Studies on the potential protective effect of cinnamon against bisphenol A- and octylphenol-induced oxidative stress in male albino rats
In conclusion, CAE could ameliorate the oxidative toxic effects of BPA and OP indicating its protective antioxidant effect. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Pathology review of proliferative lesions of the exocrine pancreas in two chronic feeding studies in rats with ammonium perfluorooctanoate
Publication date: 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports, Volume 1 Author(s): Jessica M. Caverly Rae , Steven R. Frame , Gerald L. Kennedy , John L. Butenhoff , Shu-Ching Chang Two chronic dietary studies, conducted years apart, with ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO) in Sprague Dawley rats have been previously reported. Although both included male 300ppm dietary dose groups, only the later study, conducted in 1990–1992 by Biegel et al., reported an increase in proliferative lesions (hyperplasia and adenoma) of the acinar pancreas. An assessment of the significance of the differences between both studies requires careful c...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

In vivo and in vitro toxicity of nanogold conjugated snake venom protein toxin GNP-NKCT1
Publication date: 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports, Volume 1 Author(s): Partha Pratim Saha , Tanmoy Bhowmik , Anjan Kumar Dasgupta , Antony Gomes Research on nanoparticles has created interest among the biomedical scientists. Nanoparticle conjugation aims to target drug delivery, increase drug efficacy and imaging for better diagnosis. Toxicity profile of the nanoconjugated molecules has not been studied well. In this communication, the toxicity profile of snake venom cytotoxin (NKCT1), an antileukemic protein toxin, was evaluated after its conjugation with gold nanoparticle (GNP-NKCT1). Gold nanoparticle conjugation with ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

A novel aromatic mutagen, 5-amino-6-hydroxy-8H-benzo[6,7]azepino[5,4,3-de]quinolin-7-one (ABAQ), induces colonic preneoplastic lesions in mice
Publication date: 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports, Volume 1 Author(s): Takahiro Kochi , Masahito Shimizu , Yukari Totsuka , Yohei Shirakami , Takayuki Nakanishi , Tetsushi Watanabe , Takuji Tanaka , Hitoshi Nakagama , Keiji Wakabayashi , Hisataka Moriwaki The benzoazepinoqunolinone derivative, 5-amino-6-hydroxy-8H-benzo[6,7]azepino[5,4,3-de]quinolin-7-one (ABAQ), which is produced in a mixture of glucose and tryptophan incubated at 37°C under physiological conditions in the presence or absence of hydroxyl radicals caused by the Fenton reaction, is a novel aromatic mutagen. In the current study, we determined the tumor...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Which exposure stage (gestation or lactation) is more vulnerable to atrazine toxicity? Studies on mouse dams and their pups
Publication date: 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports, Volume 1 Author(s): Sameeh A. Mansour , Doha A. Mohamed , Jean F. Sutra Either during gestation or lactation, the experimental mouse dams received one of the following treatments: (a) diet free of pesticide; (b) diet enriched with atrazine (ATZ); 31.0μgkg−1; (c) diet free of pesticide+oral vitamin E (α-tocopherol; 200mgkg−1 per mouse); and (d) diet enriched with ATZ (31.0μgkg−1)+oral vitamin E (200mgkg−1 per mouse). At the weaning, pups and dams were killed and selected organs and blood samples were collected for analyses. Compared with...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Evaluation for the anti-urolithiatic activity of Launaea procumbens against ethylene glycol-induced renal calculi in rats
Conclusion These results indicate that methanolic extracts of L. procumbens leaves are effective against the urolithiasis. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Concentration- and time-dependent genotoxicity profiles of isoprene monoepoxides and diepoxide, and the cross-linking potential of isoprene diepoxide in cells
Publication date: 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports, Volume 1 Author(s): Yan Li , Avishay Pelah , Jing An , Ying-Xin Yu , Xin-Yu Zhang Isoprene, a possible carcinogen, is a petrochemical and a natural product being primarily produced by plants. It is biotransformed to 2-ethenyl-2-methyloxirane (IP-1,2-O) and 2-(1-methylethenyl)oxirane (IP-3,4-O), both of which can be further metabolized to 2-methyl-2,2′-bioxirane (MBO). MBO is mutagenic, but IP-1,2-O and IP-3,4-O are not. While IP-1,2-O has been reported being genotoxic, the genotoxicity of IP-3,4-O and MBO, and the cross-linking potential of MBO have not been examine...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Experimental intraperitoneal injection of alcohol in rats: Peritoneal findings and histopathology
Conclusion An intraperitoneal injection of alcohol in rats caused peritoneal inflammation or fibrosis during the first 2 weeks. However, these peritoneal abnormalities were short-lived and had completely disappeared after 3 weeks. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Epigallocatechin gallate supplementation protects against renal injury induced by fluoride intoxication in rats: Role of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling
Publication date: 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports, Volume 1 Author(s): S. Thangapandiyan , S. Miltonprabu Fluoride intoxication generates free radicals, causing oxidative stress that plays a critical role in the progression of nephropathy. In the present study, we hypothesized that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), found in green tea, protects the kidneys of rats treated with fluoride by preventing oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. Pretreatment of fluoride-treated rats with EGCG resulted in a significant normalization of creatinine clearance and levels of urea, uric acid, and creatinine. Fluoride intoxication ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Dietary feeding of flavokawain A, a Kava chalcone, exhibits a satisfactory safety profile and its association with enhancement of phase II enzymes in mice
In this study, male FVB/N mice were fed with an AIN-76A diet or AIN-76A diet supplemented with 0.6% (6g/kg food) FKA or 0.6% commercial kava root extract (KRE) for three weeks. Dietary feeding of FKA did not affect food consumption and body weight. Histopathological examination of liver, kidney, colon, lung, heart, spleen, and thymus revealed no signs of FKA-induced toxicity. Biochemical serum analysis and histological examination confirmed normal organ function in FKA-treated mice. The cytotoxicity profile showed FKA had minimal side effects on bone marrow and small intestinal epithelial cells compared with Adriamycin. In...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Announcing the launching of Toxicology Reports
Publication date: 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports, Volume 1 Author(s): Lawrence H. Lash (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Effect of Nɛ-carboxymethyllysine on oxidative stress and the glutathione system in beta cells
Publication date: Available online 27 June 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Daniëlle M.P.H.J. Boesten , Atlanta G.I.M. Elie , Marie-José Drittij-Reijnders , Gertjan J.M. den Hartog , Aalt Bast One of the pathways involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications is the formation of excessive levels of advanced glycation end (AGE) products. Nɛ-carboxymethyllysine (CML) is one of the best-characterized AGEs. Because little is known about the effects of AGEs on pancreatic beta cells, we investigated the effect of CML on human pancreatic cells and determined the activity and gene expression of glut...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

In vitro analysis of the phytotoxic and genotoxic potential of Aligarh wastewater and Mathura refinery wastewater
Publication date: Available online 27 June 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Naveed Ahmad Fazili , Masood Ahmad Present report deals with the phytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Mathura refinery waste water and Aligarh waste water of Northern India. The IC50 value in A.cepa root growth inhibition test was recorded to be 0.14X and 0.10X for Mathura refinery and Aligarh industrial waste waters respectively. Significant decline in the survival of various E.coli K12 DNA repair defective mutants was observed when the tester strains were exposed to the aforementioned samples. The order of sensitivity was invariably as: A...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Protective effect of antioxidant rich aqueous curry leaf (Murraya koenigii) extract against gastro-toxic effects of piroxicam in male Wistar rats
Publication date: Available online 2 July 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Syed Benazir Firdaus , Debosree Ghosh , Aindrila Chattyopadhyay , Mousumi Dutta , Sudeshna Paul , Jagannath Jana , Anjali Basu , Gargi Bose , Hiya Lahiri , Bhaswati Banerjee , Sanjib Pattari , Subhrangshu Chatterjee , Kuladip Jana , Debasish Bandyopadhyay Piroxicam (chemically 4-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-2-pyridinyl-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxamide), a classical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) is orally administered to arthritic patients. Inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis and subsequent free hydroxyl radical generati...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) supercritical CO2 extract derived withanolides mitigates Bisphenol A induced mitochondrial toxicity in HepG2 cells
We report that BPA at 100nM induced cytotoxicity to HepG2 cells as determined by MTT assay at 0-72h. The toxicity was result of reduced oxygen consumption and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential associated with decreased ATP production. The BPA treatment resulted in increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) content with decreased glutathione and other antioxidant enzymes. BPA derived toxicity is a concern to human health and alternative non-toxic natural products/derivatives or adjuvants that serve as antidote will be relevant. In this context, Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) a widely used herb to treat arthritis, rheumatism...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

