Comparative study of Aflatoxin Contamination of Winter and Summer Ginger from the North West Province of South Africa
This study determined the occurrence and prevalence of Aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 and Ochratoxin A contamination in raw ginger sold around Mahikeng, North West Province, South Africa. Samples were collected purposively from various retailers over winter and summer. The analytical procedure optimized was based on immunoaffinity column cleanup (IAC), followed by High performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence (HPLC-FLC) detection. ELISA was also used for mycotoxin screening. On HPLC, the limits of detection and quantification for the four Aflatoxins were 3.9 × 10-7-1.4 × 10 -...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 30, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Bioaccumulation and potential sources of heavy metal contamination in fish species in River Ganga basin: Possible human health risks evaluation
Publication date: Available online 29 May 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Pradip Kumar Maurya, D.S. Malik, Krishna Kumar Yadav, Amit Kumar, Sandeep Kumar, Hesam KamyabAbstractThis paper assesses the potential human health risks posed by five heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd, and Cr) found in seven most consumable fish species (Cirrhinus mrigala, Cirrhinus reba, Catla catla, Lebio rohita, Crossocheilus latius, Clupisoma garua, and Mystus tengara) collected from local markets of Varanasi, Allahabad, Mirzapur, and Kanpur of Uttar Pradesh, India. The Cu concentration was found at Varanasi (4.58 mg/l), Allahabad (2....
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 30, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Association between aflatoxin-albumin adduct levels and tortilla consumption in Guatemalan adults
Publication date: Available online 22 May 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): María F. Kroker-Lobos, Christian S. Alvarez, Alvaro Rivera-Andrade, Joshua W. Smith, Patricia Egner, Olga Torres, Mariana Lazo, Neal D. Freedman, Eliseo Guallar, Barry I. Graubard, Katherine A. McGlynn, Manuel Ramírez-Zea, John D. GroopmanAbstractAflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a known human hepatocarcinogen and a recent study reported elevated AFB1 levels, measured by serum albumin biomarkers, among Guatemalan adults. While AFB1 can contaminate a variety of foodstuffs, including maize, Guatemala’s main dietary staple, the relatio...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 23, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The hepatoprotective effect of livergol microemulsion preparation (nanoparticle) against bromobenzene induced toxicity in mice
Publication date: 2019Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 6Author(s): Azin Kalantari, Anayatollah Salimi, Heibatullah Kalantari, Jalal Ebrahimi Broojeni, Iran Rashidi, Atefeh Raesi Vanani, Ildikó BácskayAbstractLivergol (LG), which is the extract of Silybum marianum and commonly known as milk thistle possess hepatoprotective effect and have got licensed for sale in Iran and other countries. LG was evaluated for its capacity to counteract the toxic effects of bromobenzene (BB) on mouse liver. The bioactive component of this plant is known to reinforce naturally occurring liver function through antioxidant activ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 21, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

IL-6 and NFE2L2: A putative role for the hepatoprotective effect of N. Sativa, P. Ginseng and C. Sempervirens in AFB-1 induced hepatocellular carcinoma in rats
In this study, we investigated possible hepato-protective effects of N. Sativa, P. Ginseng, and C. Sempervirens in Aflatoxin B1 (AFB-1) induced hepatocellular carcinoma rat model.Fifty-four male albino rats were randomly assigned to experimental groups. Alcoholic extracts of aforementioned herbs were administered orally for 28 days at different doses. IL-6, hs-CRP, MDA, SOD and NFE2L2 were determined using ELISA. Histopathological changes in treated groups were examined.Herbal treatment significantly reduced IL-6, hs-CRP, and MDA (P 
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 21, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Health Risk Assessment of Cadmium, Chromium and Nickel from Car Paint Dust from Used Automobiles at Auto-Panel Workshops in Nigeria
This study centers on the human carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risk assessment of cadmium, chromium and nickel exposures from reworking of imported used vehicles. Scraped car paint dusts from 56 Japanese made cars were collected from 8 different panel beating (body works) workshops (A-H) in Southeastern Nigeria. They were homogenized, mixed, divided into fine particles, filtered and digested by standard method. The filtrates were assayed for cadmium, chromium and nickel with atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS, 200A), workshops F and D have the highest concentration (mg/kg) of Cd (3.58 ±&thinsp...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 11, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The Hepatoprotective Effect of Livergol Microemulsions Preparation (Nanoparticle) against Bromobenzene Induced Toxicity in Mice
