Vanillin abrogates ethanol induced gastric injury in rats via modulation of gastric secretion, oxidative stress and inflammation
Publication date: Available online 12 December 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Abdulrahman Al Asmari, Hamoud Al Shahrani, Nasser Al Masri, Ahmed Al Faraidi, Ibrahim Elfaki, Mohammed Arshaduddin Vanillin is commonly used as an additive in food, medicine and cosmetics, but its effect has not yet been studied in gastric injury. Therefore the effect of vanillin was studied in experimental gastric ulcer. Gastric secretion and acidity were studied in pylorus ligated rats. Ulcer index, levels of gastric mucus, malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase activity (MPO), expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 13, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Safety studies conducted on Pecan Shell Fiber, a food ingredient produced from ground pecan shells
Publication date: Available online 10 December 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Laurie Dolan, John Nizio, Ray Matulka Use of pecan shell fiber in human food is presently limited, but could increase pending demonstration of safety. In a 91-day rat study, pecan shell fiber was administered at dietary concentrations of 0 (control), 50 000, 100 000 or 150 000ppm. There was no effect of the ingredient on body weight of males or females or food consumption of females. Statistically significant increases in food consumption were observed throughout the study in 100 000 and 150 000ppm males, resulting in intermittent...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 11, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Handbook of Environmental Engineering, Frank R. Spellman. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, ISBN: 978-1-4987-0861-6
Publication date: Available online 10 December 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Saura C. Sahu (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 11, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Metallothionein’s role in PCB126 induced hepatotoxicity and hepatic micronutrient disruption
Publication date: 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports, Volume 3 Author(s): W.D Klaren, S. Flor, K.N. Gibson-Corley, G. Ludewig, L.W. Robertson Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), industrial chemicals and persistent environmental pollutants, are found in rural and urban settings. Rodent studies have shown that exposure to PCB126, a dioxin-like PCB, causes a significant disruption of hepatic micronutrient homeostasis and an increase in metallothionein (MT), an antioxidant protein and metal carrier. A MT knockout mouse strain was used to assess metallothionein’s role in micronutrient disruption and overall hepatotoxicit...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 11, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Hepatoprotective effect of Grape seed proanthocyanidins on Cadmium-induced hepatic injury in rats: Possible involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation and apoptosis
Publication date: Available online 2 December 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Selvaraj Miltonprabu, Nazimabashir, Vaihundam Manoharan The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible ameliorative role of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP) against Cadmium (Cd) induced hepatic inflammation, apoptosis and hepatic mitochondrial toxicity in rats. Male Wistar rats were distributed in four experimental groups: control, GSP, Cd and Cd+GSP. Exposure to a hepatotoxic dose of Cd (5mg/kg BW) caused liver damage, coupled with enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, increased inflammation and apoptosis...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 4, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Evaluation of mutagenic and antimicrobial properties of brown propolis essential oil from the Brazilian Cerrado biome
Publication date: Available online 1 December 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Fábio H. Fernandes, Zaira da R. Guterres, Ivana M.P. Violante, Tiago F.S. Lopes, Walmir S. Garcez, Fernanda R. Garcez Biological, and particularly antimicrobial, activities have been demonstrated for the essential oil of propolis samples worlwide, yet their mutagenic effects remain unknown. To correlate antimicrobial effects with mutagenic risks, the present study evaluated the antifungal and antibacterial activities of the essential oil obtained from brown propolis collected from the Cerrado biome in Midwest Brazil (EOP)...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 1, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activities of Quillaja saponaria Mol. Saponin extract in mice
Conclusion The results of the present study demonstrate that the aqueous extract of Quillaja saponaria saponins(QS) possess significant anti-inflammatory activity. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 1, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Sequencing the exposome: A call to action
This article reviews high-resolution metabolomics (HRM) as an affordable approach to routinely analyze samples for a broad spectrum of environmental chemicals and biologic responses. HRM has been successfully used in multiple exposome research paradigms and is suitable to implement in a prototype universal exposure surveillance system. Development of such a structure for systematic monitoring of environmental exposures is an important step toward sequencing the exposome because it builds upon successes of exposure science, naturally connects external exposure to body burden and partitions the exposome into workable compone...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 28, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Fish oil prevents excessive accumulation of subcutaneous fat caused by an adverse effect of pioglitazone treatment and positively changes adipocytes in KK mice
In this study, we demonstrated suppression of body weight gain in response to pioglitazone administration by combination therapy of pioglitazone and fish oil in type 2 diabetic KK mice. Male KK mice were fed experimental diets for 8 weeks. In safflower oil (SO), safflower oil/low-dose pioglitazone (S/PL), and safflower oil/high-dose pioglitazone (S/PH) diets, 20% of calories were provided by safflower oil containing 0%, 0.006%, or 0.012% (wt/wt) pioglitazone, respectively. In fish oil (FO), fish oil/low-dose pioglitazone (F/PL), and fish oil/high-dose pioglitazone (F/PH) diets, 20% of calories were provided by a mixture of...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 22, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Glycolaldehyde induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in Schwann cells
