Assessment of acute toxicity and biochemical responses to chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin and their combination exposed earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae
Publication date: Available online 30 March 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Rishikesh K. Tiwari, Shikha Singh, Ravi S. PandeyAbstractRecurrent application of chemical pesticides in the agricultural fields have adverse impact on flora and fauna of soil ecosystem. Earthworms immensely contribute in increasing the fertility of soil. They may act as a bioindicator for the ecotoxicological analysis of pesticide induced soil pollution. Earthworms, Eudrilus eugeniae were exposed to different concentrations of pesticides chlorpyrifos (OP), cypermethrin (a pyrethroid) and their combination for 48 h by paper contact ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 31, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Cell culture conditions affect the ability of high content imaging assay to detect drug-induced changes in cellular parameters in human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs)
Publication date: Available online 28 March 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Bharathi Balasubramanian, Vaclav Belak, Isha Verma, Yeva Prysiazhniuk, Frederick Sannajust, Elena S. TrepakovaAbstractHuman induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) are widely used for drug safety and efficacy testing with various techniques, including high content imaging (HCI). Upon drug treatment, a significant number of hiPSC-CMs grown in regular 96-well plates coated with fibronectin detached from the bottom of the plate, complicating data acquisition. Several cell culture configurations were tested to improve ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 30, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Consequent stages of developing a multi-compartmental mechanistic model for chronically inhaled nanoparticles pulmonary retention
Publication date: Available online 27 March 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Boris A. Katsnelson, Marina P. Sutunkova, Ludmila K. Konysheva, Svetlana N. Solovyeva, Ilzira A. Minigalieva, Vladimir B. Gurvich, Larissa I. PrivalovaAbstractThe paper retraces the development of a mechanistic multicompartmental system model describing particle retention in lungs under chronic inhalation exposures. This model was first developed and experimentally tested for various conditions of exposure to polydisperse dusts of SiO2 or TiO2. Later on it was successfully used as a basis for analyzing patterns in the retention of nanopart...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 28, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Reducing oxidative toxicity of L-dopa in combination with two different antioxidants: an essential oil isolated from Rosa Damascena Mill., and vitamin C
Publication date: Available online 22 March 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Galina Nikolova, Yanka Karamalakova, Veselina GadjevaAbstractParkinson disease (PD) is a multifactorial disease that takes a leading place among contemporary frequent diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) with not well-established mechanism. One of the most popular and effective therapy for patients with PD is Levodopa (L-dopa), but clinical effect of the drug diminished by motor complications resulting from prolonged treatment. Due to the L-dopa neurotoxic effect in the disease treatment, the L-dopa administration is delayed as lon...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 24, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Antimicrobial activity and acetylcholinestrase inhibition of novel synthesized pyrimidine derivatives versus Candida albicans trafficking to brain and kidney
Publication date: Available online 23 March 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Rehab M. Abdel-Megeed, Mai O. Kadry, Dalia B. Fayed, Abdel-Hamid Z. Abdel-HamidABSTRACTThe expedient fungi Candida albicans (C. albicans) is able to thrive in many host niches including blood stream, skin, mucosal surfaces, and different body organs. Herein, the assessment of novel synthesized pyrimidine derivatives as anti fungal agent was investigated. Female albino mice were injected intraperitoneally by C. albicans (1.5 × 106 CFU). infected Mice then subjected to treatment with two different doses which was low (50&...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 24, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Subchronic Toxicity Evaluation of Leaves from Rabbiteye Blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum Aiton) in Rats
