Developing an animal model to detect drug–drug interactions impacting drug-induced respiratory depression
In this study, diazepam was selected as the benzodiazepine to detect any additive or synergistic effects on respiratory depression caused by the opioid, oxycodone. Pharmacokinetic studies were conducted at three doses with oxycodone (6.75, 60, 150 mg/kg) and with diazepam (2, 20, 200 mg/kg). Dose dependent decrease in arterial partial pressure of oxygen and increase in arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide were observed with oxycodone. Diazepam caused similar partial pressure changes only at the highest dose. Further decreases in arterial partial pressure of oxygen and increases in arterial partial pressure of ca...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 30, 2020 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Cytotoxic and antimicrobial potential of different leaves extracts of R. fruticosus used traditionally to treat diabetes
Publication date: 2020Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 7Author(s): Afaf M. Weli, Hanady S. Al-Saadi, Rouqaya S. Al-Fudhaili, Amzad Hossain, Zabida Binti Putit, Mahmood K. JasimAbstractMedicinal plant as herbal medicine is widely used to cure infectious diseases. Rubus fruticosus L (R. fruticosus) has been studied for its antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Different polarity leave extracts were prepared by using hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and hydro alcoholic solvents. Agar diffusion method has been used to assess the antibacterial activity against two gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aure...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 28, 2020 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Accumulation and risk assessment of metals in palm oil cultivated on contaminated oil palm plantation soils
Publication date: Available online 27 January 2020Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): O.B. Olafisoye, O.S. Fatoki, O.O. Oguntibeju, O.A. OsiboteAbstractAnthropogenically polluted soils with metals are detrimental to human life. The present study assessed the concentration of metals in soil and the risks associated with the consumption of the metals when transferred from soil to palm oil. The metals of interest were Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn. Analysis was done on metals in soil and virgin palm oil from fifteen independent sampling locations in the southern states of Nigeria, which includes the Nigeria Institute for...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 28, 2020 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Hydroethanolic extract from Endopleura uchi (Huber) Cuatrecasas and its marker bergenin: toxicological and pharmacokinetic studies in silico and in vivo on Zebrafish
Publication date: Available online 27 January 2020Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Beatriz Martins de Sá Hyacienth, Karyny Roberta Tavares Picanço, Brenda Lorena Sánchez-Ortiz, Luciane Barros Silva, Arlindo César Matias Pereira, Larissa Daniele Machado Góes, Raphaelle Sousa Borges, Rodrigo Cardoso Ataíde, Cleydson Breno Rodrigues dos Santos, Helison de Oliveira Carvalho, Gloria Melisa Gonzalez Anduaga, Andrés Navarrete, José Carlos Tavares CarvalhoAbstractEndopleura uchi, is used for the treatment of inflammatory disease and related to the female reproductive trac...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 28, 2020 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Testicular protective and antioxidant effects of selenium nanoparticles on Monosodium glutamate-induced testicular structure alterations in male mice
ConclusionIt is clear from the data that SeNPs inhibit testicular injury and improve the antioxidant state in male mice.Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 28, 2020 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Genotoxicity and acute toxicity evaluation of the three amino acid additives with Corynebacterium glutamicum biomass
Publication date: Available online 27 January 2020Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Ki-Young Kang, Min-Sub Kim, Min-Seung Lee, Jeong-Ja Oh, Seulgi An, Dhanbee Park, In Kyoung Heo, Hyun-Kul Lee, Si-Whan Song, Sun-Don KimAbstractL-threonine, L-tryptophan and L-valine play a fundamental role in animal and human nutrition as essential amino acids required for normal growth. In addition, each amino acid is codified as a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) amino acid for the use in animal feed additives and presents no exposure risk from animal to humans consuming tissues or products from the target animal. Taking into accoun...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 28, 2020 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxicity, cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and in vitro antioxidant models of 2-oleyl-1,3-dipalmitoyl-glycerol isolated from the hexane extract of Platonia insignis MART seeds
This study was aimed to evaluate antioxidant effects in vitro, as well as to evaluate the toxicological and mutagenic effects of the ODG. ODG showed a median lethal dose (LD50) greater than 1200 μg mL-1 in A. salina. In the assay of A. cepa (0.2 – 0.002 mg mL-1) the ODG compound at the highest concentration was slightly cytotoxic with decrease in the size of roots and mitotic indexes, but did not induce chromosomal alterations. ODG (8.75 – 140.00 μg mL-1) was found to reduce nitric oxide production by 41.6%, while the antioxidant standard ascorbic acid (AA) reduce...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 28, 2020 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities of lemon myrtle (Backhousia citriodora) leaf extract