This study demonstrated for the first time that glycolaldehyde induced ER stress. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 19, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

In vitro exposure of Adhatoda zeylanica to human renal cells lacks acute toxicity
Publication date: Available online 18 November 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Miriam E. Mossoba, Thomas J. Flynn, Sanah N. Vohra, Paddy L. Wiesenfeld, Robert L. Sprando Adhatoda zeylanica is a dietary supplement ingredient present in several types of dietary supplements, including weight loss, respiratory relief, and immune regulating products. Due to its reported wide range of uses in folk medicine, it was hypothesized that it may have the potential to target multiple organs and lead to a range of toxicity features. As a preliminary evaluation of the safety of this herbal ingredient, an investigation int...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 19, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Hypercholesterolemia with consumption of PFOA-laced Western diets is dependent on strain and sex of mice
Publication date: Available online 18 November 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Sandra L. Rebholz, Thomas Jones, Robert L. Herrick, Changchun Xie, Antonia M. Calafat, Susan M. Pinney, Laura A. Woollett Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a man-made surfactant with a number of industrial applications. It has a long half-life environmentally and biologically. Past studies suggest a direct relationship between plasma cholesterol and PFOA serum concentrations in humans and an inverse one in rodents fed standard rodent chow, making it difficult to examine mechanisms responsible for the potential PFOA-induced hype...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 19, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Seafood sold in Sweden contains BMAA: A study of free and total concentrations with UHPLC-MS/MS and dansyl chloride derivatization
In this study it was also concluded that BMAA could be detected in seafood origin from four different continents. The risks associated with human exposure to BMAA through food are unknown today. However, the results of this study show that imported seafood in Sweden contain BMAA, indicating that this area needs more investigation, including a risk assessment regarding the consumption of e.g. mussels, scallops and crab. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 17, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxic and transcriptional responses of PC12 cells to soluble tungsten alloy surrogates
This study used PC12 cells as an in vitro model to examine the toxicity of tungsten alloys that have important military applications. Initially, the relative concentrations of tungsten (W), nickel (Ni), and cobalt (Co) mobilized from pellets of a weapons-grade tungsten alloy incubated in physiologically relevant solutions were determined. Dosing solutions of soluble metal salts that were equivalent in ratio to those mobilized from these alloy pellets were used to treat nerve growth factor (NGF) differentiated PC12 cells. Treatments consisted of single (W, Ni or Co), paired (W/Ni, W/Co or Ni/Co) or complete (W/Ni/Co) metal ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 3, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Pathology, toxicology, and latency of irritant gases known to cause bronchiolitis obliterans disease: Does diacetyl fit the pattern
Publication date: Available online 2 November 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Brent D. Kerger, M.Joseph Fedoruk Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is a rare disease involving concentric bronchiolar fibrosis that develops rapidly following inhalation of certain irritant gases at sufficiently high acute doses. While there are many potential causes of bronchiolar lesions involved in a variety of chronic lung diseases, failure to clearly define the clinical features and pathological characteristics can lead to ambiguous diagnoses. Irritant gases known to cause BO follow a similar pathologic process and time course of ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 3, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Use of Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae) and Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae) to treat intestinal mucositis in mice: toxico-pharmacological evaluations
Conclusions This study showed an interesting potential of the mucoadhesive formulation of BP/CL for the treatment of 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis. Given the perspectives for the development of a new medicine, clinical studies are in progress to better understand the protective effects of this innovative formulation in treating mucositis. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - October 30, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Curcuminoids from Curcuma longaL. reduced intestinal mucositis induced by 5-fluorouracil in mice: bioadhesive, proliferative, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects
Conclusions Our data suggest the therapeutic potential of the formulation for treating intestinal mucositis in mice. Supplementary studies are underway searching for the elucidation of mechanisms involved in the protective effects of MFC in order to make this formulation a clinical tool for mucositis treatment. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - October 24, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Contamination profile of aflatoxin M1 residues in milk supply chain of Sindh, Pakistan
Publication date: Available online 21 October 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Sana Jawaid, Farah N. Talpur, Shafi M. Nizamani, Hassan Imran Afridi Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a potent carcinogen, teratogen and mutagen found in the milk when lactating animals consume feed contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). In the present study, the contamination of AFM1 was evaluated in the milk supply chain of the province of Sindh, Pakistan. For the broader profiling of targeted toxin, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for the determination of AFM1 in both branded and non-branded milk samples. The results s...
