Analysis of endocrine disruption effect of Roundup® in adrenal gland of male rats
Publication date: Available online 3 August 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Aparamita Pandey, Medhamurthy Rudraiah The effect of Roundup® on adrenal gland steroidogenesis and signaling pathway associated with steroid production was investigated. Doses of 10, 50, 100 and 250 mg/kg bw/d Roundup® were administered for two weeks to adult male rats. The 10 mg/kg bw/d dose which reduced circulatory corticosterone levels, but did not change food consumption and body weight, was selected for further study. The expression of cholesterol receptor (low density lipoprotein receptor), de novo cholesterol synthesis...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 4, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Genome-wide Analysis of Potential Cross-reactive Endogenous Allergens in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Publication date: Available online 29 July 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Fang Chao Zhu, Rui Zong Jia, Lin Xu, Hua Kong, Yun Ling Guo, Qi Xing Huang, Yun Judy Zhu, An Ping Guo The proteins in the food are the source of common allergic components to certain patients. Current lists of plant endogenous allergens were based on the medical/clinical reports as well as laboratory results. Plant genome sequences made it possible to predict and characterize the genome-wide of putative endogenous allergens in rice (Oryza sativa L.). In this work, we identified and characterized 122 candidate rice allergens inclu...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 29, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

β-Caryophyllene attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice via modulation of gene expression associated mainly with colon inflammation
We examined the modulatory activity of β-caryophyllene (CA) and gene expression in colitic colon tissues in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model. Experimental colitis was induced by exposing male BALB/c mice to 5% DSS in drinking water for 7 days. CA (30 or 300mg/kg) was administered orally once a day together with DSS. CA administration attenuated the increases in the disease activity index, colon weight/length ratio, inflammation score, and myeloperoxidase activity in DSS-treated mice. Microarray analysis showed that CA administration regulated the expression in colon tissue of inflammation-related g...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 26, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

A subchronic oral toxicity study of Salacia reticulata extract powder in rats
Publication date: Available online 26 July 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Yuriko Oda, Atsuko Yuasa, Fumitaka Ueda, Chihaya Kakinuma The safety of Salacia plant (Salacia reticulata) extract powder, which is used in Ayurvedic medical practices, was studied in a dose range-finding subchronic toxicity study in Crl:CD Sprague–Dawley rats. Male and female rats were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups and were treated by oral gavage with 0, 10, 65, and 400mg/kg body weight/day of the powder for 91 days. Body weight, food consumption, and clinical signs were assessed during the treatment period. Urinalys...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 26, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Fluoranthene and phenantrene, two predominant PAHs in heat-prepared food, do not influence the frequency of micronucleated mouse erythrocytes induced by other PAHs
Publication date: Available online 26 July 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Lilianne Abramsson-Zetterberg, Bianca-Maria Maurer Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) occur in complex mixtures present in the human environment.Because of the carcinogenic properties of some of these PAHs,theyraise concerns regarding healthand food safety. Becausethe occurrence of benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene, and benzo[b]fluoranthene (PAH4) are considered markers for other genotoxic PAHs in foodstuffs, the European Union has put a maximum level of PAH4 in some foodstuffs. Fluoranthene(Flu) and phenanthrene (Phe), ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 26, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Human health hazards of poly aromatic hydrocarbons in Nigerian smokeless tobacco
Publication date: Available online 22 July 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Orish Ebere Orisakwe, Zelinjo Nkeiruka Igweze, Kenneth Obinna Okolo, Nnaemeka Arinze Udowelle Recently we investigated the heavy metal hazards of Nigerian smokeless tobacco products ‘STP’. Since ‘STPs’ are advocated as safer alternatives to cigarettes, the public health implication should be ascertained. This is a risk assessment of poly aromatic hydrocarbons ‘PAHs’ in ‘STPs’ used in Nigeria. Thirty ‘STPs’ from different parts (South East, South West, Niger Delta and North C...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 22, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Meta-Analysis Approach to Study the Prevalence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease among Current, Former and Non-Smokers
