Repeated dose studies with pure Epigallocatechin-3-gallate demonstrated dose and route dependant hepatotoxicity with associated dyslipidemia
This study has been carried out to estimate the maximum tolerated non-toxic dose of pure EGCG and to identify the treatment related risk factors. In a fourteen day consecutive treatment, two different administration modalities were compared, offering an improved [i.p (intraperitoneal)] and limited [p.o (oral)] bioavailability. A trend of dose and route dependent hepatotoxicity was observed particularly with i.p treatment and EGCG increased serum lipid profile in parallel to hepatotoxicity. Fourteen day tolerable dose of EGCG was established as 21.1mg/kg for i.p and 67.8mg/kg for p.o. We also observed that, EGCG induced eff...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 6, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Assessment of heavy metals contamination and human health risk in shrimp collected from different farms and rivers at Khulna-Satkhira region, Bangladesh
This study is aimed to assess the heavy metals contamination and health risk in Shrimp (Macrobrachium rosenbergii and Penaeus monodon) collected from Khulna-Satkhira region in Bangladesh. The results showed that the Pb concentrations (0.52–1.16mg/kg) in all shrimp samples of farms were higher than the recommended limit. The Cd levels (0.05–0.13mg/kg) in all samples and Cr levels in all farms except tissue content at Satkhira farm were higher than the permissible limits. The individual concentration of Pb, Cd, and Cr between shrimp tissue and shell in all rivers and farms were not statistically significant (P&am...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 6, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxicological evaluation of two novel bitter modifying flavour compounds: 3-(1-((3,5-dimethylisoxazol-4-yl)methyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-1-(3-hydroxybenzyl)imidazolidine-2,4-dione and 3-(1-((3,5-dimethylisoxazol-4-yl)methyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-1-(3-hydroxybenzyl)-5,5-dimethylimidazolidine-2,4-dione
Publication date: Available online 28 February 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Donald S. Karanewsky, Amy J. Arthur, Hanghui Liu, Bert Chi, Lily Ida, Stacy Markison A toxicological evaluation of two novel bitter modifying flavour compounds, 3-(1-((3,5-dimethylisoxazol-4-yl)methyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-1-(3-hydroxybenzyl)imidazolidine-2,4-dione (S6821, CAS 1119831-25-2) and 3-(1-((3,5-dimethylisoxazol-4-yl)methyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-1-(3-hydroxybenzyl)-5,5-dimethylimidazolidine-2,4-dione (S7958, CAS 1217341-48-4), were completed for the purpose of assessing their safety for use in food and beverage applications. ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 29, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Exposure of the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) to sediments contaminated with heavy metals down-regulates the gene expression of stress biomarkers
Publication date: Available online 26 February 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Said Benhamed, Francisco A. Guardiola, Salvadora Martínez, María J.M. Sánchez, Carmen P. Sirvent, Mohammed Mars, María A. Esteban Heavy metals incidence in the aquatic environment and its accumulation in fish are under constant review. Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) specimens were exposed for two weeks to sediments highly concentrated in metals, collected at the Portman Bay (Murcia, Spain). The metals bioaccumulation was tested in liver, muscle and skin. The potential of the sediment exposure to ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 27, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Antioxidant protection of gallic acid against toxicity induced by Pb in blood, liver and kidney of rats
In conclusion, GA decreased Pb-induced oxidative damages not by decreasing Pb bioaccumulation, but by improving antioxidant defenses, thus GA may be promising in the treatment of Pb intoxications. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 24, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Hepato- and neuro-protective effects of watermelon juice on acute ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rats
Publication date: 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports, Volume 3 Author(s): Omolola R. Oyenihi, Blessing A. Afolabi, Ayodeji B. Oyenihi, Olusegun J. Ogunmokun, Oluwafemi O. Oguntibeju Chronic and acute alcohol exposure has been extensively reported to cause oxidative stress in hepatic and extra-hepatic tissues. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is known to possess various beneficial properties including; antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-diabetic, anti-ulcerogenic effects. However, there is a lack of pertinent information on its importance in acute alcohol-induced hepato- and neuro-toxicity. The present study e...