Publication date: Available online 18 March 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Wataru Tanaka, Daigo Yokoyama, Yasushi Matsuura, Masahiko Nozaki, Naoya Hirozawa, Hisato Kunitake, Masanobu Sakono, Hiroyuki SakakibaraAbstractBlueberry leaf may contain multiple compounds with beneficial effects. We conducted a 90-day toxicity study in rats to evaluate the safety of consuming the leaves of rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum Aiton; RB species). Powdered leaves were administered daily by oral gavage at doses of 500, 1,000, and 2,500 mg/kg body weight to male and female Sprague-Dawley rats for 90 days. Treatment ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 18, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Incidence and treatment of snakebites in West Bengal, India
ConclusionHospital studies are a key source of information about snake bites. The ready availability and appropriate use of AVS, close monitoring of patients, the institution of ventilator support and if required, early referral to a larger hospital all help to reduce the mortality. Thus knowledge of the varied clinical manifestations of snake bite is important for effective management in hospitals by a complete health care team. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 4, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

HMGB1 protein as a novel target for cancer
Publication date: Available online 2 March 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Alok Tripathi, Kriti Shrinet, Arvind KumarAbstractHighly conserved nuclear protein High Mobility Group Box1 (HMGB1) present in mammals has functionality as an immuno-modulator in the form of cytokine molecule, as a nuclear factor to regulate these molecules and DNA structural determination. It has proximal homologous DNA binding domains Box-A, Box-B and distal C-terminal domain. Reduced form exists in basic condition has chemotaxis activity, while form with disulphide bond reduced at 106th cysteine showed cytokine activity. The oxidized for...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 4, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Effects of Bauhinia forficata on glycaemia, lipid profile, hepatic glycogen content and oxidative stress in rats exposed to Bisphenol A
Publication date: Available online 2 March 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Mariane S. Pinafo, Philippe R. Benedetti, Letícia B. Gaiotte, Fabiano G. Costa, João Paulo F. Schoffen, Glaura S.A. Fernandes, Luiz Gustavo A. Chuffa, Fábio R.F. SeivaGraphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 4, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Manganese suppresses oxidative stress, inflammation and caspase-3 activation in rats exposed to chlorpyrifos
Publication date: 2019Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 6Author(s): Solomon E. Owumi, Uche J. DimAbstractThe present study investigated the individual and combined impact of organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) and manganese (Mn), a naturally occurring trace metal, on hepatorenal function in adult rats. The four experimental groups namely control, CPF alone (5 mg/kg), Mn alone (10 mg/kg) and the co-exposure group consisted of eight rats which were orally gavage for 14 consecutive days. Following sacrifice, the biomarkers of hepatorenal damage, antioxidant enzyme activities, myeloperoxidase (MPO) act...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 1, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Mainstream smoke constituents and in vitro toxicity comparative analysis of 3R4F and 1R6F reference cigarettes
Publication date: Available online 25 February 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Guy Jaccard, Donatien Tafin Djoko, Alexandra Korneliou, Regina Stabbert, Maxim Belushkin, Marco EspositoAbstractA new Kentucky reference cigarette, 1R6F, has been manufactured to replace the depleting 3R4F reference cigarette. The 3R4F Kentucky reference cigarettes have been widely used as monitor or comparator cigarettes for mainstream smoke analysis and in vitro and in vivo toxicological data of cigarettes and novel tobacco products. Both reference cigarettes were analyzed in the same laboratory during the same period of time with the...
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 27, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Heavy metals content in some non-alcoholic beverages (carbonated drinks, flavored yogurt drinks, and juice drinks) of the Egyptian markets
Publication date: Available online 25 February 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Gomaa N. Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed B.M. Ahmed, Bassem A. Sabry, Safaa S.M. AliAbstractHeavy metals are elements present in trace quantities in the environment and, in small concentrations, they play important roles for the living organisms yet it can cause toxicity if exceeded the recommended levels. Toxic metals contamination is an important environmental problem that was mainly manifested in the growing industrial cities where the levels in toxic metals exceeded the recommended levels leading to the increase of several health problems (th...