Publication date: Available online 21 July 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Ritul Kamal, Anup Kumar Srivastava, Chandrasekharan Nair Kesavachandran Comparative risk assessment for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) among current, former and non-smokers categories remains controversial and not studied in detail. We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize all the relevant published studies on this topic and to update the association between smoking and prevalence of COPD in current, former and non-smokers. Identification, screening, eligibility and inclusion of articles for the study were conducted as ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 21, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Effects of developmental exposure to manganese and/or low iron diet: Changes to metal transporters, sucrose preference, elevated zero-maze, open-field, and locomotion in response to fenfluramine, amphetamine, and MK-801
Publication date: Available online 19 July 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Robyn M. Amos-Kroohs, Colin P. Bloor, Momina A. Qureshi, Charles V. Vorhees, Michael T. Williams Manganese overexposure (MnOE) can be neurotoxic. In humans this can occur through occupational exposure, air or water contamination, well water, soy milk, and some baby formulas. In children MnOE has been associated with cognitive and behavioral deficits. The effects of MnOE may be modified by factors such as iron status. We hypothesized that developmental MnOE would be exacerbated by iron deficiency. A diet with a 90% decrease in iron (...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 19, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Comparison of Fetal Toxicity of Various Multi-wall Carbon Nanotubes in Mice
Publication date: Available online 19 July 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Tomoko Fujitani, Akiko Inomata, Akio Ogata, Yoshimitsu Sakamoto, Akihiko Hirose, Tetsuji Nishimura, Reiko Ikeda, Dai Nakae The fetal toxicities of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with various sizes were compared in CD1(ICR) mice. MWCNTs were suspended in 2% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose solution in phosphate-buffered saline. On day 9 of gestation, dams were administered a single intraperitoneal dose of MWCNTs (4mg/kg body weight), while dams in the control group were administered vehicle (10mL/kg body weight). The rectal te...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 19, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

STUDYOF THEINFLUENCEOF THEpHOFWATERIN THEINITIATIONOFDIGESTIVE TRACTINJURYINCADMIUMPOISONINGIN RATS
Conclusion: Cadmium exposure led to the formation of dysplastic lesions in the gastric glandular epithelium, regardless of the water pH. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 19, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Acute and subchronic toxicity of the antitumor agent rhodium (II) citrate in Balb/c mice after intraperitoneal administration
This study aimed to investigate potential acute and subchronic toxicity of rhodium (II) citrate in female Balb/c mice after intraperitoneal injections. In the acute test, independent groups received five doses; the highest dose (107.5mg/kg) was equivalent to 33 times that used in our previous reports. The other doses were chosen as proportions of the highest, being 80.7 (75%), 53.8 (50%), 26.9 (25%) or 13.8mg/kg (12.5%). Animals were monitored over 38 days and no severe signs of toxicity were observed, according to mortality, monitoring of adverse symptoms, hematological, biochemical and genotoxic parameters. We conclude t...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 18, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The effects of N-acetylcysteine on cisplatin-induced cardiotoxicity on isolated rat hearts after short-term global ischemia
Publication date: Available online 17 July 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Gvozden Rosic, Ivan Srejovic, Vladimir Zivkovic, Dragica Selakovic, Jovana Joksimovic, Vladimir Jakovljevic The aim of this study was to estimate the protective effect of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) against cisplatin-induced cardiotoxicity under conditions of ischemic-reperfusion injury. Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=8): control, cisplatin (5mg/kg/w, i.p., 5 weeks) and cisplatin + NAC group (cisplatin - 5mg/kg/w, i.p. and NAC - 500mg/kg/w, i.p., 5 weeks). Isolated hearts were perfused according to the ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 18, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Effect of DDT exposure on lipids and energy balance in obese Sprague-Dawley rats before and after weight loss
Publication date: Available online 14 July 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Tomoko Ishikawa , James L. Graham , Kimber L. Stanhope , Peter J. Havel , Michele A. La Merrill Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites accumulate in adipose tissue through dietary exposure, and have been proposed to contribute to the development of abdominal obesity, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Toxicity may also result when DDT and its metabolites are released from adipose tissue into the bloodstream as a result of rapid weight loss. We hypothesized that DDT-exposed rats fed a high fat diet (HFD) followed by 6...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 15, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Evaluating the cytotoxicity of flaxseed orbitides for potential cancer treatment
Publication date: Available online 13 July 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Denis P. Okinyo-Owiti , Qiulin Dong , Binbing Ling , Pramodkumar D. Jadhav , Robert Bauer , Jason M. Maley , Martin J.T. Reaney , Jian Yang , Ramaswami Sammynaiken Flaxseed as well as its oil component possess antitumor activities against different types of cancer and have been used by some patients as complementary and/or alternative medicine. Linoorbitides (LOBs) are one family of flaxseed compounds that has implications for anticancer and antioxidant activity. The cytotoxicity of [1-9-NαC]-linusorb-B3 (LOB3), [1-9-NαC]-lin...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 14, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Butafenacil: A positive control for identifying anemia- and variegate porphyria-inducing chemicals