Publication date: Available online 9 May 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Azin Kalantari, Anayatollah Salimi, Heibatullah Kalantari, Jalal Ebrahimi Broojeni, Iran Rashidi, Atefeh Raesi Vanani, Ildikó BácskayAbstractLivergol (LG), which is the extract of Silybum marianum and commonly known as milk thistle possess hepatoprotective effect and have got licensed for sale in Iran and other countries. LG was evaluated for its capacity to counteract the toxic effects of bromobenzene (BB) on mouse liver. The bioactive component of this plant is known to reinforce naturally occurring liver function through anti...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 10, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Preliminary results of toxicity studies in rats following low-dose and short-term exposure to methyl mercaptan
Publication date: Available online 10 May 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Jingjing Fang, Xinhong Xu, Lu Jiang, Jiangbo Qiao, Hongyuan Zhou, Kexian LiAbstractThe present study was carried out to evaluate the hematotoxicity and respiratory toxicity of methyl mercaptan in Sprague-Dawley rats. A dynamic exposure methodology was adopted in this study following 7 days of exposure by repeated inhalation. The concentration of methyl mercaptan used in the exposure was 0.5 ppm and the exposure time was 6 h/day for 7 days. After exposure, the rats were sacrificed to collect lung tissue and blood samples. Routin...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 10, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Effect of untreated pharmaceutical plant effluent on cardiac Na+-K+- ATPase and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase activities in mice (Mus Musculus)
Publication date: Available online 6 May 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): A.O. Abdulkareem, T.F. Olafimihan, O.O. Akinbobola, S.A. Busari, L.A. OlatunjiAbstractCardiovascular diseases are major causes of death attributable to non-communicable diseases, throughout the world. Water pollution has been linked with the high global non-communicable disease burden but no report exists on the cardiotoxicity of pharmaceutical effluent, despite its indiscriminate discharge in to the aquatic environment in Nigeria, as in many other locations of the world. Thus, this study investigated the cardiotoxic effect of oral exposure t...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 7, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Acute Oral Toxicity Evaluation of Andrographis paniculata-Standardized First True Leaf Ethanolic Extract
In this study, the acute toxicity of the standardized FTLEE of A. paniculata was examined according to the OECD test guideline No. 420. Mice were divided into four groups of each sex and orally received the standardized FTLEE of A. paniculata (0, 300, 2000, or 5000 mg/kg BW). Post-treatment, body weight, signs of toxicity, and/or mortality were observed for 14 days. At Day 15, animals were euthanized, internal organs were observed grossly, and blood samples collected were subjected to hematology and clinical biochemistry analyses. The results showed that all treated animals survived and no apparent adverse effects w...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 7, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Zingiber officinale (Roscoe) mitigates CCl4-induced liver histopathology and biochemical derangements through antioxidant, membrane-stabilizing and tissue-regenerating potentials
This study investigated the effects of methanol extract of Zingiber officinale (Roscoe) rhizome (MEZOR) in a Wistar rat model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury. The study recruited thirty female Wistar rats that received graded doses of MEZOR (determined by its LD50) by oral gavage through an oral canula, for 4 consecutive weeks following 1 week oral administration of CCl4 (0.7 ml/kg in olive oil; 1:1, v/v) while livolin forte® (5.2 mg/kg p.o.) was used as a standard. CCl4 induced deleterious hepatic effects as revealed by the liver function biomarkers (AST, ALT, ALP and total protein), ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 7, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Comparative effect of Indomethacin (IndoM) on the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, brush border membrane and oxidative stress in the kidney, small intestine and liver of rats
