Value of shared preclinical safety studies–the eTOX database
Publication date: Available online 18 December 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Katharine Briggs , Chris Barber , Montserrat Cases , Philippe Marc , Thomas Steger-Hartmann A first analysis of a database of shared preclinical safety data for 1214 small molecule drugs and drug candidates extracted from 3970 reports donated by thirteen pharmaceutical companies for the eTOX project (www.etoxproject.eu) is presented. Species, duration of exposure and administration route data were analysed to assess if large enough subsets of homogenous data are available for building in silico predictive models. Prevalence of treatm...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 19, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Sexual maturation and fertility of mice exposed to triphenyltin during prepubertal and pubertal periods
This study investigated the effects of pre- and peripubertal exposure (PND15-45) to triphenyltin hydroxide (TPT: 0, 1.875, 3.75, 7.5 and 15mg/kg bw/d po) on mouse sexual maturation and fertility. Half of the mice were euthanized on PND46 (males) or PND53 (females) and the remaining mice were submitted to fertility tests on PND 65-75. TPT caused a transient decrease of weight gain at 3.75mg/kg bw/d, and deaths and body weight deficits at higher doses. Delays of testes descent (TD), vaginal opening (VO) and first estrus (FE) occurred at doses ≥3.75 (TD) and ≥7.5mg/kg bw/d (VO, FE), respectively. Body weight on the days...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 19, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Campomanesia adamantium (Myrtaceae) Fruits Protect HEPG2 Cells Against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Toxicity
In conclusion, the results suggest that gabiroba fruits exert hepatoprotective effects on HepG2 cells against the CCl4-induced toxicity, probably, at least in part, associated with the presence of antioxidant compounds, especially flavonoids. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 18, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Effect of allyl isothiocyanate on developmental toxicity in exposed Xenopus laevis embryos
Publication date: Available online 17 December 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): John Russell Williams , James R. Rayburn , George R. Cline , Roger Sauterer , Mendel Friedman The pungent natural compound allyl isothiocyanate isolated from the seeds of Cruciferous (Brassica) plants such as mustard is reported to exhibit numerous beneficial health-promoting antimicrobial, antifungal, anticarcinogenic, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. Because it is also reported to damage DNA and is toxic to aquatic organisms, the objective of the present study was to determine whether it possesses teratogenic prope...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 18, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Oral Repeated-Dose Systemic and Reproductive Toxicity of 6:2 Fluorotelomer Alcohol in Mice
Publication date: Available online 15 December 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Pushkor Mukerji , Jessica Caverly Rae , Robert C. Buck , John C. O’Connor 6:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (6:2 FTOH) was evaluated for potential systemic repeated-dose and reproductive toxicity in mice. 6:2 FTOH was administered by oral gavage to CD-1 mice as a suspension in 0.5% aqueous methylcellulose with 0.1% Tween-80 at dosages of 1, 5, 25, or 100mg/kg/day. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for systemic toxicity was 25mg/kg/day (males) and 5mg/kg/day (females), based on effects at higher doses on mortality, clinical o...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 16, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Mast cells infiltration and decreased E-cadherin expression in ketamine-induced cystitis
Conclusions: Increased mast cells in bladder wall and downregulated expression of E-cadherin junction protein in epithelial cells were probably associated with interstitial inflammation and fissures in mucosa. It implied that ketamine induced an interstitial cystitis. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 9, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

A survey of poison center knowledge and utilization among urban and rural residents of arizona
Conclusions Based on a small survey, race and language spoken at home were variables identified as being associated with decreased awareness of poison centers. Focusing on these specific groups may assist in efforts to increase PCC penetrance, particularly among urban communities. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 9, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Phenolic excipients of insulin formulations induce cell death, pro-inflammatory signaling and MCP-1 release
Publication date: Available online 6 December 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Claudia Weber , Daniel Kammerer , Bettina Streit , Alexander H. Licht Skin reactions at the infusion site are a common side effect of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy. We hypothesized that local skin complications are caused by components of commercial insulin formulations that contain phenol or m-cresol as excipients. The toxic potential of insulin solutions and the mechanisms leading to skin reactions were explored in cultured cells. The toxicity of insulin formulations (Apidra, Humalog, NovoRapid, Insuman), excipien...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Effects of crude kerosene on testosterone levels, aggression and toxicity in rat
Publication date: Available online 1 December 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Rachel W. Njoroge , Geoffrey K. Maiyoh , Benson N. Macharia , Dinah J. Sawe The use of crude kerosene as a dietary supplement in boarding schools has been a common practice in east Africa and other countries for many years, with the belief of it reducing the sex drive (libido) at the pubertal stage. There is however no scientific basis for this belief. The present study aimed at using a rat animal model to investigate the effects of crude kerosene on serum testosterone levels, aggression and its possible toxic effects. Fifteen male al...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 2, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Oxidative Stress and Cell Damage in a Model of Precancerous Lesions and Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Rats