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 14, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Oral administration of Nigella sativa oil ameliorates the effect of cisplatin on membrane enzymes, carbohydrate metabolism and oxidative damage in rat liver
In conclusion, NSO appears to protect CP induced hepatotoxicity by improving energy metabolism and strengthening antioxidant defense mechanism. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 13, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Comment on “Hypercholesterolemia with consumption of PFOA-laced Western diets is dependent on strain and sex of mice” by Rebholz S.L. et al. Toxicology Reports 2016; 3: 46–54.
Publication date: Available online 11 February 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Hans M.G. Princen, Marianne G. Pouwer, Elsbet J. Pieterman A recent article in Toxicology Reports by [26] reported increased plasma cholesterol levels (primarily as HDL) in C57BL/6 (male and female) and BALB/c (male only) mice given high fat (Westernized) diet which also contained PFOA. The authors concluded that PFOA ingestion leads to hypercholesterolemia and they stated these data were “consistent with human observational findings”. There are several key factors which have not been considered in their study and we o...
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 11, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Interaction of p-benzoquinone with hemoglobin in smoker’s blood causes alteration of structure and loss of oxygen binding capacity
Publication date: Available online 9 February 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Arunava Ghosh, Santanu Banerjee, Amrita Mitra, Monita Muralidharan, Bappaditya Roy, Rajat Banerjee, Amit Kumar Mandal, Indu B. Chatterjee Cigarette smoke (CS) is an important source of morbidity and early mortality worldwide. Besides causing various life-threatening diseases, CS is also known to cause hypoxia. Chronic hypoxia would induce early aging and premature death. Continuation of smoking during pregnancy is a known risk for the unborn child. Although carbon monoxide (CO) is considered to be a cause of hypoxia, the effec...
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 10, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Inhibitory effect of Camellia sinensis, Ilex paraguariensis and Ardisia compressa tea extracts on the proliferation of human head and neck squamous carcinoma cells
Publication date: Available online 1 February 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Marco Vinicio Ramirez-Mares, Hideka Kobayashi, Elvira Gonzalez de Mejia In vitro cell proliferation, cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis were investigated, using three human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines (OSCC-3, SCC-61, and SQ-20B). Aqueous extracts of Camellia sinensis, Ilex paraguariensis, and Ardisia compressa were tested and (−) epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) was used for comparison. For EGCG the IC50 values were between 80 and 166μM and for the extracts among 75 and 505μM eq....
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 2, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Altered global gene expression profiles in human gastrointestinal epithelial Caco2 cells exposed to nanosilver
Publication date: Available online 22 January 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Saura C. Sahu Extensive consumer exposure to food- and cosmetics-related consumer products containing nanosilver is of public safety concern. Therefore, there is a need for suitable in vitro models and sensitive predictive rapid screening methods to assess their toxicity. Toxicogenomic profile showing subtle changes in gene expressions following nanosilver exposure is a sensitive toxicological endpoint for this purpose. We evaluated the Caco2 cells and global gene expression profiles as tools for predictive rapid toxicity screening o...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 23, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

ABC Gene-Ranking for Prediction of Drug-Induced Cholestasis in Rats
Publication date: Available online 18 January 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Yauheniya Cherkas, Michael K. McMillian, Dhammika Amaratunga, Nandini Raghavan, Jennifer C. Sasaki As legacy toxicogenomics databases have become available, improved data mining approaches are now key to extracting and visualizing subtle relationships between toxicants and gene expression. In the present study, a novel “aggregating bundles of clusters” (ABC) procedure was applied to separate cholestatic from non-cholestatic drugs and model toxicants in the Johnson & Johnson (Janssen) rat liver toxicogenomics d...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 20, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The possible role of intravenous lipid emulsion in the treatment of chemical warfare agent poisoning
Publication date: Available online 18 January 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Arik Eisenkraft, Avshalom Falk Organophosphates (OPs) are cholinesterase inhibitors that lead to a characteristic toxidrome of hypersecretion, miosis, dyspnea, respiratory insufficiency, convulsions and, without proper and early antidotal treatment, death. Most of these compounds are highly lipophilic. Sulfur mustard is a toxic lipophilic alkylating agent, exerting its damage through alkylation of cellular macromolecules (e.g., DNA, proteins) and intense activation of pro-inflammatory pathways. Currently approved antidotes against O...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 20, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Prevalence of aflatoxin and fumonisins (b1+b2) in maize consumed in rural malawi