Publication date: Available online 4 May 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Sheeba Khan, Faiz Noor Khan Yusufi, Ahad Noor Khan YusufiAbstractIndomethacin (IndoM) has prominent anti-inflammatory and analgesic-antipyretic properties. However, high incidence and severity of side-effects on the structure and functions of the kidney, liver and intestine limits its clinical use. The present study tested the hypothesis that IndoM causes multi-organ toxicity by inducing oxidative stress that alters the structure of various cellular membranes, metabolism and hence functions. The effect of IndoM was determined on the enzymes o...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 4, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Contrast-induced nephropathy in an animal model: Evaluation of novel biomarkers in blood and tissue samples
Publication date: Available online 2 May 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Charalampos Mamoulakis, Irene Fragkiadoulaki, Phaedra Karkala, Georgios Georgiadis, Ioannis-Erineos Zisis, Polychronis Stivaktakis, Alexandra Kalogeraki, Ioannis Tsiaoussis, Tatyana Burykina, George Lazopoulos, Konstantinos Tsarouhas, Dimitrios Kouretas, Aristides TsatsakisAbstractIdentification of novel biomarkers of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) that may more accurately detect renal function changes; reflect kidney damage; assist monitoring; and elucidate pathophysiology attract considerable scientific attention nowadays. To evaluate n...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 4, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxicity and pharmacokinetic profile of SGM-101, a fluorescent anti-CEA chimeric antibody for fluorescence imaging of tumors in patients
Publication date: Available online 30 April 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Bérénice Framery, Marian Gutowski, Karen Dumas, Alexandre Evrard, Nathalie Muller, Vincent Dubois, Jérôme Quinonero, François Scherninski, André Pèlegrin, Françoise CaillerAbstractThe real-time improvement of the intraoperative discrimination between different tissue types (particularly between tumor and adjacent normal tissue) using intraoperative imaging represents a considerable advance for oncology surgeons. However, the development of imaging agents is much slower than that of dru...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 1, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Bombax ceiba flowers extract ameliorates hepatosteatosis induced by ethanol and relatively moderate fat diet in rats
This study included seven groups, and the research period was eight weeks. The first group served as control. The six remaining groups were divided into two categories, three groups in each. The first category was fed fat diet. The second category was fed fat diet and orally administrated ethanol, which was given in graduate doses from 2 g/kg/d to 6 g/kg/d. Then, one group from each category was orally treated with the standard drug fluvastatin (2 mg/Kg/d). Another group was orally treated with BCE (200 mg/kg/d). The third group left untreated. The results revealed that BCE significantly decreas...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 1, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Preclinical toxicology and safety pharmacology of the first-in-class GADD45β/MKK7 inhibitor and clinical candidate, DTP3
Publication date: Available online 19 April 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Laura Tornatore, Daria Capece, Daniel D'Andrea, Federica Begalli, Daniela Verzella, Jason Bennett, Gary Acton, Elizabeth A. Campbell, James Kelly, Michael Tarbit, Nigel Adams, Selina Bannoo, Antonio Leonardi, Annamaria Sandomenico, Domenico Raimondo, Menotti Ruvo, Angela Chambery, Metod Oblak, Magda J. Al-Obaidi, Richard S. KaczmarskiAbstractAberrant NF-κB activity drives oncogenesis and cell survival in multiple myeloma (MM) and many other cancers. However, despite an aggressive effort by the pharmaceutical industry over the past 30...
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 20, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

In vitro Cytotoxic and Apoptotic induction effect of Earthworm Coelomic Fluid of Eudrilus Eugeniae, Eisenia Foetida, and Perionyx Excavatus on Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma‑9 Cell Line
Publication date: Available online 19 April 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Dominic Augustine, Roopa S Rao, Jayaraman Anbu, K.N. Chidambara MurthyAbstractThe current protocol of cancer management includes surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, these modalities have significant adverse effects and affect the quality of life. Further intensification of treatment is hindered as maximal toxicity levels are reached impeding improvement. Hence researchers are in the quest for adjunctive naturally available therapies that can alter tumor proliferation without causing significant adverse reactions. The present s...