Publication date: Available online 13 July 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Jessica K. Leet , Rachel A. Hipszer , David C. Volz Butafenacil is an herbicide that inhibits protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPOX), an enzyme that catalyzes oxidation of protoporphyrinogen IX to protoporphyrin IX during chlorophyll and heme biosynthesis. Based on a high-content screen, we previously identified butafenacil as a potent inducer of anemia in zebrafish embryos. Therefore, the objective of this study was to begin investigating the utility of butafenacil as a positive control for identifying anemia- and variegate porphyria-inducin...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 14, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

New CeO2 nanoparticles-based topical formulations for the skin protection against organophosphates
Publication date: Available online 13 July 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Arnaud Zenerino , Tifenn Boutard , Cécile Bignon , Sonia Amigoni , Denis Josse , Thierry Devers , Frédéric Guittard To reinforce skin protection against organophosphates (OPs), the development of new topical skin protectants (TSP) has received a great interest. Nanoparticles like cerium dioxide (CeO2) known to adsorb and neutralize OPs are interesting candidates for TSP. However, NPs are difficult to disperse into formulations and they are suspected of toxicological issues. Thus we want to study: (1) the effect of th...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 14, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Fisetin Targets Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and Induces Apoptosis of Human B Lymphoma Raji Cells
Publication date: Available online 13 July 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Ji Yeon Lim , Joo Yun Lee , Byung Jin Byun , Seong Hwan Kim Aberrant regulation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases (PI3Ks) is known to be involved in the progression of cancers. PI3K-binding flavonoids such as quercetin and myricetin have been shown to inhibit PI3K activity, but the direct targeting of fisetin to PI3K has not been established. Here, we carried out an in silico investigation of fisetin binding to PI3K and determined fisetin's inhibitory activity in enzymatic and cell-based assays. In addition, fisetin induced apoptosis in ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 14, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Protective activity of gallic acid against glyoxal -induced renal fibrosis in experimental rats
This study was designed to evaluate the protective activity of gallic acid (GA) against glyoxal (GO) an advanced glycation intermediate-induced renal fibrosis in experimental rats. Glyoxal (i.p) at a dose of 15mg/Kg body weight/day for 4 weeks induces renal fibrosis. GA was administered orally (100mg/Kg body weight/day) along with GO for 4 weeks. The anti-fibrotic activity of GA was analyzed by measuring the collagen synthesis and deposition in renal tissues using mRNA expression analysis and Masson trichrome staining (MTS), respectively. The nephroprotective potential of GA was assessed by quantifying the markers of kidne...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Comparison of trapping profiles between d-peptides and glutathione in the identification of reactive metabolites
In conclusion, GSH still remains the gold trapping standard for reactive metabolites. However, targeted d-peptides could provide additional information about protein binding potential of electrophilic agents, but their clinical significance needs to be clarified using a wider spectrum of chemicals together with other safety estimates. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 10, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Protective effects of novel organic selenium compounds against oxidative stress in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans
Publication date: Available online 6 July 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Sílvio Terra Stefanello , Priscila Gubert , Bruna Puntel , Caren Rigon Mizdal , Marli Matiko Anraku de Campos , Syed M. Salman , Luciano Dornelles , Daiana Silva Avila , Michael Aschner , Félix Alexandre Antunes Soares (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 7, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Transplacental transfer of 2- naphthol in human placenta
Conclusion 2-NPH has the ability to rapidly across the placenta from the maternal to the fetal compartment within 15 minutes. The placenta seems to play a role in limiting the passage of 2-NPH in the fetal compartment (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 19, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Histomorphometric studies of the effects of telfairia occidentalis on alcohol-induced gonado-toxicity in male rats
Conclusion T. occidentalis attenuated the deleterious effects of alcohol to the cyto-architecture of the testis, protected the seminiferous epithelium, reduced oxidative stress and promoted spermatogenesis. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 19, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Paraquat exposure induces behavioral deficits in larval zebrafish during the window of dopamine neurogenesis