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 27, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Effect of levosimendan, a calcium sensitizer, on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats
In conclusion this study shows that levosimendan has a partial protective effect on Cis-induced nephrotoxicity. The protective effect of levosimendan is shown to be related to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and vasodilator effects.Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 27, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Inhibition of Lipid Accumulation by the Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Distylium racemosum in vitro and in vivo
This study confirms the anti-obesity effect of the ethyl acetate fraction of Distylium racemosum (DRE), a member of Hamamelidaceae, that naturally grows on Jeju Island, on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. This study further demonstrated that DRE exhibits anti-obesity effects in C57BL/6 obese mice. The degree of adipocyte differentiation was determined using Oil red O stain; results indicated a decrease in fat globules, which was dependent on DRE concentration, when pre-adipocytes were treated with differentiation-inducing agents. In addition, this significantly reduced the expression of the adipogenic transcripti...
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 25, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Manganese suppresses oxidative stress, inflammation and caspase-3 activation in rats exposed chlorpyrifos
Publication date: Available online 25 February 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Solomon E. Owumi, Uche J. DimAbstractThe present study investigated the individual and combined impact of organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) and manganese (Mn), a naturally occurring trace metal, on hepatorenal function in adult rats. The four experimental groups namely control, CPF alone (5 mg/kg), Mn alone (10 mg/kg) and the co-exposure group consisted of eight rats which were orally gavage for 14 consecutive days. Following sacrifice, the biomarkers of hepatorenal damage, antioxidant enzyme activities, myelop...
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 25, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Reprogramming of CaCo2 colorectal cancer cells after using the complex of poly-(N-vinylpyrrolidone) with small non-coding RNAs
In this study, CaCo2 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells were initially epigenetically reprogrammed and transformed into CD4+ cells with nano-sized complexes of amphiphilic poly-(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) with miRNA-152 and piRNA-30074. The transformation of cells was confirmed by morphological and genetic changes in the dynamic of reprogramming. CD4+ lymphocytes marker was detected using immunofluorescence. Amphiphilic poly-(N-vinylpyrrolidone)/small non-coding RNAs complexes were investigated for transfection efficiency and duration of transfection of CaCo2 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells using fluorescence.Graphical abstrac...
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 16, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Mutagenicity and genotoxicity evaluation of textile industry wastewater using bacterial and plant bioassays
Publication date: Available online 15 February 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Sana Khan, Mohammad Anas, Abdul MalikAbstractTextile industrial wastewater samples were taken from the Panki site 5 industrial area of Kanpur city, India. Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer and Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry techniques have shown that the wastewater contained several heavy metals and organic pollutants [1]. Further, in order to explore the potential toxicity of these pollutants present in the effluent, a battery of short-term biological assays (Ames test, DNA repair defective mutation assay and Allium cepa chromo...
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 15, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Subacute and Subchronic Oral Toxicity Assessments of Acridocarpus Smeathmannii (DC.) Guill. & Perr. Root in Wistar Rats
Publication date: Available online 30 January 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): O.E. Kale, O. Awodele, A.J. AkindeleAbstractRecent adverse herb reactions have stimulated interest documenting the safety profile of medicinal agents. Thus, subacute and subchronic oral toxicity of the hydroethanolic extract of Acridocarpus smeathmannii root (HEASR) in Wistar rats was investigated. In the 28 and 90-day subacute and subchronic toxicity tests, sixty-four rats (n = male: female = 1:1 = 32) were divided into four of eight/group and ninety-six (n = male: female =&...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 31, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Microwave induced synthesis of ZnO nanorods and their efficacy as a drug carrier with profound anticancer and antibacterial properties