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 20, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Hepato-renal toxicity of oral sub-chronic exposure to aluminum oxide and/or zinc oxide nanoparticles in rats
Publication date: Available online 19 April 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Mokhtar Ibrahim Yousef, Thulfiqar Fawwaz Mutar, Maher Abd EL-Nabi KamelAbstractAluminum oxide nanoparticles (Al2O3NPs) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) have been involved in many industries and they are extensively abundant in many aspects of human life. Consequently, concerns have been raised about their potentially harmful effects. However the toxicities of Al2O3NPs and ZnONPs are well documented, the effect of co-exposure to both nanoparticles remains strictly obscure. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to address this iss...
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 19, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The effect of antioxidants in acute amitriptyline poisoning
Publication date: Available online 16 April 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): S. Hameed Kadar Ali, Wasim Ali RajaAbstractObjectiveTo study the effect of Antioxidants supplementation in reducing oxidative stress induced in acute amitriptyline poisoning cases.Design and methodsWe compared the effect of supplementation of treatment of acute amitriptyline poisoning cases with alpha lipoic acid alone or with vitamin C, with that of those receiving only routine standard treatment (RST) as a control group.A total of 132 subjects divided into 5 groups were selected from IMCU (Intensive Medical Care Unit) and Toxicology Ward...
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 17, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Role of nanostructures in improvising oral medicine
Publication date: Available online 15 April 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Shatadal Ghosh, Sumit Ghosh, Parames C. SilAbstractThe most preferable mode of drugs administration is via the oral route but physiological barriers such as pH, enzymatic degradation etc. limit the absolute use of this route. Herein lies the importance of nanotechnology having a wide range of applications in the field of nano-medicine, particularly in drug delivery systems. The exclusive properties particularly small size and high surface area (which can be modified as required), exhibited by these nanoparticlesrender these structures more...
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 16, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxicological and Epidemiological Studies of Scorpion Sting Cases and Morphological characterization of Scorpions (Leiurusquin questriatus and Androctonus crassicauda) in Luxor, Egypt
ConclusionScorpion sting is an acute heath threating in Southern Egypt, Leiurus quinquestriatus & Androctonus crassicauda are most endemic scorpion species in Southern Egypt. More attention for scorpion envenomation in such subtropical hyper desert localities is required to eradicate toxic scorpion species and prevent possible causes of deaths.Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 10, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Acute oral toxicity evaluation of extracts of Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides in Wister albino Rats as per OECD 425 TG
Publication date: Available online 4 April 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Iswar HazarikaGraphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 5, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Formaldehyde produced from D-ribose under neutral and alkaline conditions
Publication date: Available online 1 April 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Yujing Wang, Chenggang Shi, Yao Chen, Lexiang Yu, Yiman Li, Yan Wei, Weiwei Li, Rongqiao HeAbstractFormaldehyde is toxic and has been implicated in the pathologies of various diseases, such as cognitive impairment and cancer. Though D-ribose is widely studied and provided as a supplement to food such as flavor and drinks, no laboratories have reported that D-ribose is involved in the formaldehyde production. Here, we show that formaldehyde is produced from D-ribose in lysine or glycine solution and Tris-HCl buffer under neutral and alkaline...