Publication date: Available online 27 January 2020Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Sun-Yup Shim, Ji-Hyun Kim, Kang-Hee Kho, Mina LeeAbstractIn this present study, we examined the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties of alcoholic lemon myrtle extract (LME). The total polyphenol and flavonoid content of LME were determined as 118.77 and 14.53 mg/g extract, respectively. LME showed anti-oxidative properties, such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity. The anti-inflammatory activities of LME were inves...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 28, 2020 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Protective Effect of Vitamin C on Chronic Carbamazepine-induced Reproductive Toxicity in Male Wistar Rats
Publication date: Available online 27 January 2020Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Ganiu Jimoh AkoredeABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of vitamin C on chronic carbamazepine-induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats. Four groups of 10 rats were respectively exposed to distilled water (2 ml/kg), vitamin C (100 mg/kg), carbamazepine (20 mg/kg) and vitamin C followed by CBZ, after 30 min.. The regimens were given by gavage once daily for 15 weeks. The pituitary glands and testicular tissues were assayed for oxidative stress parameters, sperm characteris...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 28, 2020 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Curcumin Attenuates Copper-induced Oxidative Stress and Neurotoxicity in Drosophila melanogaster
In this study, we evaluated the rescue role of Curcumin in Copper2+-induced toxicity in D. melanogaster. Adult, wild type flies were exposed to Cu2+ (1 mM) and/or Curcumin (0.2 and 0.5 mg/kg diet) in the diet for 7 days. The results indicated that Cu2+- fed flies had reduced survival compared to the control group. Copper toxicity was also associated with a marked decrease in total thiol (T-SH), as well as catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities, contemporaneous with increased acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, nitric oxide (nitrate and nitrite) and dopamine levels. Co-exposure of flies to Cu2+ an...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 28, 2020 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of Zolpidem on acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity using Wistar rat primary neuronal cortical culture
Publication date: Available online 27 January 2020Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Bahareh sadat Yousefsani, Nasim Akbarizadeh, Jalal PourahmadAbstractZolpidem is an introduced medication for the therapy of sleeping disorders. Its pharmacological effects are consequently characterized by a quick onset and a half-life of 2.4 h. Previous studies revealed the antioxidant and neuroprotectant effects of zolpidem. In this research, we wanted to demonstrate the exact sub-cellular/molecular mechanism of this medication using the primary neuronal cortical culture.For this purpose, firstly, the cortical neurons were isola...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 28, 2020 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Developing an Animal Model to Detect Drug-Drug Interactions Impacting Drug-Induced Respiratory Depression
In this study, diazepam was selected as the benzodiazepine to detect any additive or synergistic effects on respiratory depression caused by the opioid, oxycodone. Pharmacokinetic studies were conducted at three doses with oxycodone (6.75, 60, 150 mg/kg) and with diazepam (2, 20, 200 mg/kg). Dose dependent decrease in arterial partial pressure of oxygen and increase in arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide were observed with oxycodone. Diazepam caused similar partial pressure changes only at the highest dose. Further decreases in arterial partial pressure of oxygen and increases in arterial partial pres...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 26, 2020 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Transient exposure to environmentally realistic concentrations of di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate during sensitive windows of development impaired larval survival and reproduction success in Japanese medaka
This study monitored the long-term effects of transient exposure to DEHP in early life stages (F0 generation) and its subsequent fertilization success in F1 generation using Japanese medaka, Oryzias latipes, as model organism. Embryos (4 hour post-fertilization, 4 hpf) of Japanese medaka were exposed to 0.001 ppb, 0.1 ppb, or 10 ppb DEHP for 21 days and returned to control water (without DEHP) for maturation (4 months old). At day 9 of the exposure study, mortality was significantly increased in medaka embryos (before hatching) treated with 0.001 ppb and 10 ppb DEHP. Continual expo...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 25, 2020 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Carbon monoxide poisoning
Publication date: Available online 20 January 2020Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Hiroshi Kinoshita, Hülya Türkan, Slavica Vucinic, Shahab Naqvi, Rafik Bedair, Ramin Rezaee, Aristides TsatsakisAbstractCarbon monoxide (CO) is the leading cause of poisoning deaths in many countries, including Japan. Annually, CO poisoning claims about 2000-5000 lives in Japan, which is over half of the total number of poisoning deaths. This paper discusses the physicochemical properties of CO and the toxicological evaluation of CO poisoning. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 20, 2020 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