Publication date: Available online 16 June 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Jayshree Nellore , P. Nandita Exposure to environmental risk factors such as herbicides in early life has been proposed to play important roles in the development of neurodegenerative disorders in adult life. To test this hypothesis, we used a zebrafish model to link the herbicide paraquat (PQ) to disease etiology. Strikingly, treatment of 18 hpf embryonic zebrafish with low-dose PQ treatment (0.04ppm, lower than the accepted human daily exposure) resulted in 50% display of neurodegenerative phenotypes and motor deficits at various devel...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 17, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Determination of metal ion contents of two antiemetic clays use in Geophagy
Publication date: Available online 16 June 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Solomon E. Owumi , Adegboyega K. Oyelere Nausea is usually associated with early to late stages of pregnancy. Geophagy-deliberate consumption of soil- is a common method of managing gravidae-induced discomfort. To control nausea, pregnant women in Nigeria commonly eat baked clay called “Eko” and another type of clay that induces buccal constriction called “Omumu”. The metal contents in Eko and Omumu, digested under different pH conditions (acidic, alkaline and neutral), were investigated using Inductively Coupled ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 17, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Ascorbic acid attenuates antineoplastic drug 5-fluorouracil induced gastrointestinal toxicity in rats by modulating the expression of inflammatory mediators
Publication date: Available online 15 June 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Abdulrahman Khazim Al-Asmari , Abdul Quaiyoom Khan , Amal Mohammad Al-Qasim , Yara Al-Yousef Damage to the mucous membrane is a serious issue associated with chemotherapy. Gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity is complex and multistep process and unregulated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory mediators play vital role in the development of GI toxicity. In the present study we have investigated the attenuating potential of vitamin C (vit. C) on 5 fluorouracil (5-FU) induced GI toxicity by targeting oxidative stress and ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 16, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The acidic transformed nano-VO2 causes macrophage cell death by the induction of lysosomal membrane permeabilization and Ca2+ efflux
This report suggests that the interplay with environmental factors or living organisms can results in physicochemical transformation of nanomaterials and the ensuing distinctive biological effects. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 12, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

A single acute hepatotoxic dose of CCl4 causes oxidative stress in the rat brain
Publication date: Available online 11 June 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): K.R. Ritesh , A. Suganya , H.V. Dileepkumar , Y. Rajashekar , T. Shivanandappa Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), a hepatotoxic agent, is widely used to study the toxic mechanisms in experimental animals. We have investigated whether oxidative stress is induced in the brain at a single hepatotoxic dosage (1ml/kg bw) of CCl4. Increased lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein carbonyls (PC) content and glutathione (GSH) depletion was observed in the brain regions of rats treated with CCl4 which was higher than that of liver. A drastic reduction in the...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 12, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Cannabis Hyperemesis Syndrome ACase Report Review of Treatment
Conclusion : Our patient reported the vomiting episodes were associated with the regular usage of cannabis over 19 years. One theory on the effectiveness of hot showers states that it may correct the disequilibrium of the thermoregulatory system in the hypothalamus. Another theory suggests that the concept of peripheral vasodilation and redistribution of blood flow from the splanchnic circulation to peripheral musculature helps decrease vomiting. This research gap shows that further studying of cannabis and its effects are still needed. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 10, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Distribution of three non-essential trace metals (Cadmium, Mercury and Lead) in the organs of fish from Aiba Reservoir, Iwo, Nigeria
This study shows similarity (p > 0.05) in the distribution of Cd, Hg and Pb among fish species; and a non-uniform distribution of toxic trace metals within fish organs with Kidney > Liver > Gill ≥ Intestine ≥ Muscle. Canonical variate analysis shows clear discrimination of Clarias macromystax and Channa obscura for gill trace metal levels of Cd, Hg and Pb while Labeo senegalensis and Oreochromis niloticus were discriminated for liver trace metal values of Cd and Pb only when compared to other fish species studied. The discrimination of some fish species based on trace metals in the gills and live...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 8, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Quality evaluation of commercially sold table water samples in Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria and surrounding environments