This study was aimed to analyze oxidative stress and cell damage in a multistage model of liver carcinogenesis induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) in rats. Male Wistar rats weighing 145-150g were divided into three groups: control, precancerous lesions (PL) (which received 100mg DEN once a week every 6 weeks up to 28 weeks), and advanced HCC (50mg DEN once/twice per week up to 19 weeks). Lipid peroxidation (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and expression of transforming growth factor-1 beta (TGF)-1β, endothelial and inducible nitric oxide syntahese (eNOS, iNOS), NADPH quinone oxireductase (NQO)-1, nuc...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 29, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Safety assessment of Superba™ krill powder: subchronic toxicity study in rats
Publication date: Available online 28 November 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Kjetil Berge , Bruce Robertson , Lena Burri The safety of krill powder was assessed in a subchronic 13-week toxicity study where rats were fed krill powder or control diets. The krill powder inclusion in the test diet was 9.67% (w/w). There were no differences noted in body weight or food consumption in either gender. Differences in clinical chemistry values were noted in the krill powder-treated animals, but these findings were of no toxicological significance. A significant decrease in absolute heart weight, but not relative heart ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 29, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Reduction of tobacco smoke components yield in commercial cigarette brands by addition of husy, nay and al-mcm-41 to the cigarette rod
Publication date: Available online 28 November 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): A. Marcilla , A. Gómez-Siurana , D. Berenguer , I. Martínez-Castellanos , M.I. Beltrán The effect of two zeolites, HUSY, NaY and a mesoporous synthesized Al-MCM-41 material on the smoke composition of ten commercial cigarettes brands has been studied. Cigarettes were prepared by mixing the tobacco with the three powdered materials, and the smoke obtained under the ISO conditions was analysed. Up to 32 compounds were identified and quantified in the gas fraction and 80 in the total particulate matter (TPM) condens...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 29, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Characterization of placental cholinesterases and activity induction associated to environmental organophosphate exposure
Publication date: Available online 29 November 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): S. Sánchez , B. Vera , C. Montagna , G. Magnarelli Although non-innervated,the placenta contains both cholinesterases (ChEs 1 1 ChEscholinesterases ), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE 2 2 BChEbutyrylcholinesterase ) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE 3 3 AChEacetylcholinesterase ). These enzymes are well-known for their multiple molecular forms. In a first approach, we used recognized specific inhibitors, substrate preferences and non-denaturating gel electrophoresis in order to characterize the ChE 4 4 ChE cholinesterase profile o...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 29, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Biphasic cuirass ventilation is better than bag-valve mask ventilation for resuscitation following organophosphate poisoning
Conclusions The noninvasive, easy-to-operate Biphasic Cuirass Ventilation device was effective in reducing OP-induced mortality and might be advantageous in an organophosphate mass casualty event. This finding should be validated in further investigations. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 25, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Clozapine-induced cardiotoxicity in rats: Involvement of Tumour necrosis Factor alpha, NF-κβ and Caspase-3
This study aimed to investigate the possible mechanisms of clozapine-induced cardiotoxicity in a rat model. Young male Wistar rats were treated with clozapine (10, 15 and 25mg/kg/day, i.p.) for 21 days. Hemodynamic and echocardiographic studies were performed for assessment of cardiac functions. Heart sections were studied histopathologically and immunohistochemically. Serum and cardiac markers of cardiotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis were evaluated. Heart sections of CLZ-treated animals showed increased cardiac inflammation that correlated with the clozapine dose. Serum levels of CK-MB and LDH leve...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 21, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

A Peripherally Restricted P2Y12 Receptor Antagonist Altered Rat Tumor Incidences with No Human Relevance: Mode of Action Consistent with Dopamine Agonism
In conclusion Ticagrelor increased uterine tumors in the rat carcinogenesis study by a MOA consistent with reduced dopamine inhibition of prolactin, which is not a patient safety risk. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 21, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Antiepileptic Drug Poisoning: Three-Year Experience
Conclusion First generation antiepileptics are more toxic than SGAEs. In patients with serum carbamazepine level, particularly those over 30mg/L, serious disorders of consciousness, cardiovascular toxicity, and metabolic disorders may occur. In VPA intoxication, there is a positive correlation between the serum VPA levels and ammonia levels. On account of this finding, one should be more careful about hyperammonemic hepatic encephalopathy as the serum VPA level rises. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 20, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Genotoxicity profile of erinacine A-enriched Hericium erinaceus mycelium