A 90-day dietary study with fibrillated cellulose in Sprague-Dawley rats
This study assesses the 90-day dietary toxicity of fibrillated cellulose, as compared to a conventional cellulose, Solka Floc. Sprague Dawley rats were fed 2%, 3%, or 4% fibrillated cellulose for 90 consecutive days, and parallel Solka Floc groups were used as controls. Survival, clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, ophthalmologic evaluations, hematology, serum chemistry, urinalysis, post-mortem anatomic pathology, and histopathology were monitored and performed. No adverse observations were noted in relation to the administration of fibrillated cellulose. Under the conditions of this study and based on th...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 20, 2020 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Acute and subchronic oral toxicity assessments of Combretum micranthum (Combretaceae) in Wistar rats
ConclusionThe present study revealed that oral administration of CM extract for 28 days, at dosage up to 1000 mg/kg did not induce toxicological damage in rats. From acute toxicity study, the median lethal dose (LD50) of the extract was estimated to be more than 5000 mg/kg.Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 20, 2020 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Cytotoxic and antimicrobial potential of different leaves extracts of R. fruticosusused traditionally to treat diabetes
Publication date: Available online 18 January 2020Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Afaf M. Weli, Hanady S. Al-Saadi, Rouqaya S. Al-Fudhaili, Amzad Hossain, Zabida Binti Putit, Mahmood K. JasimAbstractMedicinal plant as herbal medicine is widely used to cure infectious diseases. Rubus fruticosus L (R. fruticosus) has been studied for its antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Different polarity leave extracts were prepared by using hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and hydro alcoholic solvents. Agar diffusion method has been used to assess the antibacterial activity against two gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis and S...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 20, 2020 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Protective effect of Yemeni green coffee powder against the oxidative stress induced by Ochratoxin A
Publication date: 2020Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 7Author(s): Qais A. Nogaim, Lakshmi Sai Pratyusha Bugata, Prabhakar PV, Utkarsh A. Reddy, Mangala Gowri P, Indu Kumari S, Mahboob MAbstractThe current study focusses on knowing the antioxidant effects of green Yemeni coffee powder on reducing the oxidative stress that was induced by Ochratoxin A in kidney, liver and brain of rats. The grouping of female albino Wistar rats was into 5 groups (5 rats/group). Rats of Group 1 designated Vehicle Control (only water), Group2 (10 mg/kg Ochratoxin A); Group 3 designated Low dose (2000 mg/kg Coffee+10 mg/kg Ochratoxin A)...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 15, 2020 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Hepatotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles on Clarias gariepinus; Biochemical, histopathological, and histochemical studies
In conclusion, one can assume liver sensitivity of C. garepinus for AgNPs and the recovery period is a must.Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 15, 2020 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Determination and Prediction of Permeability across Intestinal Epithelial Cell Monolayer of a Diverse Range of Industrial Chemicals/Drugs for Estimation of Oral Absorption as a Putative Marker of Hepatotoxicity
Publication date: Available online 14 January 2020Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Yusuke Kamiya, Hiroka Takaku, Rio Yamada, Chisato Akase, Yuto Abe, Yuko Sekiguchi, Norie Murayama, Makiko Shimizu, Masato Kitajima, Fumiaki Shono, Kimito Funatsu, Hiroshi YamazakiAbstractApparent permeability coefficients (Papp) across a human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayer were measured for a range of industrial/drug chemicals. A predictive equation for determining in vitro Papp values of fifty-six substances was set up using multivariate regression analysis based on in silico-estimated physicochemical properties (molecular...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 15, 2020 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

microRNAs: Potential Biomarkers of Toxicity: A special issue of the journal Toxicology Reports
Publication date: Available online 13 January 2020Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Saura C. Sahu, Aristidis Tsatsakis (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 14, 2020 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

ARSENIC HAMPERED EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT: AN in vivo STUDY USING LOCAL BANGLADESHI Danio rerio MODEL
Publication date: Available online 11 January 2020Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Tamanna Kabir, Saeed Anwar, Jarin Taslem Mourosi, Jakir Hossain, Md. Golam Rabbane, Md. Masuder Rahman, Tohura Tahsin, Md. Nazmul Hasan, Manik Chandra Shill, Mohammad Jakir HosenAbstractZebrafish (Danio rerio) has appeared as a valuable and popular model species to study the developmental and toxicological impact of environmental pollutants. To get insights on the toxicological effect of arsenic on early embryonic development, a controlled breeding of local Bangladeshi zebrafish followed by comprehensive microscopic analysis was conducte...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 12, 2020 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Hepatotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles on Clarias gariepinus: Biochemical, histopathological, and histochemical studies