Publication date: Available online 7 June 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): D.O. Okorie , C.O Eleazu , O.W. Akabuogu In Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria (MOUAU) and surrounding environments, table water of different brands is commercially hawked by vendors. To the best of our knowledge, there is no scientific documentation on the quality of these water samples. Hence this study which evaluated the quality of different brands of water samples commercially sold in MOUAU and surrounding environments. The physicochemical properties (pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), biochemical oxygen demand...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 8, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Health risk characterization for exposure to benzene in service stations and petroleum refineries environments using human adverse response data
Publication date: Available online 5 June 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Benjamin Edokpolo , Qiming Jimmy Yu , Des Connell Health risk characterization of exposure to benzene in service stations and petroleum refineries has been carried out in previous studies using guideline values set by various agencies. In this work, health risk was characterised with the exposure data as cumulative probability distribution (CPD) plots but using human epidemiological data. This was achieved by using lowest observable adverse effects levels (LOAEL) data plotted as cumulative probability lowest effects distribution (CPLED). ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 7, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Erectile Dysfunction Drugs and Oxidative Stress in the Liver of Male Rats
Publication date: Available online 6 June 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Salah Sheweita , Basant Salama , Mustafa Hassan Erectile dysfunction (ED) affected the lives of more than 300 million men worldwide. Erectile dysfunction drugs (EDD), known as phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDEIs), have been used for treatment of ED. It has been shown that oxidative stress plays an important role in the progression of erectile dysfunction. Oxidative stress can be alleviated or decreased by antioxidant enzymes. Therefore, the present study aims at investigating the changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as supe...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 7, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

1,4-benzoquinone-induced STAT-3 hypomethylation in AHH-1 cells: role of oxidative stress
The objectives of this study were to elucidate the regulatory mechanism of the hypomethylated STAT3 involved in benzene toxicity in vitro. As 1,4-benzoquinone (1,4-BQ) is one of benzene's major toxic metabolites, AHH-1 cells were treated by 1,4-BQ for 24hours with or without pretreatment of the antioxidant a–LA or the methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-Aza-2' deoxycytidine (5-aza). The cell viability was investigated using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. ROS was determined via 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) flow cytometric assays. The level of oxidative s...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 6, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Evaluation of zinc effect on cadmium action in lipid peroxidation and metallothionein levels in the brain
Publication date: Available online 5 June 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Marcos M. Braga , Tuiskon Dick , Diogo L. de Oliveira , Adriele Scopel-Guerra , Ben Hur M. Mussulini , Diogo O. de Souza , João Batista T. da Rocha Cadmium (Cd) is a known hepato- and nephrotoxic pollutant and zinc (Zn) metalloproteins are important targets of Cd. Hence, the administration of Zn may mitigate Cd toxic effects. However, the interaction of Cd and Zn has been little investigated in the brain. Previously, we reported a protective effect of Zn on mortality caused by Cd in rats. Here, we tested whether the protective effe...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 6, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Determination of some soft drink constituents and contamination by some heavy metals in Nigeria
This study evaluated some constituents of twenty-six soft drinks in Nigeria and investigated the presence of some heavy metal contaminants. The soft drinks were screened for the presence of sugar, carbon dioxide, phosphate and alcohol as well as the pH and acidity determined. The level of cadmium, mercury and lead were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The study showed the presence of sugar, carbon dioxide, phosphate, and alcohol in the soft drinks. The soft drinks were acidic in nature, pH ranging from 3 to 5 with a mean of 3.6 and the acid concentration was relatively low between 3 and 12g/L with a me...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 29, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Self-reported Lupus flare: Association with everyday home and personal product exposure
Conclusions Everyday product exposures can impact on symptom exacerbation in SLE. Some offering protection and others increased health risk. Identifying environmental associations offer the possibility of life-style interventions to reduce illness impact. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 29, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Effect of trivalent arsenicals on cell proliferation in mouse and human microvascular endothelial cells