Publication date: Available online 29 January 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Pritam Sadhukhan, Mousumi Kundu, Shallu Rana, Raj Kumar, Joydeep Das, Parames C. SilAbstractIn the present study, we report the microwave-induced synthesis of fluorescent zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO) and their usage as a cargo material to carry hydrophobic drug, quercetin. TEM and SEM showed the rod-shape morphology of our synthesized ZnO. XRD showed several diffraction peaks correspond to a hexagonal wurtzite structure. The optical and chemical natures of these nanorods were also confirmed from the UV-VIS (showed a distinct absorption band...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 30, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Acute glufosinate-based herbicide treatment in rats leads to increased ocular interleukin-1β and c-Fos protein levels, as well as intraocular pressure
Publication date: Available online 16 January 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Selim Çomaklı, Çiğdem Sevim, George Kontadakis, Elif Doğan, Ali Taghizadehghalehjoughi, Mustafa Özkaraca, Michael Aschner, Taxiarchis Konstantinos Nikolouzakis, Aristides M. TsatsakisAbstractGlufosinate is a common herbicide with neurotoxic effects, leading to seizures, convulsions and memory loss. Glufosinate indirectly induces glutamate toxicity by inhibiting glutamine synthesis in astrocytes. Here, we studied the acute toxic effects of a glufosinate-based herbicide in rat optic nerve at three doses (40, 80 or 120...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 17, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxicological profile of Amanita virosa – A narrative review
Publication date: 2019Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 6Author(s): Milad Tavassoli, Asma Afshari, Andree Letiţia Arsene, Bruno Mégarbane, Josef Dumanov, Monica Maria Bastos Paoliello, Aristidis Tsatsakis, Félix Carvalho, Mahmoud Hashemzaei, Gholamreza Karimi, Ramin RezaeeAbstractMushrooms account for a part of human diet due to their exquisite taste and protein content as well as their promising health effects unveiled by scientific research. Toxic and non-toxic mushrooms frequently share considerable morphological similarities, which mislead the collectors/consumers, resulting in mycotoxicity. Numerous mu...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 16, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxicological profile of Amanita virosa - a narrative review
Publication date: Available online 9 January 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Milad Tavassoli, Asma Afshari, Andree Letiţia Arsene, Bruno Mégarbane, Josef Dumanov, Monica Maria Bastos Paoliello, Aristidis Tsatsakis, Félix Carvalho, Mahmoud Hashemzaei, Ramin RezaeeAbstractMushrooms account for a part of human diet due to their exquisite taste and protein content as well as their promising health effects unveiled by scientific research. Toxic and non-toxic mushrooms frequently share considerable morphological similarities, which mislead the collectors/consumers, resulting in mycotoxicity. Numerous mush...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 10, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

ROS mediated antibacterial activity of photoilluminated riboflavin: a photodynamic mechanism against nosocomial infections
This study aims to add one more therapeutic dimension to photoilluminated riboflavin as it can be effectively employed in targeting bacterial biofilms occurring on hospital wares causing several serious medical conditions. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 10, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Circulating microRNAs as potential biomarkers of occupational exposure to low dose organic solvents
Publication date: Available online 8 January 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Renata Sisto, Pasquale Capone, Luigi Cerini, Filippo Sanjust, Enrico Paci, Daniela Pigini, Maria Pia Gatto, Monica Gherardi, Andrea Gordiani, Nunziata L’Episcopo, Giovanna Tranfo, Pieranna ChiarellaAbstractCirculating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been recently acknowledged as novel and non-invasive biomarkers of exposure to environmental and occupational hazardous substances. This preliminary study investigates the potential role of blood miRNAs as molecular biomarkers of exposure to the most common organic solvents (ethylbenzene, toluen...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 9, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Appropriate approach to technology in animal hematology
Publication date: Available online 31 December 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Javad Beheshtipour (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 1, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxicity bioassay of waste cooking oil-based biodiesel on marine microalgae