Source: Toxicology Reports - October 23, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

THE BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF NEW THIENO [2,3-c]PYRAZOLE COMPOUNDS AS ANTI-OXIDANTS AGAINST TOXICITY OF 4-NONYLPHENOL IN CLARIAS GARIEPINUS
Publication date: Available online 21 October 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Alaa El-Din H. Sayed, Remon M. Zaki, Adel M.Kamal El-Dean, Abdullah Y. Abdulrazzaq Synthesis of bi functionally substituted thieno[2,3-c]pyrazole compounds was carried out by a new method. The substituted group at position five is namely (carbonitrile, carboxamide, N-(substitutedphenyl) carboxamide and benzoyl group). Chloroacetylation of the amino thieno[2,3-c]pyrazolecarboxamide compound afforded the chloroacetyl amino derivative. The chemical structure of the newly synthesized compounds was established by elemental and spectral...
Source: Toxicology Reports - October 23, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Exiguobacterium mediated arsenic removal and its protective effect against arsenic induced toxicity and oxidative damage in freshwater fish, Channa striata
In conclusion, this study presents the strategies of bacterial arsenic removal with possible directions for future research. Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - October 23, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) study on cyanide induced biochemical and structural changes in rat sperm
In conclusion, the selected higher dosage of cyanide had caused significant decrease in the biochemical composition of rat sperms along with structural changes in the proteins. The FT–IR technique is an excellent tool used for the analysis of oxidative damage in the sperms. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - October 23, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Effects of 4-nonylphenol on oxidant/antioxidant balance system inducing hepatic steatosis in male rat
In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that intraperitoneal administration of 4-NP induces hepatic steatosis in rat. 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered with 4-NP (0, 2, 10 and 50mg/kg b.wt) in corn oil for 30 days. Liver histology, biochemical analysis and gene expression profiling were examined. After treatment, abnormal liver morphology and function were observed in the 4-NP-treated rat, and significant changes in gene expression an indicator of hepatic steatosis and apoptosis were observed compared with controls. Up-regulated genes involved in apoptosis, Hepatotoxity and oxidative stress, increased ROS...
Source: Toxicology Reports - October 20, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibitor ameliorates imbalance of connexin 43 in an acute kidney injury model
This study was designed to evaluate whether Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) inhibitor 4-benzyl-2-methyl-1, 2, 4-thiadiazolidine-3,5-dione (TDZD-8) induced the the expression of connexin 43 (Cx43) to protect against renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury (RI/RI) in rats. Rats were subjected to 45min ischemia followed 2h reperfusion with TDZD-8 (1mg/kg) for 5min prior to reperfusion. The results indicated that TDZD-8 improved the recovery of renal function, reduced oxidative stress and inflammation injury, and upregulated the expression of Cx43 as compared to I/R group. Therefore our study demonstrated that T...