Publication date: Available online 18 January 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Daniel S. Mwalwayo, Bernard Thole A study was carried out to assess levels of contamination of aflatoxins and fumonisins (B1 +B2) in maize produced, stored and consumed in rural households in Malawi. A total of 9 districts were selected across the country representing 3 districts from each of the Northern, Central and Southern regions respectively. Households were selected at random in each district where 10 maize samples were collected for laboratory analysis. Aflatoxins and fumonisins were analyzed using a single step lateral flow...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 20, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxicity determinants of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: the relationship between functionalization and agglomeration
Publication date: Available online 19 January 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Manfredi Allegri, Dimitrios K. Perivoliotis, Massimiliano G. Bianchi, Martina Chiu, Alessandra Pagliaro, Malamatenia A. Koklioti, Aikaterini-Flora A. Trompeta, Enrico Bergamaschi, Ovidio Bussolati, Constantinos A. Charitidis The elucidation of toxicity determinants of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) is still incomplete. Functionalization with carboxyl groups is, however, commonly used to mitigate MWCNT toxicity, although the rationale for the mitigating effect has not been fully clarified yet. In this work, two optimi...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 20, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Cyanotoxins at low doses induce apoptosis and inflammatory effects in murine brain cells: potential implications for neurodegenerative diseases
This study investigated whether mammalian brain and immune cells can be a target of certain cyanotoxins, at doses approximating those in the guideline levels for drinking water, either alone or in mixtures. We examined the effects on cellular viability, apoptosis and inflammation signalling of several toxins on murine macrophage-like RAW264.7, microglial BV-2 and neuroblastoma N2a cell lines. We tested cylindrospermopsin (CYN), microcystin-LR (MC-LR), and anatoxin-a (ATX-a), individually as well as their mixture. In addition, we studied the neurotoxins β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) and its isomer 2,4-diaminobutyric...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 16, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Omega-3 and alpha-tocopherol provide more protection against contaminants in novel feeds for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) than omega-6 and gamma tocopherol
Publication date: Available online 14 January 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Liv Søfteland, Marc H.G. Berntssen, Jennifer A. Kirwan, Trond R. Størseth, Mark R. Viant, Bente E. Torstensen, Rune Waagbø, Pål A. Olsvik Extended use of plant ingredients in Atlantic salmon farming has increased the need for knowledge on the effects of new nutrients and contaminants in plant based feeds on fish health and nutrient-contaminant interactions. Primary Atlantic salmon hepatocytes were exposed to a mixture of PAHs and pesticides alone or in combination with the nutrients ARA, EPA, α...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 14, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Heat-induced alterations in cashew allergen solubility and IgE binding
Publication date: Available online 14 January 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Christopher P. Mattison, Yvette Bren-Mattison, Barry Vant-Hull, Aurora M. Vargas, Richard L. Wasserman, Casey C. Grimm Cashew nuts are an increasingly common cause food allergy. We compared the soluble protein profile of cashew nuts following heating. SDS-PAGE indicated that heating can alter the solubility of cashew nut proteins. The 11S legumin, Ana o 2, dominates the soluble protein content in ready to eat and mildly heated cashew nuts. However, we found that in dark-roasted cashew nuts, the soluble protein profile shifts and...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 14, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Occupational Exposure To Pesticides And Occurrence Of The Chromosomal Translocation t(14;18) Among Farmers In Jordan
Conclusion Our results indicate that pesticides increased the frequency of chromosomal translocation in the 14q32 region. Accordingly, the presented data agrees with previous suggestions from the literature that pesticides might be involved in the development of NHL through the t(14;18) pathway. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 13, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Assessment of PAHs levels in some fish and seafood from different coastal waters in the Niger Delta
Publication date: Available online 13 January 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): EO Nwaichi, SA Ntorgbo Levels of sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 30 edible tissues of selected frequently-consumed fish and seafood collected from three coastal waters of Niger Delta, namely, Sime, Kporghor and Iko were investigated in 2014. Gas chromatographic analysis were employed for PAHs determination. Observed mean PAHs levels in the samples ranged from below detection limit (BD) of analytical instrument to 22.400±0.050μgkg−1 wet wt. in L. littorea, BD to 87.400±0.030μgkg−1 we...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 13, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Dose- and time-dependent changes in tissue levels of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and its sulfate and glucuronide conjugates following repeated administration to female Wistar Han Rats