Publication date: Available online 29 December 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): K.S. Pikula, A.M. Zakharenko, V.V. Chaika, A.K. Stratidakis, M. Kokkinakis, G. Waissi, V.N. Rakitskii, D.A. Sarigiannis, A.W. Hayes, M.D. Coleman, A. Tsatsakis, K.S. GolokhvastABSTRACTThe world biodiesel production is increasing at a rapid rate. Despite its perceived safety for the environment, more detailed toxicity studies are mandatory, especially in the field of aquatic toxicology. While considerable attention has been paid to biodiesel combustion emissions, the toxicity of biodiesel in the aquatic environment has been poorly unders...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 30, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Maximum Tolerated Doses and erythropoiesis effects in the mouse bone marrow by 79 pesticides’ technical materials assessed with the micronucleus assay
Publication date: Available online 22 December 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Nataliya Ilyushina, Marina Goumenou, Polychronis D. Stivaktakis, Alexander I. Vardavas, Gleb Masaltsev, Nataliya Averianova, Olga Dmitricheva, Yulia Revazova, Aristidis M. Tsatsakis, Valerii RakitskiiAbstractEffects of technical materials of pesticide active ingredients, belonging to various chemical classes, on erythropoiesis in mouse bone marrow were studied as part of the research on the pesticide mutagenic activity in micronucleus test. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the toxic action of the test substances on the t...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 24, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Chemical Design and Toxicity Evaluation of New Pyrimidothienotetrahydroisoquinolines as Potential Insecticidal Agents
Publication date: Available online 18 December 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Adel M. Kamal El-Dean, Aly A. Abd-Ella, Reda Hassanien, Mohamed E.A. El-Sayed, Remon M. Zaki, Shaban A.A. Abdel-RaheemAbstractNeonicotinoids are the most widely used from all existing pesticides. So, in purpose to discover new pesticides being more effective against the aphid, twelve heterocyclic compounds neonicotinoid analogs have been prepared in a pure state; pyrimidothienotetrahydroisoquinolines 1-12 and their toxicity as potential insecticidal agents against cowpea Aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch was screened. Their characterizations...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 19, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Model Of Vitamin And Mineral Deficiency For Toxicological Research: Apoptosis Activity Under Conditions Of Ccl4 Intoxication
Publication date: Available online 18 December 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Nadezhda V. Tyshko, Svetlana I. ShestakovaAbstractThe apoptosis activity and clinical state in vitamin and mineral supplemented male Wistar rats was evaluated after carbon tetrachloride exposure (CCL4). The animals were divided equally into 6 groups (3 control groups and 3 exposure groups) with the control groups (C-75, C-30, C-19) receiving AIN-93, a specific diet for rodents, consisting of a 75%, 30% and 19% ratio of vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B6) and minerals (Fe3+ and Mg2+) and exposure groups (E-75, E-30, E-19) receiving the same diet p...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 19, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Screening of biopolymeric materials for cardiovascular surgery toxicity—Evaluation of their surface relief with assessment of morphological aspects of monocyte/macrophage polarization in atherosclerosis patients
Publication date: 2019Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 6Author(s): Natalia G. Menzyanova, Svetlana А. Pyatina, Elena D. Nikolaeva, Alexander V. Shabanov, Ivan V. Nemtsev, Dmitry P. Stolyarov, Dmitry B. Dryganov, Eugene V. Sakhnov, Ekaterina I. ShishatskayaAbstractThe morphotypes of human macrophages (MPh) were studied in the culture on nano-structured biopolymer substrates, made from polyhydroxyalcanoates (PHAs) of five various monomer compositions, followed by the solvent evaporation. Its surface relief, which was further in direct contact with human cells in vitro, was analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and sca...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 14, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Morphological and chemical composition of particulate matter in buses exhaust