Source: Toxicology Reports - October 20, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Sex-Dependent effects of developmental arsenic exposure on methylation capacity and methylation regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor system in the embryonic mouse brain
Publication date: Available online 17 October 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Andrea M. Allan, Alexander K. Hafez, Matthew T. Labrecque, Elizabeth R. Solomon, M. Nabil Shaikh, Xianyun Zheng, Abdulmehdi Ali Previously we have shown that prenatal moderate arsenic exposure (50 ppb) disrupts glucocorticoid receptor (GR) programming and that these changes continue into adolescence in males.However, it was not clear what the molecular mechanisms were promoting these GR programming changes or if these changes occurred in arsenic-exposed females. In the present studies, we assessed the effects of arsenic on prot...
Source: Toxicology Reports - October 18, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Genotoxic, teratotoxic and oral toxic assessments of Antrodia cinnamomea health food product (Leader Deluxe Antrodia cinnamomea®)
Publication date: Available online 17 October 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Chin-Chung Lin, K.J. Senthil Kumar, Jiunn-Wang Liao, Yueh-Hsiung Kuo, Sheng-Yang Wang Antrodia cinnamomea is a rare and endemic medicinal mushroom native to Taiwan. The pharmacological effects of A. cinnamomea have been extensively studied. The aim of the present study was to assess the genotoxic, oral toxic and teratotoxic effects of A. cinnamomea health food product “Leader Deluxe Antrodia cinnamomea (LDAC)" using in vitro and in vivo tests. The Ames test with 5 strains of Salmonella typhimurium showed no signs of in...
Source: Toxicology Reports - October 18, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Dietary supplementation of ginger and turmeric improves reproductive function in hypertensive male rats
Publication date: Available online 13 October 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Ayodele Jacob Akinyemi, Isaac A. Adedara, Gustavo Roberto Thome, Vera Maria Morsch, Monique Tomazele Rovani, Lady Katerine Serrano Mujica, Thiago Duarte, Marta Duarte, Ganiyu Oboh, Maria Rosa Chitolina Schetinger Ginger [Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae)] and turmeric [Curcuma longa Linn (Zingiberaceae)] rhizomes have been reportedly used in folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension. However, the prevention of its complication such as male infertility remains unexplored. Hence, the aim of the present study was...
Source: Toxicology Reports - October 14, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Preclinical rodent toxicity studies for long term use of ceftriaxone
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Elena Ratti, James D. Berry, David J. Greenblatt, Lorena Loci, Amy Swartz Ellrodt, Jeremy M. Shefner, Merit E. Cudkowicz A 6-month rodent toxicology and pharmacokinetic (PK) study was performed to provide supportive safety data for long-term use of intravenous ceftriaxone in a clinical trial in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Ceftriaxone was administered by subcutaneous injection at up to 2g/kg/day to Sprague-Dawley Crl:CD (SD) rats. Ceftriaxone was found to be safe and well tolerated. Specifically, no signifi...
Source: Toxicology Reports - October 10, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The ameliorative effects of virgin olive oil and olive leaf extract on amikacin–induced nephrotoxicity in the rat
Conclusion The study confirmed nephrotoxicity of amikacin in rat which was ameliorated by virgin olive oil and by olive leaf extract. Amikacin did not cause dyslipidemia but reduced serum uric acid. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - October 2, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Sex-specific cardiovascular responses to control or high fat diet feeding in C57bl/6 mice chronically exposed to bisphenol A.
Publication date: Available online 1 October 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Bhavini B. Patel, Mohamad Raad, Igal A. Sebag, Lorraine E. Chalifour The increased pericardial fat which often accompanies overall obesity is thought to alter cardiac structure/function and increase the risk for atrial fibrillation. We hypothesized that chronic exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) would induce pericardial fat, cardiac hypertrophy or arrhythmia. C57bl/6n dams were exposed to BPA (25ng/ml drinking water) beginning on gestation day 11 and progeny continued on 2.5ng BPA/ml drinking water. The progeny of control dams (VEH) and...