In conclusion, the three standard battery of tests suggested that EAHE mycelium was devoid of mutagenicity and genotoxicity in the tested doses and experimental conditions. Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 16, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Genotoxicity of styrene oligomers extracted from polystyrene intended for use in contact with food
Publication date: Available online 15 November 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Makoto Nakai , Mifumi Tsubokura , Masaru Suzuki , Saori Fujishima , Yoichi Watanabe , Yu Hasegawa , Kazuhiro Oyama , Shozo Ogura Here we conducted in vitro genotoxicity tests to evaluate the genotoxicity of styrene oligomers extracted from polystyrene intended for use in contact with food. Styrene oligomers were extracted with acetone and the extract was subjected to the Ames test (OECD test guideline No. 471) and the in vitro chromosomal aberration test (OECD test guideline No. 473) under good laboratory practice conditions. The con...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 16, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Dietary curcumin post-treatment enhances the disappearance of B(a)P-derived DNA adducts in mouse liver and lungs
Publication date: Available online 14 November 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Gaurav Kumar , Pooja Tajpara , Amirali B. Bukhari , Asha G. Ramchandani , Abhijit De , Girish B. Maru To study the post-treatment effects of dietary curcumin on the levels of benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]-induced DNA adducts, mice were administered oil or B(a)P and randomized into 7 subgroups after 24h. One of the subgroups from both the oil and B(a)P groups was killed at 24h while the remaining 6 subgroups were shifted to powdered control or 0.05% curcumin diet and killed after 24, 72 and 120h (experiment 1), and 7, 14, and 28 days (experi...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 15, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Dietary administration of Nexrutine inhibits rat liver tumorigenesis and induces apoptotic cell death in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells
Publication date: Available online 13 November 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Shamshad Alam , Ravi S. Yadav , Anu Pal , Shakendra K. Purshottam , Bhushan P. Chaudhari Mukul Das , Kausar M. Ansari Epidemiological studies suggested that plant-based dietary supplements can reduce the risk of liver cancer. Nexrutine (NX), an herbal extract from Phellodendronamurense, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and anti-tumor activities. In the present study, we have shown the anti-tumor potential of NX against Solt-Farber model with elimination of PH, rat liver tumor induced by diethylnitrosoamine (DE...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 14, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Differences in cadmium transfer from tobacco to cigarette smoke, compared to arsenic or lead
Publication date: Available online 13 November 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): J.-J. Piadé , G. Jaccard , C. Dolka , M. Belushkin , S. Wajrock Arsenic, cadmium and lead levels in tobacco filler and cigarette smoke were determined in a 568-sample worldwide survey. Median tobacco levels for arsenic, cadmium and lead were 237, 769 and 397ng/g, respectively, comparable to those previously reported albeit somewhat lower for lead and cadmium. Median mainstream smoke yields for arsenic, cadmium and lead were <3.75, 18.2, and <12.8ng/cig under ISO, and <8.71, 75.1 and <45.7ng/cig unde...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 14, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Tolerability assessment of a lectin fraction from Tepary bean seeds (Phaseolus acutifolius) orally administered to rats
This study evaluated the resistance to digestion and complete blood count (CBC) after 24h of the orally administered 50mg/kg TBLF. The digestion resistance test showed lectins activity retention after 72h and the CBC study showed a high level of eosinophils, suggesting an allergic-like response. Tolerability was assayed after 6 weeks of treatment by dosing with an intragastric cannula every third day per week. It was observed a transient reduction in food intake and body weight in the first weeks, resulting in body weight gain reduction of 10% respect to the control group at the end of the study. Additionally, organs weigh...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 9, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Protective effects of hesperidin on oxidative stress, dyslipidaemia and histological changes in iron-induced hepatic and renal toxicity in rats
This study demonstrated the protective role of hesperidin in reducing toxic effects of iron in experimental rats. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 8, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxicity Prediction from Toxicogenomic Data Based on Class Association Rule Mining
In this study, we applied the Classification Based on Association (CBA) algorithm, one of the Class Association Rule mining techniques, to the TG-GATEs database, where both toxicogenomic and toxicological data of more than 150 compounds in rat and human are stored. We compared the generated classifiers between CBA and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and showed that CBA is superior to LDA in terms of both predictive performances (accuracy: 83% for CBA vs. 75% for LDA, sensitivity: 82% for CBA vs. 72% for LDA, specificity: 85% for CBA vs. 75% for LDA) and interpretability. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 8, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

In vitro Toxicity Assessment of Chitosan Oligosaccharide Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles
Publication date: Available online 7 November 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Sudeep Shukla , Alka Jadaun , Vikas Arora , Raj Kumar Sinha , Neha Biyani , V.K. Jain Iron oxide nanoparticles (INPs) have potential biological, biomedical and environmental applications. These applications require surface modification of the iron oxide nanoparticles, which makes it non-toxic, biocompatible, stable and non-agglomerative in natural and biological surroundings. In the present study, iron oxide nanoparticles (INPs) and chitosan oligosaccharide coated iron oxide nanoparticles (CSO-INPs) were synthesized to evaluate the ef...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 8, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Disposition and kinetics of tetrabromobisphenol A in female Wistar Han rats