Publication date: Available online 11 December 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): V.V. Chernyshev, A.M. Zakharenko, S.M. Ugay, T.T. Hien, L.H. Hai, S.M. Olesik, A.S. Kholodov, E. Zubko, M. Kokkinakis, T.I. Burykina, A.K. Stratidakis, Ya. O. Mezhuev, D.A. Sarigiannis, A.M. Tsatsakis, K.S. GolokhvastAbstractThis research article investigates the particulate matter originated from the exhaust emissions of 20 bus models, within the territory of Vladivostok, Russian Federation. The majority of evaluated buses (17 out of 20) had emissions of large particles with sizes greater than 400 μm, which account for more t...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 12, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Zinc oxide nanoparticles impose metabolic toxicity by de-regulating proteome and metabolome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Publication date: Available online 7 December 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Piyoosh Kumar BabeleAbstractAs zinc oxide nanoparticles are being increasingly used in various applications, it is important to assess their potential toxic implications. Stress responses and adaptations are primarily controlled by modulation in cellular proteins (enzyme) and concentration of metabolites. To date proteomics or metabolomics applications in nanotoxicity assessment have been applied to a restricted extent. Here we utilized 2DE and 1H NMR based proteomics and metabolomics respectively to delineate the toxicity mechanism of z...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 9, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Sympathomimetic amine compounds and hepatotoxicity: Not all are alike—Key distinctions noted in a short review
Publication date: 2019Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 6Author(s): Cyril WillsonAbstractSympathomimetic amine compounds are often pooled together and incorrectly assumed to be interchangeable with respect to potential adverse effects. A brief and specific review of sympathomimetic compounds and one instance (i.e., hepatotoxicity) where these compounds have been improperly grouped together is covered. A review of the proposed mechanisms through which known hepatotoxic sympathomimetic agents (e.g., 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine or MDMA, methamphetamine and amphetamine) cause liver injury, along with a corresponding rev...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 9, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Preclinical evaluation of Amblyomin-X, a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor with antitumor activity
Publication date: Available online 1 December 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Durvanei A. Maria, Sonia Elisabete A.L. Will, Rosemary V. Bosch, Jean G. Souza, Juliana M. Sciani, Mauricio B. Goldfeder, Giuliana G. Rondon, Ana M. Chudzinski-TavassiAbstractAmblyomin-X, a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor, is a recombinant protein that selectively induces apoptosis in tumor cells and promotes tumor reduction in vivo in melanoma animal models. Furthermore, Amblyomin-X was able to drastically reduce lung metastasis in a mice orthotopic kidney tumor model. Due to its antitumor activity, Amblyomin-X potential to become a new ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 2, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Sympathomimetic Amine Compounds and Hepatotoxicity: Not All Are Alike. Key Distinctions Noted in a Short Review
Publication date: Available online 1 December 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Cyril WillsonAbstractSympathomimetic amine compounds are often pooled together and incorrectly assumed to be interchangeable with respect to potential adverse effects. A brief and specific review of sympathomimetic compounds and one instance (i.e., hepatotoxicity) where these compounds have been improperly grouped together is covered. A review of the proposed mechanisms through which known hepatotoxic sympathomimetic agents (e.g., 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine or MDMA, methamphetamine and amphetamine) cause liver injury, along with ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 2, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Gentamicin induced acute renal damage and its evaluation using urinary biomarkers in rats
This study was undertaken to evaluate recently identified urinary biomarkers use in identifying acute kidney injury compared to traditional serum markers in experimentally induced nephrotoxicity in male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in Sprague Dawley rats is commonly detected using serum markers and histological evaluation of kidneys. Gentamicin, an aminoglycoside was administered at 30 and 100 mg/kg/day dose (subcutaneous) for seven consecutive days to induce nephrotoxicity. On day 4 and day 8 post treatment, serum and urine samples from these rats were analyzed for traditional serum/u...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 1, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Risk assessment and exposure to levels of naturally occurring aflatoxins in some packaged cereals and cereal based foods consumed in Accra, Ghana
Publication date: Available online 29 November 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Nii Korley Kortei, Akwasi Akomeah Agyekum, Felicia Akuamoa, Vincent Kyei- Baffour, Huseini Wiisibie AliduABSTRACTAflatoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of fungal origin that contaminate agricultural commodities before, during and after harvest periods. A total of fifty-three (53) different foods (27 rice brands, 20 cereal based food brands and 6 pasta brands) were randomly obtained from the market and assessed for their different aflatoxin constitution (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) as well as the total levels of the aflatoxins using H...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 30, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