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 2, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Assessment of acute toxicity and biochemical responses to chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin and their combination exposed earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae
Publication date: Available online 30 March 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Rishikesh K. Tiwari, Shikha Singh, Ravi S. PandeyAbstractRecurrent application of chemical pesticides in the agricultural fields have adverse impact on flora and fauna of soil ecosystem. Earthworms immensely contribute in increasing the fertility of soil. They may act as a bioindicator for the ecotoxicological analysis of pesticide induced soil pollution. Earthworms, Eudrilus eugeniae were exposed to different concentrations of pesticides chlorpyrifos (OP), cypermethrin (a pyrethroid) and their combination for 48 h by paper contact ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 31, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Cell culture conditions affect the ability of high content imaging assay to detect drug-induced changes in cellular parameters in human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs)
Publication date: Available online 28 March 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Bharathi Balasubramanian, Vaclav Belak, Isha Verma, Yeva Prysiazhniuk, Frederick Sannajust, Elena S. TrepakovaAbstractHuman induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) are widely used for drug safety and efficacy testing with various techniques, including high content imaging (HCI). Upon drug treatment, a significant number of hiPSC-CMs grown in regular 96-well plates coated with fibronectin detached from the bottom of the plate, complicating data acquisition. Several cell culture configurations were tested to improve ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 30, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Consequent stages of developing a multi-compartmental mechanistic model for chronically inhaled nanoparticles pulmonary retention
Publication date: Available online 27 March 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Boris A. Katsnelson, Marina P. Sutunkova, Ludmila K. Konysheva, Svetlana N. Solovyeva, Ilzira A. Minigalieva, Vladimir B. Gurvich, Larissa I. PrivalovaAbstractThe paper retraces the development of a mechanistic multicompartmental system model describing particle retention in lungs under chronic inhalation exposures. This model was first developed and experimentally tested for various conditions of exposure to polydisperse dusts of SiO2 or TiO2. Later on it was successfully used as a basis for analyzing patterns in the retention of nanopart...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 28, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Reducing oxidative toxicity of L-dopa in combination with two different antioxidants: an essential oil isolated from Rosa Damascena Mill., and vitamin C
Publication date: Available online 22 March 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Galina Nikolova, Yanka Karamalakova, Veselina GadjevaAbstractParkinson disease (PD) is a multifactorial disease that takes a leading place among contemporary frequent diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) with not well-established mechanism. One of the most popular and effective therapy for patients with PD is Levodopa (L-dopa), but clinical effect of the drug diminished by motor complications resulting from prolonged treatment. Due to the L-dopa neurotoxic effect in the disease treatment, the L-dopa administration is delayed as lon...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 24, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Antimicrobial activity and acetylcholinestrase inhibition of novel synthesized pyrimidine derivatives versus Candida albicans trafficking to brain and kidney
Publication date: Available online 23 March 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Rehab M. Abdel-Megeed, Mai O. Kadry, Dalia B. Fayed, Abdel-Hamid Z. Abdel-HamidABSTRACTThe expedient fungi Candida albicans (C. albicans) is able to thrive in many host niches including blood stream, skin, mucosal surfaces, and different body organs. Herein, the assessment of novel synthesized pyrimidine derivatives as anti fungal agent was investigated. Female albino mice were injected intraperitoneally by C. albicans (1.5 × 106 CFU). infected Mice then subjected to treatment with two different doses which was low (50&...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 24, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Subchronic Toxicity Evaluation of Leaves from Rabbiteye Blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum Aiton) in Rats
Publication date: Available online 18 March 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Wataru Tanaka, Daigo Yokoyama, Yasushi Matsuura, Masahiko Nozaki, Naoya Hirozawa, Hisato Kunitake, Masanobu Sakono, Hiroyuki SakakibaraAbstractBlueberry leaf may contain multiple compounds with beneficial effects. We conducted a 90-day toxicity study in rats to evaluate the safety of consuming the leaves of rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum Aiton; RB species). Powdered leaves were administered daily by oral gavage at doses of 500, 1,000, and 2,500 mg/kg body weight to male and female Sprague-Dawley rats for 90 days. Treatment ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 18, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Incidence and treatment of snakebites in West Bengal, India