In conclusion, one can assume liver sensitivity of C. garepinus for AgNPs and the recovery period is a must.Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 8, 2020 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Biochemical biomarkers of skin mucus in Neogobius melanostomus for assessing lead pollution in the Gulf of Gorgan (Iran)
Publication date: Available online 3 January 2020Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Fakhriyeh Omidi, Hojatollah Jafaryan, Rahman Patimar, Mohammad Harsij, Hamed PaknejadAbstractThe present study was conducted to provide basic information on the physiological damages (mucosal indicators) of Round Goby under laboratory and environmental conditions of lead contamination. The other goal was to find mucosal biomarkers of lead contamination in the Gulf of Gorgan. In the laboratory study, 400 pieces of fish with an average the weight of 35 ± 7.16 g were caught alive and were exposed to lead concentra...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 5, 2020 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Acute PFOA Exposure Promotes Epigenomic Alterations in Mouse Kidney Tissues
In this study, 30 days old CD-1 mice were exposed to 1, 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg/day of PFOA for 10 days. Following acute oral exposure, epigenetic alterations and expression levels of various markers of fibroblast activation were evaluated in kidney tissues. We noted that PFOA-exposed mice exhibited differential methylation yielding 879 differentially methylated regions compared to vehicle. The mRNA expression revealed significant increase in Dnmt1 with decreased Rasal1 expression at higher levels of PFOA exposure suggestive of Rasal1 hypermethylation (an early indicator of fibroblast activation in kidney). Like Dnmt1, w...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 3, 2020 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The ameliorating effect of carotenoid rich fraction extracted from Dunaliella salina microalga against inflammation- associated cardiac dysfunction in obese rats
The objective of this study is to explore the therapeutic efficiency of crf-DS on obesity-assciated cardiac dysfunction in the high-fat diet (HFD) treated rats. These rats were orally administered with crf-DS (150 mg /kg body weight), for six consecutive weeks in comparison with reference drug(orlistat). Specific cardiac biomarkers were examined including; adiponectin, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), glucagon, troponin-I (cTnI). The cell adhesion molecules (VCAM and ICAM), C-reactive protein (CRP), collagen type II (Col II), collagen alpha-1 (III) chain (Col3A1), lipoxygenase activity (LOX), as well as hist...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 31, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Lipoteichoic acid reduces antioxidant enzymes in H9c2 cells
This study is the first in evaluating antioxidant enzyme levels in embryonic cardiomyocyte cell line (H9c2) induced by LTA from Streptococcus sanguinis. LTA increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reduced the levels of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1 and catalase (CAT) but did not affect glutathione content. At the highest LTA concentration (15 μg/ml), SOD-1 and CAT levels did not change, and this effect was related to the induction of mRNA levels of Nrf2 induced by LTA. These results suggest that low antioxidant enzyme levels and ROS production could be related to...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 31, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Frequency of hemolysin BL and non-hemolytic enterotoxin complex genes of Bacillus cereus in raw and cooked meat samples in Zanjan, Iran
Publication date: Available online 23 December 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Habib Zeighami, Gholamreza Nejad-dost, Angineh Parsadanians, Shahrzad Daneshamouz, Fakhri HaghiAbstractFood safety has emerged as an important global issue with international trade and public health implications. Bacillus cereus is an important cause of food poisoning worldwide. A total of 200 individual meat samples were collected from meat retail outlets and restaurants and investigated the frequency of B. cereus and hemolysin BL (Hbl), non-hemolytic enterotoxin (Nhe) complex genes. The meat samples were immediately homogenized and cu...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 24, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Correlation of Osmolal Gap with Measured Concentrations of Acetone, Ethylene Glycol, Isopropanol, Methanol, and Propylene Glycol in Patients at an Academic Medical Center
Publication date: Available online 23 December 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Heather R. Greene, Matthew D. KrasowskiAbstractThe ingestion of toxic alcohols including methanol, ethylene glycol, and isopropanol remains a significant public health problem. These compounds can cause central nervous system depression and, for methanol and ethylene glycol, organ damage from toxic metabolites. The presence of these compounds in serum/plasma can often be determined and monitored by measuring the osmolal gap (OG). However, other compounds originating from endogenous or exogenous sources, such as propylene glycol and acet...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 24, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Moderate-intensity physical activity reduces systemic inflammation and maintains cardiorespiratory function following chronic particulate matter2.5 exposure in rats