An imazamox-based herbicide causes apoptotic changes in rat liver and pancreas
Publication date: Available online 19 November 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Çiğdem Sevim, Selim Çomaklı, Ali Taghizadehghalehjoughi, Mustafa Özkaraca, Robin Mesnage, Leda Kovatsi, Tatyana I. Burykina, Alexandra Kalogeraki, Michael N Antoniou, Aristidis M. TsatsakisAbstractWe studied the acute toxicity of an imazamox-based herbicide at 12, 24 and 36 mg/kg body (bw) weight imazamox equivalent dose on the liver and pancreatic tissue in Sprague Dawley rats. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, glucose, calcium as well as creatinine, were determined ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 21, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Influence of smoking on levels of urinary 8-iso Prostaglandin F2α
ConclusionsDue to the high heterogeneity among the studies included in these meta-analyses, it is difficult to generalize the results; however, our study indicates increased levels of 8-epi-PGF2α and therefore increased oxidative stress in smokers compared with nonsmokers. More studies are still needed to assess if 8-epi-PGF2α levels are reversible after cessation. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 21, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Potential Health Risk Consequences of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Surface Water, Shrimp (Macrobrachium macrobrachion) and Fish (Brycinus longipinnis) from Benin River, Nigeria
Publication date: Available online 17 November 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Lawrence I. Ezemonye, Princewill O. Adebayo, Alex A. Enuneku, Isioma Tongo, Emmanuel OgbomidaAbstractHealth risk consequences of consumption of heavy metal-contaminated water, shrimp (Macrobrachium macrobrachion) and fish (Brycinus longipinnis) from Benin River in Nigeria were evaluated. Three stations around Koko Community (Abialegbe, Ebenco/Optima and Total Facility) with known anthropogenic activities (industrial and petrochemical installations and loading) were studied. Samples of surface water, shrimp and fish were collected and an...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 18, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Screening of biopolymeric materials for cardiovascular surgery toxicity – evaluation of their surface relief with assessment of morphological aspects of Monocyte/Macrophage Polarization in Atherosclerosis Patients
Publication date: Available online 16 November 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Natalia G. Menzyanova, Svetlana А. Pyatina, Elena D. Nikolaeva, Alexander V. Shabanov, Ivan V. Nemtsev, Dmitry P. Stolyarov, Dmitry B. Dryganov, Eugene V. Sakhnov, Ekaterina I. ShishatskayaAbstractThe morphotypes of human macrophages (MPh) were studied in the culture on nano-structured biopolymer substrates, made from polyhydroxyalcanoates (PHAs) of five various monomer compositions, followed by the solvent evaporation. Its surface relief, which was further in direct contact with human cells in vitro, was analyzed by atomic force micro...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 17, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

TOLERANCE OF Tithonia diversifolia AND Chromolaena odorata IN HEAVY METAL SIMULATED-POLLUTED SOILS AND THREE SELECTED DUMPSITES
This study showed Tithonia diversifolia and C. odorata were capable of reducing heavy metals in polluted soils. Thus the plants are good candidates for the phytoextraction of heavy metals from polluted soils. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 14, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Safety assessment of a standardized cucumber extract (Q-Actin™): Oral repeat-dose toxicity and mutagenicity studies
The objective of the present study was to investigate the general toxicity and mutagenic effects of an aqueous extract of cucumber (Q-Actin), standardized to ≥1% (1–2%) ido-BR1 iminosugar. Single dose of Q-Actin was well tolerated without mortality at 2000 mg/kg body weight (bw) in Sprague Dawley rats. Oral (gavage) administration of Q-Actin up to 1000 mg/kg bw/day was well tolerated followed by repeated administration for a maximum period of 90 days in Sprague-Dawley rats. There were no treatment related changes in clinical observations, ophthalmic examinations, body weights and body weight gains or...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 8, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Alterations of blood chemistry, hepatic and renal function, and blood cytometry in acrylamide-treated rats
