siju V. AbrahamAbstractSnake envenomation in India is a neglected disease causing considerable morbidity and mortality. In India there are medically important snakes for which there are no antivenom.There also exists a need to employ better envenomation detection methods and screening tools for detecting envenomation in snake bite victims. This letter to the editor intends to point out the aforementioned matters to note. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 18, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Spermatogenic and Spermatotoxic Effects of Telfairia occidentalis (Ugu) Aqueous Leaves Extract in Adult Male Wistar Rats (Rattus novergicus)
Publication date: Available online 17 August 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): O. Yawson Emmanuel, Kosisochukwu kingsley Obasi, Ismail LawalAbstractTelfairia occidentalis (TO), commonly called Pumpkin is a plant with numerous medicinal values. Here we investigated the effects of Telfairia occidentalis aqueous leaves extract on the testis of Adult Male Wistar Rats (Rattus novergicus). Thirty-Five (35) adult male rats were grouped into seven (7) containing five (n = 5) rats in each group. Group A served as control, group B and C received 100 mg/kg body weight of Telfairia occidentalis for two and ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 18, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

A risk assessment study of the occurrence and distribution of aflatoxigenic aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin b1 in dairy cattle feeds in a central northern state, nigeria
Publication date: Available online 16 August 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): G.K. Omeiza, J. Kabir, J.K.P. Kwaga, C.N. Kwanashie, M. Mwanza, L. NgomaAbstractNigeria, being a tropical nation, characterized by favorable climatic conditions, may display high chances of feed contaminations due to aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus with the consequences of health risks associated with the consumption of dairy products. A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the risks of occurrence and distribution of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination levels based on the European ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 17, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

An Evaluation of the Antioxidant Properties of Iodinated Radiographic Contrast Media: An in Vitro Study
This study reveals the antioxidant properties of iodinated radiographic contrast media to be used in diagnostic radiology. Di(phenyl)-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) iminoazanium (DPPH), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), and 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assays were used for determining in vitro the antioxidant properties of five iodinated radiographic contrast media such as iobitridol (xenetix), iodixanol (visipaque), iohexol (omnipaque), ioxaglate (hexabrix), and isovue (iopamiro). An ascorbic acid and Trolox solution served as a positive control. The absorbance intensity of the colo...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 17, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Mutagenicity and teratogenicity studies of vitacoxib in rats and mice
Publication date: Available online 13 August 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Jianzhong Wang, Feifei Sun, Shusheng Tang, Suxia Zhang, Jing Li, Xingyuan CaoAbstractVitacoxib is a new drug candidate for treatment of inflammation, pain and fever as selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors. In the current study, the mice sperm abnormality, mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus and in vivo chromosome aberration, and teratogenicity in SD rats were evaluated. Vitacoxib did not cause an increase in the frequency of structural chromosome aberrations, nor did it produce an increase in the number of micro nucleated polychromatic er...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 14, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Acute toxicity studies of the South African medicinal plant Galenia africana
ConclusionThese findings demonstrate that the acute toxicity profile forG. africana is acceptable and can subsequently be used for single use in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 14, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Comparison of transcriptome responses to glyphosate, isoxaflutole, quizalofop-p-ethyl and mesotrione in the HepaRG cell line
Publication date: Available online 11 August 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Robin Mesnage, Martina Biserni, Eva Wozniak, Theodoros Xenakis, Charles A Mein, Michael N AntoniouAbstractUse and thus exposure to quizalofop-p-ethyl, isoxaflutole, mesotrione and glyphosate, which are declared as active principles in commercial formulations of herbicides, is predicted to rapidly increase in coming years in an effort to overcome the wide-spread appearance of glyphosate-resistant weeds, especially in fields where glyphosate-tolerant genetically modified crops are cultivated in the USA. Thus, there is an urgent need for an ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 12, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

A comparison of the anti-diabetic potential of d-ribose-l-cysteine with insulin, and oral hypoglycaemic agents on pregnant rats
Publication date: Available online 9 August 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Abraham A.A. Osinubi, Jacob Medubi, Edidiong N. Akang, Sodiq Lawal, Titilola A. Samuel, Taiwo Kusemiju, James Osolu, Danladi Madu, Olufemi FasanmadeGraphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 10, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Potential role of the common food additive manufactured citric acid in eliciting significant inflammatory reactions contributing to serious disease states: A series of four case reports
We present four case reports of patients with a history of significant and repetitive inflammatory reactions including respiratory symptoms, joint pain, irritable bowel symptoms, muscular pain and enervation following ingestion of foods, beverages or vitamins containing MCA. We believe that ingestion of the MCA may lead to a harmful inflammatory cascade which manifests differently in different individuals based on their genetic predisposition and susceptibility, and that the use of MCA as an additive in consumable products warrants further studies to document its safety. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 10, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