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dose and repeated administration of TBBPA on the level of TBBPA, TBBPA-glucuronide (GA) and TBBPA-sulfate (S) conjugates in plasma, liver and uterus of female Wistar Han rats administered TBBPA (50, 100, 250, 500 or 1000mg/kg) for 28 consecutive days. In accordance with this objective, TBBPA sulfation was used as a surrogate for evaluating the potential for estradiol sulfation to be limited at high dose levels of TBBPA. Blood samples were collected at 4 and 8hours post-dosing on study day 7, 14, and 28, while liver and uterus were collected at the same time points f...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 12, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Nrf2 activators as potential modulators of injury in human kidney cells
Publication date: Available online 12 January 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Amandla Atilano-Roque, Xia Wen, Lauren M. Aleksunes, Melanie S. Joy Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of solid tumors, with clinical use often complicated by kidney toxicity. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived-2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor involved in kidney protectant effects. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Nrf2 activators oltipraz, sulforaphane, and oleanolic acid could protect human kidney cells against cisplatin-induced injury and to compare the protective effects b...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 12, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Hepato and neuro-protective effects of watermelon juice on acute ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rats
Publication date: Available online 12 January 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Omolola R. Oyenihi, Blessing A. Afolabi, Olusegun J. Ogunmokun, Oluwafemi O. Oguntibeju, Ayodeji B. Oyenihi Chronic and acute alcohol exposure has been extensively reported to cause oxidative stress in hepatic and extra-hepatic tissues. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is known to possess various beneficial properties including; antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-diabetic, anti-ulcerogenic effects. However, there is a lack of pertinent information on its importance in acute alcohol-induced hepato- and neuro-toxicity. T...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 12, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

13-week dietary study and in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity studies of a structuring fat produced through a microalgal fermentation process
Publication date: Available online 29 December 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): R.A. Matulka, T. Chan, R. Green, J.R. Carney, S. Franklin, P. Licari Microalgae are increasingly being utilized as food ingredients for a variety of applications, including as sources of protein, egg and dairy substitutes, and cooking oils. The dietary safety of a new structuring fat produced using a heterotrophic fermentation process by a strain of Prototheca moriformis was evaluated in a 13-week dietary toxicity study and compared with kokum fat, a structuring fat of similar composition used in the food industry and derived f...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 11, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Sodium sulfite promotes the assembly and secretion of very low-density lipoprotein in HL-7702 hepatocytes
Conclusion Na2SO3 exposure may promote the hepatocellular VLDL assembly and secretion, through increasing of MTP and TGH expressions and inhibiting the uptake of extracelluar VLDL. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 11, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Specific long non-coding RNAs response to occupational PAHs exposure in coke oven workers
Publication date: Available online 4 January 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Chen Gao, Zhini He, Jie Li, Xiao Li, Qing Bai, Zhengbao Zhang, Xiao Zhang, Shan Wang, Xinhua Xiao, Fangping Wang, Yan Yan, Daochuan Li, Liping Chen, Xiaowen Zeng, Yongmei Xiao, Guanghui Dong, Yuxin Zheng, Qing Wang, Wen Chen To explore whether the alteration of lncRNA expression is correlated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure and DNA damage, we examined PAHs external and internal exposure, DNA damage and lncRNAs (HOTAIR, MALAT1, TUG1 and GAS5) expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLCs) of ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 11, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Evaluation of Biological Effects of Intermediate Frequency Magnetic Field on Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cell
Publication date: Available online 4 January 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Sachiko Yoshie, Yuki Ogasawara, Masateru Ikehata, Kazuyuki Ishii, Yukihisa Suzuki, Keiji Wada, Kanako Wake, Satoshi Nakasono, Masao Taki, Chiyoji Ohkubo The embryotoxic effect of intermediate frequency (IF) magnetic field (MF) was evaluated using murine embryonic stem (ES) cells and fibroblast cells based on the embryonic stem cell test (EST). The cells were exposed to 21kHz IF-MF up to magnetic flux density of 3.9 mT during the cell proliferation process (7 days) or the cell differentiation process (10 days) during which an ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 11, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Hepatic histomorphological and biochemical changes following highly active antiretroviral therapy in an experimental animal model: does Hypoxis hemerocallidea exacerbate hepatic injury?