Source: Toxicology Reports - October 2, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Arsenic and nicotine co-exposure lead to some synergistic effects on oxidative stress and apoptotic markers in young rat blood, liver, kidneys and brain
In conclusion, the present study suggests that arsenic and nicotine exhibited significant toxicity during individual exposure whereas co-exposure these toxins showed variable conditions (indicative of both synergism and antagonism) in male rats. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - September 29, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The genotoxicity and systemic toxicity of a pharmaceutical effluent in Wistar rats may involve oxidative stress induction
This study investigated the genotoxicity and systemic toxicity of a pharmaceutical effluent in Wistar rats. Rats were orally treated with 5–50 % concentrations of the effluent for 28 days. At post-exposure, blood, liver, kidney and bone marrow cells were examined for alterations in serum biochemical parameters and hematological indices, histopathological lesions and micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes formation (MNPCE). The effluent caused concentration independent significant (p<0.05) alterations in aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malondia...
Source: Toxicology Reports - September 25, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Efficacy of Lepidium sativum against carbon tetra chloride induced hepatotoxicity and determination of its bioactive compounds by GC-MS
Publication date: Available online 25 September 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Abdulrahman Khazim Al-Asmari, Md Tanwir Athar, Hamoud M. Al-Shahrani, Saleh Ibrahim Al-Dakheel, Mohammed A. Al-Ghmadi Lepidium sativum seed (LSS) (family Cruciferae) has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of jaundice, liver problems, spleen diseases and gastrointestinal disorders. It was also reported to possess antihypertensive, diuretic, anti-asthmatic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. Attempt has been made to study hepatoprotective potential of LSS available in Saudi Arabian Market. The aim of ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - September 25, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Probabilistic Exposure assessment of Bisphenol A intake from polymeric baby bottles in formula-fed infants aged less than one year
This study evaluated the risks associated with exposure to BPA among Iranian formula-fed infants in an urban society in Isfahan. New and used baby bottles (n=7 and 8, respectively) as well as BPA-free marked bottles (n=2) were collected from a retail outlet, and leaching of BPA was examined by conducting a migration test. Concentrations of BPA released from the new and used baby bottles were in the range of 0.49-8.58 and 0.63-2.47 μg/l, respectively. Next, probabilistic exposure estimation was performed. In all, 200 mothers registered with 11 health centres in Isfahan were interviewed. Data on feeding pattern, washing a...
Source: Toxicology Reports - September 13, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxicological Evaluation of a Novel Cooling Compound: 2-(4-methylphenoxy)-N-(1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-N-(2-thienylmethyl)acetamide
Publication date: Available online 11 September 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Donald S. Karanewsky, Amy J. Arthur, Hanghui Liu, Bert Chi, Stacy Markison A toxicological evaluation of a novel cooling agent, 2-(4-methylphenoxy)-N-(1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-N-(2-thienylmethyl) acetamide (S2227; CAS 1,374,760-95-8), was completed for the purpose of assessing its safety for use in food and beverage applications. S2227 undergoes rapid oxidative metabolism in vitro, and in rat and dog pharmacokinetic studies is rapidly converted to its component carboxylic acid and secondary amine. S2227 was not found to be mutagenic or...
Source: Toxicology Reports - September 12, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxicological Evaluation of the Flavour Ingredient 4-amino-5-(3-(isopropylamino)-2,2-dimethyl-3-oxopropoxy)-2-methylquinoline-3-carboxylic acid
Publication date: Available online 3 September 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Amy J. Arthur, Donald S. Karanewsky, Hanghui Liu, Bert Chi, Stacy Markison A toxicological evaluation of 4-amino-5-(3-(isopropylamino)-2,2-dimethyl-3-oxopropoxy)-2-methylquinoline-3-carboxylic acid(S9632; CAS 1359963-68-0), a flavour with modifying properties,was completed for the purpose of assessing its safety for use in food and beverage applications.No Phase I biotransformations of S9632 were observed in rat or human microsomes in vitro,and in rat pharmacokinetic studies, the compound was poorly orally bioavailable and rapid...
Source: Toxicology Reports - September 4, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Rhodamine B induces oxidative stress and cervical epithelial cell proliferation in the uterus
In conclusion, subchronic Rhodamine B administration induces lipid peroxidation and cervical epithelial cells proliferation in a dose dependent manner. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - September 2, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Bleeding Due to a Probable Interaction Between Warfarin and Gouqizi ( Lycium Barbarum L.)