In this study, human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC1) and mouse microvascular endothelial cells (MFP-MVEC) were exposed to arsenite (iAsIII), monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII), or dimethylarsinous acid (DMAIII) for 72h to evaluate cytotoxicity, and for 24, 48 or 72h to evaluate cell proliferation. Both cell lines showed similar LC50 values, from 0.1 to 2.4μM, for all three trivalent arsenicals. The endothelial cells treated with1nM to 1μM concentrations of the three trivalent arsenicals did not show increased cell proliferation at 24, 48 or 72h or increased rate of proliferation at 72h of exposure. Overall, cyt...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 21, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The use of urinary and kidney SILAM proteomics to monitor kidney response to high dose morpholino oligonucleotides in the mdx mouse
Publication date: Available online 19 May 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Aiping Zhang , Kitipong Uaesoontrachoon , Conner Shaughnessy , Jharna R. Das , Sree Rayavarapu , Kristy J. Brown , Patricio Ray , Kanneboyina Nagaraju , John N. van den Anker , Eric P. Hoffman , Yetrib Hathout Phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligonucleotides (PMO) are used as a promising exon-skipping gene therapy for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). One potential complication of high dose PMO therapy is its transient accumulation in the kidneys. Therefore new urinary biomarkers are needed to monitor this treatment. Here, we carried out a...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 19, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

“Occupational health hazards of trichloroethylene among workers in relation to altered mRNA expression of cell cycle regulating genes (p53, p21, bax and bcl-2) and PPARA”
Publication date: Available online 15 May 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Meenu Varshney , Abhijit Chandra , Rajeev Jain , Riaz Ahmad , Vipin Bihari , C. Keshava Chandran , Mohana K.R. Mudiam , Satykam Patnaik , S.K. Goel Trichloroethylene (TCE) is widely used as a metal degreaser in industrial processes. The present study reports on the effects of TCE exposure on workers employed in the lock industries. To ensure exposure of the workers to TCE, its toxic metabolites, trichloroacetic acid (TCA), dichloroacetic acid (DCA) and trichloroethanol (TCEOH) were detected in the plasma of the subjects through solid phas...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 16, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The Effects of Silver Nanoparticles on Mouse Embryonic Stem Self-renewal and Proliferation
The objective of this project is to determine the effects of AgNPs with different surface chemical compositions on the self-renewal and cell cycle of mESCs. Two different surface chemical compositions of AgNPs, polysaccharide-coated and hydrocarbon-coated, were used to test their toxic effects on self-renewal and proliferation of mESCs. The results indicated that both polysaccharide-coated and hydrocarbon-coated AgNPs changed the cell morphology of mESCs. Cell cycle analysis indicated that AgNPs induced mESCs cell cycle arrest at G1 and S phases through inhibition of the hyperphosphorylation of Retinoblastoma (Rb) protein....
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 16, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Comparison of the neurotoxicities between volatile organic compounds and fragrant organic compounds on human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells and primary cultured rat neurons
Publication date: Available online 12 May 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Yasue Yamada , Kohei Ohtani , Akinori Imajo , Hanae Izu , Hitomi Nakamura , Kohei Shiraishi These are many volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are synthesized, produced from petroleum or derived from natural compounds, mostly plants. Fragrant and volatile organic compounds from plants have been used as food additives, medicines and aromatherapy. Several clinical and pathological studies have shown that chronic abuse of VOCs, mainly toluene, causes several neuropsychiatric disorders. Little is known about the mechanisms of neurotoxicity...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 13, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

In-vitro anti-cholinesterase activity of essential oil from four tropical medicinal plants
Publication date: Available online 12 May 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): I.A. Owokotomo , O. Ekundayo , T.G. Abayomi , A.V. Chukwuka The chemical inhibition of acetyl-cholinesterase (AChE) is a potent strategy for addressing signal related neuropathology and natural products are potential sources of compounds with such properties. Essential oil extracts from leaf, seed, stem and rhizome of four medicinal plants [Aframomum melegueta K. Schum, Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth S.More), Monodora myristica (Gaertn.), and Ocimum gratissimum (Linn)] were tested for acetyl-cholinesterase inhibitory activity (AChEI) ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 13, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Pb Detoxification in Equisetum diffusum
Publication date: Available online 12 May 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Deepak Pant , Virbala Sharma , Pooja Singh Current research highlights the use of aquatic macrophyte Equisetum diffusum (Himalayan horsetail) for lead detoxification. This plant species can grow in waste cathode ray tube (CRT) powder and absorbs its Pb. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) analysis of plant ash shows that 68mg/kg lead concentration in the untreated plant was improved to 7600mg/kg in CRT powder after 90 days. The Role of monosilicic and/or monoplumbic acid as reaction intermediates for Pb detoxification and associated bio...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 13, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Supplemental dietary phytosterin protects against 4-nitrophenol-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in rat testes