An allied approach for in vitro modulation of aldose reductase, sorbitol accumulation and advanced glycation end products by flavonoid rich extract of Coriandrum sativum L. seeds
Publication date: Available online 3 August 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Anu Kajal, Randhir SinghAbstractTraditional herbal medicines are attaining more popularity and are being widely practiced. Coriandrum sativum L. is one of the oldest herbal medicinal plants valued for its nutritional and medicinal properties. Present investigation was focussed on evaluation of attenuating potential of flavonoid rich extract of C. sativum (FCS) seeds against pathogenic markers of diabetic complications i.e. advanced glycation end products (AGEs), sorbitol and aldose reductase (ALR); by using in-vitro methods. Gas chromatogr...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 4, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The Therapeutics Effects and Toxic Risk of Heracleum persicum Desf. Extract on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
Publication date: Available online 3 August 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Elif Ebru Alkan, Ismail CelikAbstractThere is an increasing interest against to fight of diabetes by using hypoglycemic plants in the world. The public thinks that Heracleum persicum (HP) has antidiabetic effect local consumer in Turkey. As far as our literature survey, no studies have been reported so far on antidiabetic effects and toxic risk potential of the HP lyophilized extract supplementation used in this study. The aim of this study, for the first time, was to investigate the therapeutic effects of diabetic complications, antioxida...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 4, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

MICROCYSTINS IN WATER AND IN MICROALGAE: Do microcystins as microalgae contaminants warrant the current public alarm?
This article underlines the significant limitations and ultimately scientific untenability of the WHO Guideline on microcystins in water, for being based on testing methodologies which may lead to a significant overestimation of the toxicity of microcystins. I propose criteria for the realization of new experimental studies on the toxicity of microcystins, based on the essential understanding that drinking water is contaminated by whole cyanobacterial microalgae rather than purified microcystins, while it is important to differentiate between water and cyanobacterial supplements. It is indeed a mistake to automatically app...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 4, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Evaluation of Selenium Nanoparticles and Doxorubicin Effect Against Hepatocellular Carcinoma Rat Model Cytogenetic Toxicity and DNA Damage
Publication date: Available online 25 July 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Omaima M. Abd-Elmoneim, Abeer H. Abd El-Rahim, Naglaa A. HafizAbstractThe present study aimed to demonstrate the potent role of nanoselenium and Doxorubicin in retrogression of genotoxicity induced in hepatocellular carcinoma rat model by studying chromosomal aberration, micronuclei formation, DNA fragmentation as well as comet assay. Male rats hepatocellular carcinoma model were treated wih Se-Nanopartcles, Doxurobicin and the combination of both. The results revealed the protective effect of nanoselenium, Doxorubicin and their combination...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 25, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Aflatoxin B1 Residues in Human Livers and Their Relationship with Markers of Hepatic Carcinogenesis in São Paulo, Brazil
In this study, hepatic biopsies from autopsy cases in São Paulo, Brazil, showing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, n = 8), cirrhosis associated with viral hepatitis (VC, n = 20), cirrhosis associated with alcoholism (AC, n = 20), and normal livers (NL or controls, n = 10) were subjected to determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and its main metabolites, and of markers of hepatic carcinogenesis Only non-metabolized AFB1 was detected in 13 samples (27.1%, N = 48) of liver disorders (HCC, VC and AC), at levels between 10.0 and 418.0 pg/g (mean: 76....
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 25, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Performance of a Whole-body Human Dust Inhalation Challenge Exposure Chamber
ConclusionThe whole-body human exposure chamber offers several advantages and has better performance than most of the inhalation challenge systems previously described. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 25, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Non-Clinical Acute and Chronic Toxicity Evaluations of Cissus sicyoides L. (Vitaceae) Hydroalcoholic Leaf Extract
This study aimed to evaluate the acute and chronic non-clinical toxicity of hydroalcoholic extract from the leaves of Cissus sicyoides (EHA-Cs). The acute test was performed in Wistar rats, administering a single dose of 40.5 mg/kg. Behavioral parameters for pharmacological screening were observed to detect signs of Central Nervous System activity; consumption of daily food and water, and weight evaluation. After day 14, the animals were euthanized and blood samples were collected for laboratory analyses of hematological and biochemical parameters. The chronic tests were administered in doses of 4.5, 13.5 and 40.5 mg/k...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 24, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Safety profile of 40% Garcinol from Garcinia indica in experimental rodents
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Muhammed Majeed, Sarang Bani, Beena Bhat, Anjali Pandey, Lakshmi Mundkur, Prakriti NeupaneAbstractThe present study was taken up to evaluate the single dose acute toxicity, 28 days and 90 days repeated dose toxicity and reproductive/developmental toxicity of standardized 40% Garcinol in experimental rodents. The studies were conducted in compliance with OECD principles of good laboratory practice, guidelines for testing of chemicals no.420, 407, 408 and 421 respectively. Single dose acute oral toxicity was conducted on female Wistar rats as sighting study...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Short term exposure to titanium, aluminum and vanadium (Ti 6Al 4V) alloy powder drastically affects behavior and antioxidant metabolites in vital organs of male albino mice
In conclusion, our results indicated that short term exposure to 25 mg/ml solvent/Kg body weight of Ti-6Al-4V alloy powder supplementation had adversely affected selected aspects of behavior of albino mice in a gender specific manner. Analysis of antioxidant parameters in vital organs has demonstrated that the applied dose of Ti-6Al-4V alloy powder can disturb the H₂O₂ associated metabolic pathways in albino mice, especially in female mice. As this alloy is part of surgical implants, so we recommend that their effects in living systems must be extensively explored under variable dose and exposure time conditions to k...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