This report illustrates that large doses (more than 6∼12g) of Gouqizi can significantly enhance the anticoagulant action of warfarin and may cause similar adverse effects in keeping with three previous reports. Therefore, the use of herbal medicines must adhere to pharmacopoeia-recommended guidelines, including dosage regimes. Doctors should advise patients regarding possible interactions between herbs and warfarin when prescribing and should increase the frequency of INR monitoring for those patients concurrently receiving warfarin and medicinal herbs. Further study is needed to do for the mechanism of interaction bet...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 30, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Inhibitory actions by ibandronate sodium, a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, on calcium-activated potassium channels in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells
Publication date: Available online 28 August 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Sheng-Nan Wu, Hui-Zhen Chen, Yu-Hung Chou, Yan-Ming Huang, Yi-Ching Lo The nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates used for management of the patients with osteoporosis were reported to influence the function of renal tubular cells. However, how nitrogen-containing bisphosphates exert any effects on ion currents remains controversial. The effects of ibandronate (Iban), a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, on ionic channels including two types of Ca2+-activated K+ (KCa) channels, namely, large-conductance KCa (BKCa) and intermediate-c...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 29, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Formulation of mayonnaise with the addition of a bioemulsifier isolated from Candida utilis
In conclusion, the potential and innocuousness of the biosurfactant isolated from C. utilis indicates its safe use in food emulsions. Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 25, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Clinical Analysis of 156 Cases of Multiple Organ Failure Caused by Fish Bile
Conclusions Compared with the MOF caused by trauma and sepsis, the fish bile poisoning MOF has a much lower morality rate. However, patients with higher age, more underlying diseases, and more organ failure tended to have a worse prognosis. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 22, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Mesotrione herbicide promotes biochemical changes and dna damage in two fish species
Publication date: Available online 22 August 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): L.D.S. Piancini, I.C. Guiloski, H.C. Silva de Assis, M.M. Cestari Mesotrione is one of the new herbicides that have emerged as an alternative after the ban of atrazine in the European Union. To our knowledge, any work using genetic or biochemical biomarkers was performed in any kind of fish evaluating the toxicity of this compound. The impact of acute (96h) exposure to environmentally relevant mesotrione concentrations (1.8, 7, 30, 115 e 460μg.L−1) were evaluated on the liver of Oreochorimis niloticus and Geophagus brasili...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 22, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

1:1 FASTA update: Using the power of E-values in FASTA to detect potential allergen cross-reactivity
Publication date: Available online 20 August 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Ping Song, Rod, Herman, Siva Kumpatla In the context of regulatory assessment of transgenic proteins for potential allergenicity, a previous investigation demonstrated that a 1:1 FASTA comparison using an E-value of 1.0E-09 as a criterion is superior to the conventional FASTA search (using the whole sequence as a query) for >35% identity over 80 amino acids, but with improved specificity. A further study, using groups of known cross-reactive peanut allergens, indicates the sensitivity of this approach is superior to the conv...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 20, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Characterization of naturally occurring airborne diacetyl concentrations associated with the preparation and consumption of unflavored coffee
Publication date: Available online 18 August 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Jennifer S. Pierce, Anders Abelmann, Jason T. Lotter, Comerford Chris, Keeton Kara, Brent L. Finley Diacetyl, a suspected cause of respiratory disorders in some food and flavorings manufacturing workers, is also a natural component of roasted coffee. We characterized diacetyl exposures that would plausibly occur in a small coffee shop during the preparation and consumption of unflavored coffee. Personal (long- and short-term) and area (long-term) samples were collected while a barista ground whole coffee beans, and brewed and pou...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 18, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Naturally Occurring Diacetyl and 2,3-Pentanedione Concentrations Associated with Roasting and Grinding Unflavored Coffee Beans in a Commercial Setting
In this study, we measured naturally occurring diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, and respirable dust at a facility that roasts and grinds coffee beans with no added flavoring agents. Sampling was conducted over the course of three roasting batches and three grinding batches at varying distances from a commercial roaster and grinder. The three batches consisted of lightly roasted soft beans, lightly roasted hard beans, and dark roasted hard beans. Roasting occurred for 37 to 41min, and the grinding process took between 8 and 11min. Diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, and respirable dust concentrations measured during roasting ranged from...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 16, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Beneficial effect of rice bran extract against 3-Nitropropionic acid induced experimental Huntington's disease in rats