ConclusionHospital studies are a key source of information about snake bites. The ready availability and appropriate use of AVS, close monitoring of patients, the institution of ventilator support and if required, early referral to a larger hospital all help to reduce the mortality. Thus knowledge of the varied clinical manifestations of snake bite is important for effective management in hospitals by a complete health care team. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 4, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

HMGB1 protein as a novel target for cancer
Publication date: Available online 2 March 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Alok Tripathi, Kriti Shrinet, Arvind KumarAbstractHighly conserved nuclear protein High Mobility Group Box1 (HMGB1) present in mammals has functionality as an immuno-modulator in the form of cytokine molecule, as a nuclear factor to regulate these molecules and DNA structural determination. It has proximal homologous DNA binding domains Box-A, Box-B and distal C-terminal domain. Reduced form exists in basic condition has chemotaxis activity, while form with disulphide bond reduced at 106th cysteine showed cytokine activity. The oxidized for...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 4, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Effects of Bauhinia forficata on glycaemia, lipid profile, hepatic glycogen content and oxidative stress in rats exposed to Bisphenol A
Publication date: Available online 2 March 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Mariane S. Pinafo, Philippe R. Benedetti, Letícia B. Gaiotte, Fabiano G. Costa, João Paulo F. Schoffen, Glaura S.A. Fernandes, Luiz Gustavo A. Chuffa, Fábio R.F. SeivaGraphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 4, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Manganese suppresses oxidative stress, inflammation and caspase-3 activation in rats exposed to chlorpyrifos
Publication date: 2019Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 6Author(s): Solomon E. Owumi, Uche J. DimAbstractThe present study investigated the individual and combined impact of organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) and manganese (Mn), a naturally occurring trace metal, on hepatorenal function in adult rats. The four experimental groups namely control, CPF alone (5 mg/kg), Mn alone (10 mg/kg) and the co-exposure group consisted of eight rats which were orally gavage for 14 consecutive days. Following sacrifice, the biomarkers of hepatorenal damage, antioxidant enzyme activities, myeloperoxidase (MPO) act...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 1, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Mainstream smoke constituents and in vitro toxicity comparative analysis of 3R4F and 1R6F reference cigarettes
Publication date: Available online 25 February 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Guy Jaccard, Donatien Tafin Djoko, Alexandra Korneliou, Regina Stabbert, Maxim Belushkin, Marco EspositoAbstractA new Kentucky reference cigarette, 1R6F, has been manufactured to replace the depleting 3R4F reference cigarette. The 3R4F Kentucky reference cigarettes have been widely used as monitor or comparator cigarettes for mainstream smoke analysis and in vitro and in vivo toxicological data of cigarettes and novel tobacco products. Both reference cigarettes were analyzed in the same laboratory during the same period of time with the...
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 27, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Heavy metals content in some non-alcoholic beverages (carbonated drinks, flavored yogurt drinks, and juice drinks) of the Egyptian markets
Publication date: Available online 25 February 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Gomaa N. Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed B.M. Ahmed, Bassem A. Sabry, Safaa S.M. AliAbstractHeavy metals are elements present in trace quantities in the environment and, in small concentrations, they play important roles for the living organisms yet it can cause toxicity if exceeded the recommended levels. Toxic metals contamination is an important environmental problem that was mainly manifested in the growing industrial cities where the levels in toxic metals exceeded the recommended levels leading to the increase of several health problems (th...
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 27, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Effect of levosimendan, a calcium sensitizer, on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats
In conclusion this study shows that levosimendan has a partial protective effect on Cis-induced nephrotoxicity. The protective effect of levosimendan is shown to be related to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and vasodilator effects.Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 27, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Inhibition of Lipid Accumulation by the Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Distylium racemosum in vitro and in vivo
This study confirms the anti-obesity effect of the ethyl acetate fraction of Distylium racemosum (DRE), a member of Hamamelidaceae, that naturally grows on Jeju Island, on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. This study further demonstrated that DRE exhibits anti-obesity effects in C57BL/6 obese mice. The degree of adipocyte differentiation was determined using Oil red O stain; results indicated a decrease in fat globules, which was dependent on DRE concentration, when pre-adipocytes were treated with differentiation-inducing agents. In addition, this significantly reduced the expression of the adipogenic transcripti...