This study was conducted to investigate the possible protective effect of Hypoxis hemerocallidea (AP) against highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-induced hepatotoxicity. A total of 63 pathogen-free adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 9 groups and treated according to protocols. While no mortality was reported, animals treated with adjuvant HAART and AP recorded least%body weight gain. Significant derangements in serum lipid profiles were exacerbated by treatment of with AP as LDL (increased p<0.03), triglycerides (increased p<0.03) with no change in total cholesterol levels. Adjuvant AP ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 11, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Melatonin modulates drug-induced acute porphyria
Publication date: Available online 7 January 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Sandra M. Lelli, Marta B. Mazzetti, Leonor C. San Martín de Viale This work investigated the modulation by melatonin (Mel) of the effects of the porphyrinogenic drugs 2-allyl-2-isopropylacetamide (AIA) and 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydro-2,4,6-collidine (DDC) on oxidative environment, glucose biosynthesis and heme pathway parameters. Administration of Mel before rat intoxication with AIA/DDC showed a clear beneficial effect in all cases. Mel induced decreases of 42% and 35% in the excretion of the hemeprecursors 5-aminolevul...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 11, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Arsenic induced hematological and biochemical responses in nutritionally important catfish Clarias batrachus (L.)
Publication date: Available online 8 January 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Randhir Kumar, T.K. Banerjee The impact of sublethal toxicity of sodium arsenite on hematological and certain biochemical parameters of the fresh water catfish Clarias batrachus has been analysed following exposure of sublethal concentration (1mg/L; 5% of LC50 value) of sodium arsenite for 10, 30, 45, and 60 days. Arsenic bioaccumulation in the blood tissue of the fish increased progressively with increased period of exposure. The values of total erythrocyte count (TECs), total leucocytes count (TLCs), hemoglobin concentration, and p...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 11, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Effect of graphene oxide on bacteria and peripheral blood mononuclear cells
In this study we have tested the antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity towards peripheral blood mononuclear cells of three different graphene oxide samples, GO-H2O, GO-PBS and GO-MG. We have used AFM, SEM, Raman spectroscopy, XPS and TEM to characterize the morphology and composition of the materials. Our samples possess 2D sizes of ∼100nm (GO-H2O and GO-PBS) and >2μm (GO-MG). We confirm a size-dependent growth inhibition of Escherichia coli (DH5 α) in suspension and prove that this effect depends strongly on the protocol followed for exposure. No growth inhibition was observed when E. coli was put di...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 11, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Diosmetin Protects against Retinal Injury via Reduction of DNA Damage and Oxidative Stress
Publication date: Available online 17 December 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Zeren Shen, Jinjin Shao, Jiabin Dai, Yuchen Lin, Xiaochun Yang, Jian Ma, Qiaojun He, Bo Yang, Ke Yao, Peihua Luo Visual impairment is a global public health problem that needs new candidate drugs. Chrysanthemum is a traditional Chinese drug, famous for its eye-protective function, with an unclear mechanism of action. To determine how chrysanthemum contributes to vision, we identified, for the first time, the component of chrysanthemum, diosmetin (DIO), which acts in protecting the injured retina in an adriamycin (ADR) impro...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 18, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Female rats are less susceptible during puberty to the lethal effects of percutaneous exposure to VX
This study emphasizes the need to control for both age and sex when evaluating the toxicological effects associated with nerve agent exposure in the rat model. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 18, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Vanillin abrogates ethanol induced gastric injury in rats via modulation of gastric secretion, oxidative stress and inflammation
Publication date: Available online 12 December 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Abdulrahman Al Asmari, Hamoud Al Shahrani, Nasser Al Masri, Ahmed Al Faraidi, Ibrahim Elfaki, Mohammed Arshaduddin Vanillin is commonly used as an additive in food, medicine and cosmetics, but its effect has not yet been studied in gastric injury. Therefore the effect of vanillin was studied in experimental gastric ulcer. Gastric secretion and acidity were studied in pylorus ligated rats. Ulcer index, levels of gastric mucus, malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase activity (MPO), expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 13, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Safety studies conducted on Pecan Shell Fiber, a food ingredient produced from ground pecan shells