ConclusionsThe current study showed that while there is an increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk associated with PM exposure, engaging in PA during exposure events imposes no increased risk with exercise providing a protective mechanism against some of the biochemical signaling changes caused by inhaled PM. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 18, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Dunaliella salina microalgae oppose thioacetamide-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats
Publication date: 2020Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 7Author(s): Farouk K. El-Baz, Abeer A.A. Salama, Rehab A. HusseinAbstractSeveral hepatic pathological conditions are correlated with the stimulation of hepatic stellate cells. This induces a cascade of events producing accretion of extracellular matrix components triggering fibrosis. Dunaliella salina, rich in carotenoids, was investigated for its potential antagonizing activity; functionally and structurally against thioacetamide (TAA) - induced hepatic fibrosis in rats. Adult male albino Wistar rats were treated with three dose levels of D. salina powder or extract...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 11, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Investigation of multiple whole smoke dosimetry techniques using a VITROCELL®VC10® smoke exposure system
Publication date: 2019Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 6Author(s): Brian M. Keyser, Robert Leverette, Michael Hollings, Adam Seymour, Lesley Reeve, Wanda FieldsAbstractThe Vitrocell® VC10® smoke exposure system offers multiple platforms for air liquid interface (ALI) and air agar interface (AAI) exposure that mimic in vivo conditions for assessing toxicological impact of whole smoke using in vitro assays. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare multiple dosimetry techniques that may be employed during combustible cigarette whole smoke exposure using the Vitrocell® VC10® smoking robot. The fol...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 11, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Determination of Biological Activity of Tragopogon porrifolius and Polygonum cognatum consumed intensively by people in Sivas
ConclusionOur findings demonstrated that T. porrifolius and P. cognatum ethanolic extracts have promising effect on antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity as well as enzyme inhibition activity, and hence further studies required to identify specific compounds responsible for these activities.Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 6, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Risk assessment of human exposure to lead and cadmium in maize grains cultivated in soils irrigated either with low-quality water or freshwater
Publication date: 2020Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 7Author(s): Adel S. El-Hassanin, Magdy R. Samak, Gomaa N. Abdel-Rahman, Yahia H. Abu-Sree, Essam M. SalehAbstractMaize is the third important cereal crop after wheat and rice, especially in Egyptian villages. It is used in baking as a substitution component in wheat products and a main component in snacks for children. The target of this study was to estimate the risk assessment of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in maize grains cultivated in the agricultural soil irrigated by the contaminated water in comparison with that irrigated by freshwater. Lead (Pb) and cadmium (C...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 6, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Hepatorenal protective effect of flaxseed protein isolate incorporated in lemon juice against lead toxicity in rats
Publication date: Available online 3 December 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Rasha S. Mohamed, Karem Fouda, Engy M. AklAbstractFinding renal and hepatoprotective agents preferably with antioxidant activities against environmental pollutants especially lead which can adversely affect liver and kidney is a great demand. In the current study, flaxseed protein isolate (FPI) was extracted from defatted flaxseed meal. Amino acids profile, antioxidant capacity and solubility of the extracted FPI were determined. The solubility of FPI in the acidic media was exploited in preparation of lemon juice with FPI. Twenty four m...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 4, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Biodegradation of textile dye Reactive Blue 160 by Bacillus firmus (Bacillaceae: Bacillales) and non-target toxicity screening of their degraded products
Publication date: Available online 4 December 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Selvaraj Barathi, Chinnannan Karthik, Nadanasabapathi Selvaraj, Indra Arulselvi PadikasanABSTRACTThe study was envisioned to evaluate the decolorization of Reactive Blue 160 (RB160) dye by using indigenous microbes. Contaminated soil from textile dye industry was collected from Noyyal river basin, Tamil Nadu, India. Potential dye degrading bacterial strain was recognized as Bacillus firmus by 16SrRNA gene sequencing analysis. RB160 dye (500 µg/ml) was effectively degraded by B. firmus and toxicological analyses were performe...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 4, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Risk assessment of lead and cadmium in maize grains cultivated in soils irrigated with low-quality water in comparison with freshwater