This study demonstrates significant alteration in behavioral parameters, oxidative burden (increased lipid peroxidation, nitrite concentration and decreased glutathione), mitochondrial function (decreased Complex II enzyme activity), pro-inflammatory mediators and neurochemical levels in 3-Nitropropionic acid treated animals. Administration of hexane and ethanol extract prevented the behavioral, biochemical, neuroinflammatory (increased TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) and neurochemical alterations (decreased dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, 5-hydroxy indole acetic acid, GABA and increased 3,4- dihydro phenyl acetalde...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 13, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Green tea extract attenuates CCl4-induced hepatic injury in male hamsters via inhibition of lipid peroxidation and p53-mediated apoptosis
Publication date: Available online 10 August 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Rania Abdel Rahman Elgawish, Haidy G. Abdel Rahman, Heba M.A. Abdelrazek Keeping in mind the beneficial effects of GTE administration on liver damage, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of green tea extract (GTE) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injuries in male hamsters for 8 weeks. Twenty hamsters were equally divided into 4 groups, the control ones (group I) received only dis. water. Hamsters of group II had free access to 10% of GTE, while hamsters of group III received 1ml/...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 11, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Protective effect of p-Coumaric acid Against Doxorubicin Induced Toxicity in H9c2 cardiomyoblast cell lines
This study aims to investigate the effect of pre and co-administration of pCA on mitigating or preventing Dox induced cardiotoxicity in vitro using H9c2 cardiomyoblast cell lines. Addition of pCA and Dox were performed for both treatment and control sets on H9c2 cells. Sulphorhodamine B assay was used to study the cytotoxic effect of pCA and Dox. The effect of the drug on cell morphology, cell viability and nuclear damage was studied using AO/EB and DAPI staining. ROS production was studied using DCFH-DA staining. Mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular calcium levels were assessed by rhodamine 123 and Fura 2AM ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 11, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Effect of NADPH oxidase inhibitor-apocynin on the expression of Src homology-2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) exposed renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats
This study was designed to evaluate whether NADPH oxidase inhibitor (apocynin) preconditioning induces expression of Src homology-2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) to protect against renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury (RI/RI) in rats. Rats were pretreated with 50 mg/kg apocynin, then subjected to 45 min ischemia and 24 h reperfusion. The results indicated that apocynin preconditioning improved the recovery of renal function and nitroso-redox balance, reduced oxidative stress injury and inflammation damage, and upregulated expression of SHP-1 as compared to RI/RI group. Therefore our study ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 5, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Human health risks associated with residual pesticide levels in edible tissues of slaughtered cattle in Benin City, Southern Nigeria
Publication date: Available online 3 August 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Tongo Isioma, Ezemonye Lawrence Pesticide residues in meat is of growing concern due to possible adverse effects on humans. Pesticide levels were assessed in five edible cattle parts: muscle, liver, kidney and tongue tissues to determine human health risk associated with consumption of these tissues. Health risk estimates were analysed using estimated daily intake (EDI), hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) for two (2) age/weight categories: 1–11years/30kg for children while 70kg was used for adult. Risks were categorized ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 4, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Hepatoprotective potential of antioxidant potent fraction from Urtica dioica Linn. (whole plant) in CCl4 challenged rats.
Publication date: Available online 3 August 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Bhuwan Chandra Joshi, Atish Prakash, Ajudhia N. Kalia The aim of the present study was to isolate hepatoprotective component from Urtica dioica Linn. (whole plant) against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in-vitro (HepG2 cells) and in-vivo (rats) model. Antioxidant activity of hydro alcoholic extract and its fractions petroleum ether fraction (PEF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), n-butanol fraction (NBF) and aqueous fraction (AF) were determined by DPPH and NO radicals scavenging assay. Fractions were subjected to in-vitro HepG2 cell line ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 4, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research