A retrospective study of clinico-epidemiological profile of snakebite related deaths at a Tertiary care hospital in Midnapore, West Bengal, India
ConclusionSnake bite is a neglected, life-threatening emergency in developing countries such as India and demands immediate anti-venom therapy. Hospital studies are a key source of information about snake bites. The ready availability and appropriate use of AVS, close monitoring of patients, the institution of ventilator support and if required, early referral to a larger hospital all help to reduce the mortality. Thus knowledge of the varied clinical manifestations of snake bite is important for effective management in hospitals by a complete health care team.Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Longitudinal survey of lead, cadmium, and copper in seagrass Syringodium filiforme from a former bombing range (Vieques, Puerto Rico)
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Elba Díaz, Dustin Pérez, Johanna Delgado Acevedo, Arturo Massol-DeyáAbstractTrace element composition in plant biomass could be used as an indicator of environmental stress, management practices and restoration success. A longitudinal study was conducted to compare Pb, Cd, and Cu content in seagrass Syringodium filiforme collected at a former bombing range in Puerto Rico with those of a Biosphere Reserve under similar geoclimatic conditions. Trace elements were measured by atomic absorption after dry-ashing of samples and extraction w...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Clinical value of drugs of abuse point of care testing in an emergency department setting
ConclusionsThe use of point of care TST-U in an Emergency Department helps physicians to understand the clinical condition of a patient. They influence the way a patient is treated to a lesser extent. These tests are most helpful in patients with decreased consciousness, psychiatric or neurological symptoms and mostly unhelpful in patients who, upon admission, are already known to be intoxicated.Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Evaluation of acute and sublethal effects of chloroquine (C18H26CIN3) on certain enzymological and histopathological biomarker responses of a freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio
In this study the toxicity of antimalarial drug chloroquine (CQ) on certain enzymological (GOT, GPT and LDH) and histopathological alterations (Gill, liver and kidney) of a freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio was studied after acute (96 h) and sublethal (35 days) exposure. The median lethal concentration (96 h) of CQ was 31.62 mg/ml. During acute treatment (CQ at 31.62 mg/ml) the treated fish groups showed a significant increase in GOT and GPT activities in blood plasma; whereas LDH activity was decreased when compare to control groups. To analyse the effects of drug at the lowest concentration, the fi...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Sex, pregnancy, and age-specific differences of blood manganese levels in relation to iron status; what does it mean?
In conclusion, the differences between a physiological and a pathological hypermanganesemia complicate interpretation of the dose-response relationship.Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Hepatoprotective effect of food preservatives (butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene) on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rat
This study was carried out to establish the hepatoprotective measures of food preservative antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytolune (BHA, BHT) when mixed with food towards carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxication (230 mg/ kg b wt/rat/day) in rat. Biochemical markers like serum glutamate pyruvate tranaminase (AST), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin content, antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT, GPx, and malondialdehyde (MDA) as the end product of lipid peroxidanion were measured. The results had shown the elevated level of AST (121.16...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxic effect of Moringa peregrina seeds on histological and biochemical analyses of adult male Albino rats
In this study, Moringa peregrina seeds, grown in high elevation mountain in Saint Catherin area, were investigated and evaluated for their toxicity with respect to its topological potential through histological and biochemical studies in Albino rats. Daily doses of 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight of dry seed of M. peregrina were administered orally to 4 groups of rats for 14 days. Biochemical and histopathological results were evaluated by standard methods. Measured biochemical parameters, insulin, albumin, total protein, creatinine, urea, uric acid, Follicle-stimulating hormone, Luteinizing hormone and T...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