A novel quinazolinone derivative induces cytochrome c interdependent apoptosis and autophagy in human leukemia MOLT-4 cells
Publication date: Available online 12 August 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Suresh Kumar , Anup Singh Pathania , Santosh Kumar Guru , Nagaraju Mupparapu , Ajay Kumar , Fayaz Malik , Sandip B. Bharate , Naved Ahmed Qazi , Ram A. Vishwakarma , Shashi Bhushan Crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy is budding as one of the novel strategies in the cancer therapeutics. The present study tinted towards the interdependence of autophagy and apoptosis induce by a novel quinazolinone derivative 2, 3-Dihydro-2-(quinoline-5-yl) quinazolin-4(1H)-one structure [DQQ] in human leukemia MOLT-4 cells. DQQ induces cytochrome c...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Acute Permethrin Neurotoxicity: Variable Presentations, High Index of Suspicion
We report the unusual and varied presentations of permethrin toxicity in three siblings presenting to a tertiary care pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). While there is no standard clinical diagnostic test for permethrin, accurate diagnosis was obtained by rapidly analyzing the offending agent. In the absence of a known antidote for permethrin, supportive management was initiated and resulted in a favorable outcome for all three siblings. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Relationship between self-reported fish and shellfish consumption, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values and total mercury concentrations in pregnant women (II) from Baja California Sur, Mexico
This study investigates total Hg concentrations ([THg]) in hair segments of pregnant Mexican women in relation to 1) self-reported frequency of fish and shellfish consumption, 2) maternal trophic level and marine diet contributions, determined using hair carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stable isotopes, and 3) relates [THg] to various hair advisory thresholds. We also examined whether variation in C and N isotope values is explained by self-reported frequency of fish and shellfish consumption. A significant proportion of hair samples had [THg] higher than suggested agency thresholds and, for women within the range of the variou...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Marine diet and tobacco exposure affects mercury concentrations in pregnant women (I) from Baja California Sur, Mexico
This study establishes possible relationships among multiple potential sources of exposure and other factors related to [THg] in hair of women in the prenatal period. A more detailed examination of other sources of exposure and factors contributing to [THg] is warranted. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Effects of developmental manganese, stress, and the combination of both on monoamines, growth, and corticosterone
Publication date: Available online 16 October 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Charles V. Vorhees , Devon L. Graham , Robyn M. Amos-Kroohs , Amanda A. Braun , Curtis E. Grace , Tori L. Schaefer , Matthew R. Skelton , Keith M. Erikson , Michael Aschner , Michael T. Williams Developmental exposure to manganese (Mn) or stress can each be detrimental to brain development. Here, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to two housing conditions and Mn from postnatal day (P)4-28. Within each litter two males and 2 females were assigned to the following groups: 0 (vehicle), 50, or 100mg/kg Mn by oral gavage every other day. Ha...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Effects of lead acetate on testicular function and caspase–3 expression with respect to the protective effect of cinnamon in albino rats
In conclusion, cinnamon exhibited protective effect on reproductive system by inhibiting lead acetate induced oxidative stress and excessive cell apoptosis. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Silver nanoparticles do not alter human osteoclastogenesis but induce cellular uptake
In conclusion, our results indicate nanosilver-induced cell stress at higher concentrations. For this reason antibacterial benefits and possible health risks should be weighed in more detail in further studies. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The effect of capsaicin on circulating biomarkers, soluble tumor necrosis factor and soluble tumor necrosis factor-receptor-1 and -2 levels in vivo using lipopolysaccharide-treated mice
In conclusion, Cap interferes with TNF-α mRNA transcription and exerts an inhibiting effect on TNF-α release from macrophages in the early phase after LPS stimulation. Thus, Cap is considered a potent agent for the treatment of TNF-α-related diseases, such as septicemia. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Monosodium glutamate induced testicular toxicity and the possible ameliorative role of vitamin E or selenium in male rats
In conclusion, supplementation of selenium or vit E could ameliorate the MSG induced testicular toxicity to great extent and reduce the oxidative stress on testis tissues. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

ESTROGEN RECEPTOR α and ARYL HYDROCARBON RECEPTOR CROSS-TALK in a TRANSFECTED HEPATOMA CELL LINE (HEPG2) EXPOSED TO 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN
This study provides new evidence of a TCDD-activated AhR-mediated molecular AhR/ERα cross-talk mechanism at transcriptional level via indirect inhibition of ERα and enhanced transcriptional activity of AhR in HepG2 cells. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Custom Mentholation of Commercial Cigarettes for Research Purposes
Publication date: Available online 22 October 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Ian C. MacGregor , Stephen B. Stanfill , Sydney M. Gordon , Douglas J. Turner , Jenny M. Butler , Elizabeth A. Hanft , Hyoshin Kim , Robyn R. Kroeger , Marielle C. Brinkman , Margaret E. Tefft , Pamela I. Clark , Stephanie S. Buehler In the U.S. menthol remains the sole permitted characterizing cigarette flavor additive in part because efforts to link menthol cigarette use to increased tobacco-related disease risk have been inconclusive. To perform definitive studies, cigarettes that differ only in menthol content are required, yet th...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Proapoptotic Activity of Aflatoxin B1 and Sterigmatocystin in HepG2 Cells
Publication date: Available online 29 October 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Yang Liu , Ming Du , Genyi Zhang Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and sterigmatocystin (ST) are two hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxins that are commonly coexisted in cereal grains, and their co-proapoptotic activity in HepG2 cells was studied. The values of IC50, which is the dosage of mycotoxin resulting in a 50% cell growth inhibition measured by a sulforhodamine B (SRB) colorimetric assay, were 16.9μM and 7.3μM for AFB1 and ST, respectively. Additively and dose-dependently, cell apoptosis-related toxicity endpoints of double strand DNA and ATP...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

In vitro steatosis hepatic cell model to compare the lipid-lowering effects of pomegranate peel polyphenols with several other plant polyphenols as well as its related cholesterol efflux mechanisms
This study was aimed to compare the relative activities of the purified pomegranate peels polyphenols (PPPs) with some other plant polyphenols including punicalagin, ellagic acid, gallic acid, phlorizin, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on the lipid metabolism regulation, and the cholesterol efflux mechanisms of PPPs and punicalagin were also investigated. In this paper, a convenient and accurate in vitro HL7702 steatosis hepatic cell model was applied to evaluate the lipid-lowering effects of the tested polyphenols. The results showed that PPPs possessed the strongest lipid-lowering effects. Prevention group (treated w...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Effects of a cyanobacterial bloom sample containing microcystin-LR on the ecophysiology of Daphnia similis
In this study we used a natural bloom sample obtained from a reservoir in Colombia to evaluate its effects on five parameters related to Daphnia's feeding behavior, swimming movements and physiology: second antennae movement (swimming), mandible movement (feeding), thoracic appendages (feeding), postabdomen movement (rejection of food particles) and heart rate (physiology). The results revealed significant changes in all parameters evaluated at two different concentrations of aqueous extracts of the bloom: second antennae movements increased significantly and there were significant reductions in mandibular movements, thora...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Silica nanoparticles induce endoplasmic reticulum stress response, oxidative stress and activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway
Publication date: Available online 4 November 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Verena Christen , Magdalena Camenzind , Karl Fent Application of silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NPs) may result in human exposure. Here we investigate unexplored modes of action by which silica nanoparticle (SiO2-NPs) with average size of 225nm act on human hepatoma cells (Huh7). We focused on the endoplasmic (ER) stress response and on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Both pathways were induced. ER stress and the associated three unfolded protein response (UPR) pathways were activated as demonstrated by signifi...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Canola and hydrogenated soybean oils accelerate ectopic bone formation induced by implantation of bone morphogenetic protein in mice
In conclusion, Can and H2-Soy accelerated BMP-induced bone formation in mice to a greater extent than Soy. Further research is required to evaluate whether the difference in accelerated ectopic bone formation is associated with altered levels of VK2 and VK-dependent protein(s) among the three dietary groups. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

DNA damage induced by hydroquinone can be prevented by fungal detoxification