Publication date: Available online 29 November 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Adel S. El-Hassanin, Magdy R. Samak, Gomaa N. Abdel-Rahman, Yahia H. Abu-Sree, Essam M. SalehAbstractMaize is the third important cereal crop after wheat and rice, especially in Egyptian villages. It is used in baking as a substitution component in wheat products and a main component in snacks for children. The target of this study was to estimate the risk assessment of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in maize grains cultivated in the agricultural soil irrigated by the contaminated water in comparison with that irrigated by freshwater. Lead ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 1, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Cinnamon-flavored electronic cigarette liquids and aerosols induce oxidative stress in human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells
This study demonstrates osteoblast-like cells are sensitive to both e-liquids and aerosol condensates and suggests the cytotoxicity of cinnamon-flavored e-liquids might be associated with oxidative stress rather than changes in collagen type I protein expression. This in vitro study provides insight into the potential impacts of e-cigarette use on bone cells. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 29, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The impact of particulate matter (PM2.5) on skin barrier revealed by transcriptome analysis: focusing on cholesterol metabolism
This study shows that PM2.5 may cause barrier disorders by increasing cholesterol synthesis, leading to transient accumulation of epidermal cholesterol and decrease of squalene. It was suggested that cholesterol and squalene, which are the key substances affecting skin barrier function, can be used as new biomarkers of skin damage induced by PM2.5. Moreover, it was demonstrated that GTE can reduce damage caused by PM2.5 exposure by not only anti-inflammatory and antioxidant mechanisms, but also by off-setting the disturbance to epidermal lipid homeostasis. This study demonstrates the strong potential of GTE as an active in...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 26, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Systems toxicology assessment of a representative e-liquid formulation using human primary bronchial epithelial cells
Publication date: Available online 25 November 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Diego Marescotti, Carole Mathis, Vincenzo Belcastro, Patrice Leroy, Stefano Acali, Florian Martin, Rémi Dulize, David Bornand, Dariusz Peric, Emmanuel Guedj, Laura Ortega Torres, Matteo Biasioli, Matthieu Fuhrimann, Estela Fernandes, Felix Frauendorfer, Ignacio Gonzalez Suarez, Davide Sciuscio, Nikolai V. Ivanov, Manuel C. Peitsch, Julia HoengAbstractThe development of reduced-risk products aims to provide alternatives to cigarettes that present less risk of harm for adult smokers. Responsible use of flavoring substances in these...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 26, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Safety Evaluation of the Excessive Intake of Bacillus subtilis C-3102 in Healthy Japanese Adults: A Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Double-blind, Parallel-group, Comparison Trial
ConclusionThis study proved the safety of 4-week continuous consumption of an excessive amount of B. subtilis C-3102 tablets. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 22, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Evaluation of anti-tumour properties of two depsidones – Unguinol and Aspergillusidone D – in triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast tumour cells
This study, therefore, investigated the potential of two depsidones (Unguinol and Aspergillusidone D) to induce apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and cytotoxicity, and reduce cell proliferation in the triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. Results were compared with the effects of the cytostatic drug doxorubicin, antimitotic agent colchicine and endogenous hormones 17β-estradiol, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone.The cytostatic drugs and hormones affected the MDA-MB-231 cell line comparable to other studies, showing the usefulness of this model to study the effects of depsidones on a triple-negative breast ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 21, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Interactions of oxidative DNA damage and CYP1A gene expression with the liver enzymes in Klunzinger’s mullet exposed to benzo[a]pyrene
Publication date: 2019Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 6Author(s): Tahmineh Soltani, Alireza Safahieh, Hossein Zolgharnien, Soheila MatroodiAbstractBenzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is an important contaminant whose liver biotransformation is dependent on the species, the route of exposure and the concentration. The goal of this study was to assess the interactions of oxidative DNA damage and CYP1A gene expression with the liver enzymes in Klunzinger’s mullet (Liza klunzingeri) exposed to benzo[a]pyrene. Sublethal doses of B[a]P (5, 10 and 50 mg/kg) were intraperitoneally administered to the fish for 14 days. The alteration...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 21, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Anticholinergic and Antioxidant Activities of Usnic Acid-An Activity-Structure Insight