New research highlights: Impact of chronic ingestion of white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Beldia) on small-intestinal disaccharidase activity in Wistar rats
The objective of this study was to assess the gavage effects of a raw Beldia bean variety on the brush border disaccharidase activities in the jejunal mucosa of Wistar rats. Twenty young adult male rats were randomly assigned into 2 groups of 10 rats each: Control, rats were gavaged with 300 mg of a rodent pellet flour suspension (RPFS); Experimental, rats were orogastrically fed a dose of 300 mg Beldia bean flour suspension (BBFS). Prior to determining the disaccharidase activity by Dahlqvist method, the blood and stool specimens were collected on day 10. The sera and feces were screened for the presence of lectins by...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Effects of intragastrically-administered Tepary bean lectins on digestive and immune organs: Preclinical evaluation
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Julia María Alatorre-Cruz, Wendoline Pita-López, Rosa Guadalupe López-Reyes, Roberto Augusto Ferriz-Martínez, Ricardo Cervantes-Jiménez, María de Jesús Guerrero Carrillo, Paola Jazmín Aranda Vargas, Gabriela López-Herrera, Adriana Jheny Rodríguez-Méndez, Aarón Zamora-Arroyo, Héctor Gutiérrez-Sánchez, Tércia Reis de Souza, Alejandro Blanco-Labra, Teresa García-GascaAbstractPrevious work showed that Tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) lecti...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Lateral flow immunoassay and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay as effective immunomethods for the detection of synthetic cannabinoid JWH-200 based on the newly synthesized hapten
In this study, we developed a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) and an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of JWH-200 in oral fluids. For this purpose a new hapten was prepared using a ten-step synthetic route. The developed immuno methods are based on antibodies obtained from rabbit immunized with synthesized hapten conjugated to carrier protein. The proposed methods are highly sensitive (LODLFIA = 0.08 ± 0.04 ng mL−1; LODELISA = 0.04 ± 0.02 ng mL−1). They were applied to the quantification of JHW-200 in spiked oral fluids. The recoveries ranged from ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Bisphenol A (BPA) the mighty and the mutagenic
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Nasir Jalal, Austin R. Surendranath, Janak L. Pathak, Shi Yu, Chang Y. ChungAbstractBisphenol A (BPA) is one of the most widely used synthetic compounds on the planet. Upon entering the diet, its highest concentration (1–104 ng/g of tissue) has been recorded in the placenta and fetus. This accumulation of BPA can have many health hazards ranging from the easy to repair single strand DNA breaks (SSBs) to error prone double strand DNA breaks (DSBs). Although the Human liver can efficiently metabolize BPA via glucuronidation and sulfation pathways, h...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Evaluation of acute toxicity of triazophos and deltamethrin and their inhibitory effect on AChE activity in Channa punctatus
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Shikha Singh, Rishikesh K. Tiwari, Ravi S. PandeyAbstractPesticides are applied to control the pests indoor and outdoor; however, their remarkable amount reaches to the aquatic system through various routes like run-off, leaching, spray-drift, effluent from factories. These are reported to have negative metabolic impact on different non-target aquatic organisms like fishes. Thus, present study is aimed to evaluate the acute toxicity of two groups of pesticides, organophosphate and pyrethroid, namely triazophos and deltamethrin, respectively. The test was ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research