Publication date: Available online 4 November 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Pedro Pereira , Francisco J. Enguita , João Ferreira , Ana Lúcia Leitão Hydroquinone is a benzene metabolite with a wide range of industrial applications, which has potential for widespread human exposure; however, the toxicity of hydroquinone on human cells remains unclear. The aims of this study are to investigate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of hydroquinone in human primary fibroblasts and human colon cancer cells (HCT116). Low doses of hydroquinone (227-454μM) reduce the viability of fibroblasts and HC...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Prohexadione, a Plant Growth Regulator, Inhibits Histone Lysine Demethylases and Modulates Epigenetics
Conclusions Our results describe an important chemico-biological interaction of prohexadione, in light of critical roles played by histone lysine demethylases in human health and diseases. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine binding to melanin: some possible consequences for pathologies
This study primarily focused on quantifying melanin binding between chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine at physiological pH to investigate the potential link between binding and reported toxicity. In addition, for the first time this study quantified the actual extent of adsorption of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine to melanin and examined the desorption profile of both drugs from melanin to demonstrate the affinity between the pigment and the solutes. The results suggest that there is a difference between the adsorption affinities of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, potentially explaining the differences in...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Areca nut extracts exert different effects in oral cancer cells depending on serum concentration: a clue to the various oral alterations in betel quid chewers
Publication date: Available online 4 November 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Wen-Tsai Ji , Yao-Chi Chuang , Han-Po Chen , Ching-Chih Lee , Jeff Yi-Fu Chen , Sheng-Ru Yang , Jung-Hua Chen , Chun-Jen Wang , Hau-Ren Chen Betel quid chewing is associated with various pathologic alterations in oral mucosa. However, the molecular mechanism behind so many contradictory alterations remains unclear. Here we aimed to build a model to facilitate the related studies in cultured cells. In our results, areca nut extract (ANE) was found to exert different effects in oral cells depending on the supplemented serum level. ANE s...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Antioxidant effect of pomegranate against streptozotocin-nicotinamide generated oxidative stress induced diabetic rats
Publication date: Available online 4 November 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Anahita Aboonabi , Asmah Rahmat , Fauziah Othman Oxidative stress attributes a crucial role in chronic complication of diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine the most effective part of pomegranate on oxidative stress markers and antioxidant enzyme activities against streptozotocin-nicotinamide (STZ-NA)-induced diabetic rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups. Experimental diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection (i.p), 15min after the i.p administration of NA. Diabetic rats show...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Bioactivity of nanosilver in Caenorhabditis elegans: Effects of size, coat, and shape
Publication date: Available online 5 November 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Piper Reid Hunt , Zachary Keltner , Xiugong Gao , Steven J. Oldenburg , Priyanka Bushana , Nicholas Olejnik , Robert L. Sprando The in vivo toxicity to eukaryotes of nanosilver (AgNP) spheres and plates in two sizes each was assessed using the simple model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. For each shape, smaller AgNP size correlated with higher toxicity, as indicated by reduced larval growth. Smaller size also correlated with significant increases in silver uptake for silver nanospheres. Citrate coated silver spheres of 20nm diameter ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Dietary exposure to continuous small doses of α-cypermethrin in the presence or absence of dietary curcumin does not induce oxidative stress in male Wistar rats
In conclusion, dietary exposure to small doses of α-cypermethrin did not induce oxidative stress in rats and may be less toxic than exposure to comparable quantities administered as single high doses by gastric intubation. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Cytotoxic effects exerted by pentachlorophenol by targeting nodal pro-survival signalling pathways in human pancreatic cancer cells
We report here evidence that exposure of this type of cells to PCP induces caspase-mediated apoptosis, inhibition of the lysosome cysteine protease cathepsin B and mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Beside cellular inhibition of CK2, the analysis of signaling pathways de-regulated in pancreatic cancer cells revealed that PCP causes decreased phosphorylation levels of NF-κB/p65, suppresses its nuclear translocation and leads to activation of JNK-mediated stress response. Surprisingly, exposure to PCP results in increased phosphorylation levels of AKT at the canonical S473 and T308 activation sites supporting previ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research