Publication date: Available online 11 May 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Yonghui Zhang , Meiyan Song , Xiaoli Rui , Shaoxia Pu , Yansen Li , ChunMei Li 4-Nitrophenol (PNP), is generally regarded as an environmental endocrine disruptor (EED). Phytosterin (PS), a new feed additive, possesses highly efficient antioxidant activities. The transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an important regulator of cellular oxidative stress. Using rats, this study examined PNP-induced testicular oxidative damage and PS-mediated protection against that damage. The generation of MDA and H2O2 up...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 12, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The teratogenic effects of imatinib mesylate on rat fetuses
Publication date: Available online 11 May 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): M.M. El Gendy , A.M. Kandil , M.A. Helal , F.M. Zahou Imatinib mesylate, a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is the first line treatment against chronic myelogenous leukemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of imatinib mesylate on the pregnant rats and their fetuses. Pregnant rats were divided into three groups; the first group was served as a control group. The second and third groups were orally administered imatinib at doses of 36mg/kg body weight or 54mg/kg b.wt on gest...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 12, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Property of cytochrome P450 1A inducibility by polychlorinated/brominated biphenyls (Co-PXBs) detected in Japanese breast milk
Publication date: Available online 11 May 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Hideki Kakutani , Osamu Aozasa , Ema Akiyama , Teruyuki Nakao , Souichi Ohta Coplanar polychlorinated/brominated biphenyls (Co-PXBs) belong to a class of structurally similar chemicals known as polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. We found that the milk of Japanese primiparous and multiparous mothers was similarly contaminated with Co-PXB congeners. Co-PXBs time- and dose-dependently increased ethoxyresorufin-O-deethoxylase (EROD activity) in HepG2 cells. The EROD activity of liver microsomes collected from C57BL/6 mice exposed to these...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 12, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of iron chelators
In this study, the antioxidant activity of the iron chelators: caffeic acid (CA), 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA), desferroxamine B (FOB) and benzohydroxamic acid (BHA) were determined using five different in vitro antioxidant assays. The antioxidant assays used were: iron binding ability, reducing ability using the potassium ferricyanide reduction method, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, H2O2 scavenging activity and OH scavenging activity. The standard used for the iron binding ability was Na2EDTA whereas vitamin C was used as a standard for the remaining assays. The iron chelators showed...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 12, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Chitosan nano particles and quercetin modulate gene expression and prevent the genotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 in rat liver
Publication date: Available online 12 May 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Mosaad A. Abdel-Wahhab , Abdulhadi Aljawish , Aziza A. El-Nekeety , Sekena H. Abdel-Aiezm , Heba A.M. Abdel-Kader , Bertrand H. Rihn , Olivier Joubert The aims of the current study were to prepare chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) and to evaluate its protective role alone or in combination with quercetin (Q) against AFB1-induce cytotoxicity in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 12 groups and treated orally for 4 weeks as follow: the control group, the group treated with AFB1 (80μg/kg b.w) in corn oil, the groups treated with ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 12, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Role of Garlic Extract and Silymarin Compared to Dimercaptosuccinic Acid (DMSA) in Treatment of Lead Induced Nephropathy in Adult Male Albino Rats
This study was conducted to compare the curative role of garlic combined with silymarin versus dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in decreasing lead induced nephrotoxicity in adult male albino rats. The period of lead intoxication extended for 3 months followed by either 1 month treatment with garlic and silymarin or 5 days treatment with DMSA. Lead poisoning caused non-significant difference in kidney function tests (BUN and serum creatinine) while, it caused significant elevation in kidney lead level, significant decrease in renal antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase and significant elevation in kidney malondialdehyde. ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 8, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Co-administration of Fresh Grape Fruit Juice (GFJ) and Bergamottin Prevented Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity after Paracetamol Overdose in Rats
In conclusion, GFJ and BGT prevented PAR-induced hepatotoxicity after PAR overdose in rats, and this calls for appropriate observation studies in humans. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 8, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research