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 25, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Manganese suppresses oxidative stress, inflammation and caspase-3 activation in rats exposed chlorpyrifos
Publication date: Available online 25 February 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Solomon E. Owumi, Uche J. DimAbstractThe present study investigated the individual and combined impact of organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) and manganese (Mn), a naturally occurring trace metal, on hepatorenal function in adult rats. The four experimental groups namely control, CPF alone (5 mg/kg), Mn alone (10 mg/kg) and the co-exposure group consisted of eight rats which were orally gavage for 14 consecutive days. Following sacrifice, the biomarkers of hepatorenal damage, antioxidant enzyme activities, myelop...
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 25, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Reprogramming of CaCo2 colorectal cancer cells after using the complex of poly-(N-vinylpyrrolidone) with small non-coding RNAs
In this study, CaCo2 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells were initially epigenetically reprogrammed and transformed into CD4+ cells with nano-sized complexes of amphiphilic poly-(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) with miRNA-152 and piRNA-30074. The transformation of cells was confirmed by morphological and genetic changes in the dynamic of reprogramming. CD4+ lymphocytes marker was detected using immunofluorescence. Amphiphilic poly-(N-vinylpyrrolidone)/small non-coding RNAs complexes were investigated for transfection efficiency and duration of transfection of CaCo2 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells using fluorescence.Graphical abstrac...
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 16, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Mutagenicity and genotoxicity evaluation of textile industry wastewater using bacterial and plant bioassays
Publication date: Available online 15 February 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Sana Khan, Mohammad Anas, Abdul MalikAbstractTextile industrial wastewater samples were taken from the Panki site 5 industrial area of Kanpur city, India. Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer and Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry techniques have shown that the wastewater contained several heavy metals and organic pollutants [1]. Further, in order to explore the potential toxicity of these pollutants present in the effluent, a battery of short-term biological assays (Ames test, DNA repair defective mutation assay and Allium cepa chromo...
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 15, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Subacute and Subchronic Oral Toxicity Assessments of Acridocarpus Smeathmannii (DC.) Guill. & Perr. Root in Wistar Rats
Publication date: Available online 30 January 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): O.E. Kale, O. Awodele, A.J. AkindeleAbstractRecent adverse herb reactions have stimulated interest documenting the safety profile of medicinal agents. Thus, subacute and subchronic oral toxicity of the hydroethanolic extract of Acridocarpus smeathmannii root (HEASR) in Wistar rats was investigated. In the 28 and 90-day subacute and subchronic toxicity tests, sixty-four rats (n = male: female = 1:1 = 32) were divided into four of eight/group and ninety-six (n = male: female =&...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 31, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Microwave induced synthesis of ZnO nanorods and their efficacy as a drug carrier with profound anticancer and antibacterial properties
Publication date: Available online 29 January 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Pritam Sadhukhan, Mousumi Kundu, Shallu Rana, Raj Kumar, Joydeep Das, Parames C. SilAbstractIn the present study, we report the microwave-induced synthesis of fluorescent zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO) and their usage as a cargo material to carry hydrophobic drug, quercetin. TEM and SEM showed the rod-shape morphology of our synthesized ZnO. XRD showed several diffraction peaks correspond to a hexagonal wurtzite structure. The optical and chemical natures of these nanorods were also confirmed from the UV-VIS (showed a distinct absorption band...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 30, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Acute glufosinate-based herbicide treatment in rats leads to increased ocular interleukin-1β and c-Fos protein levels, as well as intraocular pressure
Publication date: Available online 16 January 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Selim Çomaklı, Çiğdem Sevim, George Kontadakis, Elif Doğan, Ali Taghizadehghalehjoughi, Mustafa Özkaraca, Michael Aschner, Taxiarchis Konstantinos Nikolouzakis, Aristides M. TsatsakisAbstractGlufosinate is a common herbicide with neurotoxic effects, leading to seizures, convulsions and memory loss. Glufosinate indirectly induces glutamate toxicity by inhibiting glutamine synthesis in astrocytes. Here, we studied the acute toxic effects of a glufosinate-based herbicide in rat optic nerve at three doses (40, 80 or 120...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 17, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxicological profile of Amanita virosa – A narrative review