Publication date: Available online 20 November 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Kader Cetin Cakmak, İlhami GülçinAbstractUsnic acid, as active dibenzofuran derivative, isolated and characterized from some lichen species. The aim of manuscript was to evaluate antioxidant, anticholinergic and antidiabetic potentials of usnic acid as an important natural product. Antioxidant profile of usnic acid determined by eight distinguishes bioanalytical antioxidant methods. The antioxidative properties of usnic acid were performed using by several bioanalytical assays. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·), ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 21, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Triacontanoic ester of 5ʹʹ-hydroxyjustisolin: Tumour suppressive role in cervical cancer via Bcl-2, BAX and caspase-3 mediated signalling
Publication date: 2019Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 6Author(s): Litty Joseph, K.K. SrinivasanAbstractTriacontanoic ester of 5ʺ-hydroxyjustisolin, a lignan from Justicia simplex D. Don, possesses antitumor activity. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this is not yet clearly understood. The present study showed significant inhibition in cell viability on HeLa cell line and induced minor toxicity in normal cells. This compound induced mitotic arrest at G0/G1 phase followed by apoptosis in human cervical cancer cells and was accompanied by the upregulation of BAX, caspase-3 and downregulation of Bcl-2. Taken tog...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 20, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Levels and Risk Assessment of Residual Phthalates, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Semi-Volatile Chlorinated Organic Compounds in Toilet Tissue Papers
This study therefore, sought to investigate the levels of these toxicants in toilet tissue papers on the Ghanaian market and the associated risk of exposure. The study also sought to conduct source apportionments for analytes.A total of 32 composite toilet tissue samples from 8 different brands were analysed in replicates for PAHs, phthalates and SVCOCs. Analysis was conducted using Shimadzu GCMS QP 2020 with the MS operated in SIM mode.The results showed elevated levels of PAHs, phthalates, and appreciable levels of SVCOCs in the toilets tissue papers. The risk assessment conducted, showed an associated elevated cancer ri...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 19, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Oral exposure to low dose bisphenol A aggravates allergic airway inflammation in mice
In conclusion, oral exposure to low-dose BPA at levels equivalent to human exposure can aggravate allergic asthmatic responses through enhancement of Th2-skewed responses, lung hormone receptor downregulation, and MLN and BM microenvironment change. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 17, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Impact of chronic low dose exposure of monocrotophos in rat brain: Oxidative/ nitrosative stress, neuronal changes and cholinesterase activity
Publication date: Available online 14 November 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Shadrak Babu Karumuri, Hoshiyar Singh, Saba Naqvi, Awanish Mishra, S.J.S. FloraAbstractMonocrotophos (MCP) is an organophosphate mainly used as insecticides in agriculture, and veterinary practice to control pests. Exposure to MCP is known to induce significant systemic toxicity in animals and humans. Short term exposure to a high dose of MCP has been reported to cause systemic toxicity, however limited information is available regarding low dose long term exposure in rats. We studied the effects of low dose long term exposure to MCP on...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 15, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Acute Dermal Toxicity Study of New, Used and Laboratory Aged Aircraft Engine Oils
This study was conducted to determine if new engine oils and their used versions have the potential to induce dermal irritation. Twelve male New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, 19 weeks old) were used to determine the acute dermal toxicity potential of four aircraft turbine oils including MIL-PRF-7808 Grades 3 and 4 and MIL-PRF-23699 Grade 5 High Thermal Stability (HTS) and a Grade 5 experimental aircraft engine oil in their unused and used or laboratory stressed states. Five fur-free test sites (6 cm2 each) located lateral to the midline of the back were treated with two undiluted (0.5 ml) new ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 15, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Essential trace elemental levels (Zinc, Iron and copper) in the biological samples of smoker referent and pulmonary Tuberculosis patients
Publication date: Available online 15 November 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Palwasha Nizamani, Hassan Imran Afridi, Tasneem Gul Kazi, Farah Naz Talpur, Jameel Ahmed BaigAbstractTuberculosis is one of the major causes of illnesses and deaths throughout world particularly in Asia. Smoking is linked with tuberculosis recurrence and its mortality and may influence bacteriological conversion, clinical symptoms and treatment outcome. The aim of current study was to estimate association among essential trace elements {zinc (Zn), iron (Fe) and copper (Cu)} in human biological samples particularly blood, serum, scalp ha...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 15, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research