Publication date: Available online 6 November 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Eduardo Rivadeneyra-Domínguez, Yesenia Becerra-Contreras, Alma Vázquez-Luna, Rafaél Díaz-Sobac, J.F. Rodríguez-LandaAbstractAcrylamide is a vinyl monomer that is widely used for the synthesis of polyacrylamides, the treatment of drinking water, and as an additive in cosmetics. Acrylamide is also produced during the thermal processing of carbohydrate-rich foods. Although the potential toxic effects of acrylamide have been reported, few studies have evaluated biochemical parameters in blood. The present s...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 8, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The role of toxic stimuli combinations in determining safe exposure limits
Publication date: Available online 7 November 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Ronald N. Kostoff, Marina Goumenou, Aristidis TsatsakisAbstractThis editorial addresses the effects of toxic stimuli combinations on determination of safe Exposure Limits. Examination of thousands of Medline abstracts showed typically that combinations of toxic stimuli can produce damage even when the exposure level of each member of the combination is less than the lowest exposure level of the member that produced damage when tested in isolation. The synergy of the toxic stimuli in combination means less of each component stimulus is re...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 8, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Alteration in thiols homeostasis, protein and lipid peroxidation in renal tissue following subacute oral exposure of imidacloprid and arsenic in Wistar rats
Publication date: Available online 3 November 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Lakshay Mahajan, Pawan Kumar Verma, Rajinder Raina, Nrip K. Pankaj, Shilpa Sood, Maninder SinghAbstractThe aim of present study was to assess whether No Observed Effect Level (NOEL) of imidacloprid (IMI) potentiates the arsenic induced renal toxicity at its maximum contaminant level in drinking water in Wistar rats. Significant elevation of lipid and protein oxidation with reduced level of total thiols and antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-s-transferase) in ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 4, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxicological evaluation of a saponin-rich standardized extract of fenugreek seeds (FenuSMART®): Acute, sub-chronic and genotoxicity studies
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): D. Sureshkumar, Shamshad Begum, N.M. Johannah, Balu Maliakel, I.M. KrishnakumarAbstractThe present study investigated the safety of a saponin-rich standardized extract of fenugreek seeds (FenuSMART®; FHE), that has been clinically shown to be effective in ameliorating the postmenopausal discomforts and establishing hormonal balance. The safety was assessed by oral acute (2500 mg/kg b. wt. for 14 days) and subchronic (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg b. wt. for 90 days) toxicity studies on Wistar rats and mutagenicity studies employing Salmonella ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 3, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Metabolism and removal of anthracene and lead by a B. subtilis-produced biosurfactant
In this study, Bacillus subtilis resistant to anthracene and lead was isolated from Persian Gulf sediments. Biosurfactant production was demonstrated using three methods, drop collapse, blood agar and oil spreading. Evaluation of optical density by spectrophotometer showed the bacterial growth in presence of 30 mg/l of anthracene and 50 mg/l of lead. Considerable proportion of anthracene (69.95%) was reduced after 120 h and the maximum percentage of lead absorption (82%) was observed after 150 minutes. The results indicated that the isolated bacterium was capable of removing anthracene and lead....
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 3, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The clinical toxicology of caffeine: A review and case study
Publication date: Available online 3 November 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Cyril WillsonAbstractCaffeine is a widely recognized psychostimulant compound with a long history of consumption by humans. While it has received a significant amount of attention there is still much to be learned with respect to its toxicology in humans, especially in cases of overdose. A review of the history of consumption and the clinical toxicology of caffeine including clinical features, pharmacokinetics, toxicokinetics, a thorough examination of mechanism of action and management/treatment strategies are undertaken. While higher (...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 3, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

A case series involving young children presenting with accidental ingestion of amphetamine based stimulants
Publication date: Available online 3 November 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Kelly E. Wood, Patrick J. McCarthy, Matthew D. Krasowski, Kelly E. Wood (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 3, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research