Publication date: 2019Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 6Author(s): Milad Tavassoli, Asma Afshari, Andree Letiţia Arsene, Bruno Mégarbane, Josef Dumanov, Monica Maria Bastos Paoliello, Aristidis Tsatsakis, Félix Carvalho, Mahmoud Hashemzaei, Gholamreza Karimi, Ramin RezaeeAbstractMushrooms account for a part of human diet due to their exquisite taste and protein content as well as their promising health effects unveiled by scientific research. Toxic and non-toxic mushrooms frequently share considerable morphological similarities, which mislead the collectors/consumers, resulting in mycotoxicity. Numerous mu...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 16, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxicological profile of Amanita virosa - a narrative review
Publication date: Available online 9 January 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Milad Tavassoli, Asma Afshari, Andree Letiţia Arsene, Bruno Mégarbane, Josef Dumanov, Monica Maria Bastos Paoliello, Aristidis Tsatsakis, Félix Carvalho, Mahmoud Hashemzaei, Ramin RezaeeAbstractMushrooms account for a part of human diet due to their exquisite taste and protein content as well as their promising health effects unveiled by scientific research. Toxic and non-toxic mushrooms frequently share considerable morphological similarities, which mislead the collectors/consumers, resulting in mycotoxicity. Numerous mush...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 10, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

ROS mediated antibacterial activity of photoilluminated riboflavin: a photodynamic mechanism against nosocomial infections
This study aims to add one more therapeutic dimension to photoilluminated riboflavin as it can be effectively employed in targeting bacterial biofilms occurring on hospital wares causing several serious medical conditions. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 10, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Circulating microRNAs as potential biomarkers of occupational exposure to low dose organic solvents
Publication date: Available online 8 January 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Renata Sisto, Pasquale Capone, Luigi Cerini, Filippo Sanjust, Enrico Paci, Daniela Pigini, Maria Pia Gatto, Monica Gherardi, Andrea Gordiani, Nunziata L’Episcopo, Giovanna Tranfo, Pieranna ChiarellaAbstractCirculating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been recently acknowledged as novel and non-invasive biomarkers of exposure to environmental and occupational hazardous substances. This preliminary study investigates the potential role of blood miRNAs as molecular biomarkers of exposure to the most common organic solvents (ethylbenzene, toluen...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 9, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Appropriate approach to technology in animal hematology
Publication date: Available online 31 December 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Javad Beheshtipour (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 1, 2019 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxicity bioassay of waste cooking oil-based biodiesel on marine microalgae
Publication date: Available online 29 December 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): K.S. Pikula, A.M. Zakharenko, V.V. Chaika, A.K. Stratidakis, M. Kokkinakis, G. Waissi, V.N. Rakitskii, D.A. Sarigiannis, A.W. Hayes, M.D. Coleman, A. Tsatsakis, K.S. GolokhvastABSTRACTThe world biodiesel production is increasing at a rapid rate. Despite its perceived safety for the environment, more detailed toxicity studies are mandatory, especially in the field of aquatic toxicology. While considerable attention has been paid to biodiesel combustion emissions, the toxicity of biodiesel in the aquatic environment has been poorly unders...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 30, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Maximum Tolerated Doses and erythropoiesis effects in the mouse bone marrow by 79 pesticides’ technical materials assessed with the micronucleus assay
Publication date: Available online 22 December 2018Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Nataliya Ilyushina, Marina Goumenou, Polychronis D. Stivaktakis, Alexander I. Vardavas, Gleb Masaltsev, Nataliya Averianova, Olga Dmitricheva, Yulia Revazova, Aristidis M. Tsatsakis, Valerii RakitskiiAbstractEffects of technical materials of pesticide active ingredients, belonging to various chemical classes, on erythropoiesis in mouse bone marrow were studied as part of the research on the pesticide mutagenic activity in micronucleus test. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the toxic action of the test substances on the t...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 24, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research