Publication date: Available online 10 December 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Laurie Dolan, John Nizio, Ray Matulka Use of pecan shell fiber in human food is presently limited, but could increase pending demonstration of safety. In a 91-day rat study, pecan shell fiber was administered at dietary concentrations of 0 (control), 50 000, 100 000 or 150 000ppm. There was no effect of the ingredient on body weight of males or females or food consumption of females. Statistically significant increases in food consumption were observed throughout the study in 100 000 and 150 000ppm males, resulting in intermittent...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 11, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Handbook of Environmental Engineering, Frank R. Spellman. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, ISBN: 978-1-4987-0861-6
Publication date: Available online 10 December 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Saura C. Sahu (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 11, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Metallothionein’s role in PCB126 induced hepatotoxicity and hepatic micronutrient disruption
Publication date: 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports, Volume 3 Author(s): W.D Klaren, S. Flor, K.N. Gibson-Corley, G. Ludewig, L.W. Robertson Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), industrial chemicals and persistent environmental pollutants, are found in rural and urban settings. Rodent studies have shown that exposure to PCB126, a dioxin-like PCB, causes a significant disruption of hepatic micronutrient homeostasis and an increase in metallothionein (MT), an antioxidant protein and metal carrier. A MT knockout mouse strain was used to assess metallothionein’s role in micronutrient disruption and overall hepatotoxicit...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 11, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Hepatoprotective effect of Grape seed proanthocyanidins on Cadmium-induced hepatic injury in rats: Possible involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation and apoptosis
Publication date: Available online 2 December 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Selvaraj Miltonprabu, Nazimabashir, Vaihundam Manoharan The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible ameliorative role of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP) against Cadmium (Cd) induced hepatic inflammation, apoptosis and hepatic mitochondrial toxicity in rats. Male Wistar rats were distributed in four experimental groups: control, GSP, Cd and Cd+GSP. Exposure to a hepatotoxic dose of Cd (5mg/kg BW) caused liver damage, coupled with enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, increased inflammation and apoptosis...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 4, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Evaluation of mutagenic and antimicrobial properties of brown propolis essential oil from the Brazilian Cerrado biome
Publication date: Available online 1 December 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Fábio H. Fernandes, Zaira da R. Guterres, Ivana M.P. Violante, Tiago F.S. Lopes, Walmir S. Garcez, Fernanda R. Garcez Biological, and particularly antimicrobial, activities have been demonstrated for the essential oil of propolis samples worlwide, yet their mutagenic effects remain unknown. To correlate antimicrobial effects with mutagenic risks, the present study evaluated the antifungal and antibacterial activities of the essential oil obtained from brown propolis collected from the Cerrado biome in Midwest Brazil (EOP)...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 1, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activities of Quillaja saponaria Mol. Saponin extract in mice
Conclusion The results of the present study demonstrate that the aqueous extract of Quillaja saponaria saponins(QS) possess significant anti-inflammatory activity. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 1, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Sequencing the exposome: A call to action
This article reviews high-resolution metabolomics (HRM) as an affordable approach to routinely analyze samples for a broad spectrum of environmental chemicals and biologic responses. HRM has been successfully used in multiple exposome research paradigms and is suitable to implement in a prototype universal exposure surveillance system. Development of such a structure for systematic monitoring of environmental exposures is an important step toward sequencing the exposome because it builds upon successes of exposure science, naturally connects external exposure to body burden and partitions the exposome into workable compone...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 28, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Fish oil prevents excessive accumulation of subcutaneous fat caused by an adverse effect of pioglitazone treatment and positively changes adipocytes in KK mice
In this study, we demonstrated suppression of body weight gain in response to pioglitazone administration by combination therapy of pioglitazone and fish oil in type 2 diabetic KK mice. Male KK mice were fed experimental diets for 8 weeks. In safflower oil (SO), safflower oil/low-dose pioglitazone (S/PL), and safflower oil/high-dose pioglitazone (S/PH) diets, 20% of calories were provided by safflower oil containing 0%, 0.006%, or 0.012% (wt/wt) pioglitazone, respectively. In fish oil (FO), fish oil/low-dose pioglitazone (F/PL), and fish oil/high-dose pioglitazone (F/PH) diets, 20% of calories were provided by a mixture of...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 22, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Glycolaldehyde induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in Schwann cells
This study demonstrated for the first time that glycolaldehyde induced ER stress. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 19, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

In vitro exposure of Adhatoda zeylanica to human renal cells lacks acute toxicity
Publication date: Available online 18 November 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Miriam E. Mossoba, Thomas J. Flynn, Sanah N. Vohra, Paddy L. Wiesenfeld, Robert L. Sprando Adhatoda zeylanica is a dietary supplement ingredient present in several types of dietary supplements, including weight loss, respiratory relief, and immune regulating products. Due to its reported wide range of uses in folk medicine, it was hypothesized that it may have the potential to target multiple organs and lead to a range of toxicity features. As a preliminary evaluation of the safety of this herbal ingredient, an investigation int...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 19, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Hypercholesterolemia with consumption of PFOA-laced Western diets is dependent on strain and sex of mice
Publication date: Available online 18 November 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Sandra L. Rebholz, Thomas Jones, Robert L. Herrick, Changchun Xie, Antonia M. Calafat, Susan M. Pinney, Laura A. Woollett Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a man-made surfactant with a number of industrial applications. It has a long half-life environmentally and biologically. Past studies suggest a direct relationship between plasma cholesterol and PFOA serum concentrations in humans and an inverse one in rodents fed standard rodent chow, making it difficult to examine mechanisms responsible for the potential PFOA-induced hype...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 19, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Seafood sold in Sweden contains BMAA: A study of free and total concentrations with UHPLC-MS/MS and dansyl chloride derivatization
In this study it was also concluded that BMAA could be detected in seafood origin from four different continents. The risks associated with human exposure to BMAA through food are unknown today. However, the results of this study show that imported seafood in Sweden contain BMAA, indicating that this area needs more investigation, including a risk assessment regarding the consumption of e.g. mussels, scallops and crab. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 17, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxic and transcriptional responses of PC12 cells to soluble tungsten alloy surrogates
This study used PC12 cells as an in vitro model to examine the toxicity of tungsten alloys that have important military applications. Initially, the relative concentrations of tungsten (W), nickel (Ni), and cobalt (Co) mobilized from pellets of a weapons-grade tungsten alloy incubated in physiologically relevant solutions were determined. Dosing solutions of soluble metal salts that were equivalent in ratio to those mobilized from these alloy pellets were used to treat nerve growth factor (NGF) differentiated PC12 cells. Treatments consisted of single (W, Ni or Co), paired (W/Ni, W/Co or Ni/Co) or complete (W/Ni/Co) metal ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 3, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Pathology, toxicology, and latency of irritant gases known to cause bronchiolitis obliterans disease: Does diacetyl fit the pattern
Publication date: Available online 2 November 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Brent D. Kerger, M.Joseph Fedoruk Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is a rare disease involving concentric bronchiolar fibrosis that develops rapidly following inhalation of certain irritant gases at sufficiently high acute doses. While there are many potential causes of bronchiolar lesions involved in a variety of chronic lung diseases, failure to clearly define the clinical features and pathological characteristics can lead to ambiguous diagnoses. Irritant gases known to cause BO follow a similar pathologic process and time course of ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 3, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Use of Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae) and Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae) to treat intestinal mucositis in mice: toxico-pharmacological evaluations
Conclusions This study showed an interesting potential of the mucoadhesive formulation of BP/CL for the treatment of 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis. Given the perspectives for the development of a new medicine, clinical studies are in progress to better understand the protective effects of this innovative formulation in treating mucositis. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - October 30, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Curcuminoids from Curcuma longaL. reduced intestinal mucositis induced by 5-fluorouracil in mice: bioadhesive, proliferative, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects
Conclusions Our data suggest the therapeutic potential of the formulation for treating intestinal mucositis in mice. Supplementary studies are underway searching for the elucidation of mechanisms involved in the protective effects of MFC in order to make this formulation a clinical tool for mucositis treatment. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - October 24, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research