Publication date: 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports, Volume 1 Author(s): Gabriel A. Knudsen , J. Michael Sanders , Abdella M. Sadik , Linda S. Birnbaum Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is the brominated flame retardant with the largest production volume worldwide. NTP 2-year bioassays found TBBPA dose-dependent increases in uterine tumors in female Wistar Han rats; evidence of reproductive tissues carcinogenicity was equivocal in male rats. To explain this apparent sex-dependence, the disposition and toxicokinetic profile of TBBPA were investigated using female Wistar Han rats, as no data were available for female rats. In the...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Extended release potassium salts overdose and endoscopic removal of a pharmacobezoar: A case report
Conclusions We consider that endoscopy could be an effective and safe method to remove a drug bezoar from the stomach in uncomplicated patients. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Hypolipidemic action of chrysin on Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia in female C57BL/6 mice
The objective of this study was to investigate the hypolipidemic properties of chrysin on Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia in female C57BL/6 mice. Triton WR-1339 was administered intraperitoneally (400mg/kg) to overnight-fasted mice to develop acute hyperlipidemia. Chrysin was administered orally (10mg/kg) 30min before Triton WR-1339. At 24h after Triton WR-1339 injection, blood samples were collected to measure plasma lipid levels. The hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), carbonyl content, non-protein sulfhydryl (NPSH) and ascorbic acid (AA) levels, as well as catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismuta...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

In vitro anticancer drug test: A new method emerges from the model of glioma stem cells
Publication date: 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports, Volume 1 Author(s): Gabriele Riva , Simona Baronchelli , Laura Paoletta , Valentina Butta , Ida Biunno , Marialuisa Lavitrano , Leda Dalprà , Angela Bentivegna Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a grade IV astrocytoma and the most common malignant brain tumor. Current therapies provide a median survival of 12–15 months after diagnosis, due to the high recurrence rate. The failure of current therapies may be due to the presence, within the tumor, of cells characterized by enhanced self-renewal capacity, multilineage differentiation potential and elevated invasiv...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Can TiC nanoparticles produce toxicity in oral administration to rats?
Conclusion No sign of toxicity was found after oral administration. TiC was excreted mostly in feces producing mineral absorption alterations. Low traces were retrieved in urine, indicating that TiC can cross the intestinal barrier. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Assessment of an in vitro model of pulmonary barrier to study the translocation of nanoparticles
Publication date: 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports, Volume 1 Author(s): Samir Dekali , Christelle Gamez , Thierry Kortulewski , Kelly Blazy , Patrice Rat , Ghislaine Lacroix As the lung is one of the main routes of exposure to manufactured nanoparticles, we developed an in vitro model resembling the alveolo-capillary barrier for the study of nanoparticle translocation. In order to provide a relevant and ethical in vitro model, cost effective and easy-to-implement human cell lines were used. Pulmonary epithelial cells (Calu-3 cell line) and macrophages (THP-1 differentiated cells) were cultivated on the apical side and pulm...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The combined effects of physicochemical properties of size-fractionated ambient particulate matter on in vitro toxicity in human A549 lung epithelial cells
Publication date: 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports, Volume 1 Author(s): Umme S. Akhtar , Neeraj Rastogi , Robert D. McWhinney , Bruce Urch , Chung-Wai Chow , Greg J. Evans , Jeremy A. Scott Epidemiological and toxicological studies have suggested that the health effects associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM) are related to the different physicochemical properties of PM. These effects occur through the initiation of differential cellular responses including: the induction of antioxidant defenses, proinflammatory responses, and ultimately cell death. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The nanotoxicity investigation of optical nanoparticles to cultured cells in vitro
Publication date: 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports, Volume 1 Author(s): Qinghui Zeng , Dan Shao , Wenyu Ji , Jing Li , Li Chen , Jie Song Optical nanoparticles (NPs) have the potential to provide new tools for diagnosis and treatment of human diseases, however, their nanotoxicity and biological characteristics are still unclear. Here, we prepared a series of typical NPs (including gold nanospheres, gold nanorods, silver nanopheres, silver triangular nanoplates and quantum dots) with different material and surface chemical modification for nanotoxicity test. Cell proliferation was investigated by SRB assay where the NPs wer...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Comparison between the mainstream smoke of eleven RYO tobacco brands and the reference tobacco 3R4F
In this study 11 commercial roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco brands sold in Spain and the reference tobacco 3R4F have been smoked and several components of the mainstream tobacco smoke have been analyzed. Cigarettes were prepared using commercial tubes, and were smoked under smoking conditions based on the ISO 3308. The gaseous and condensed fractions of the smoke from RYO brands and 3R4F have been analyzed and compared. RYO tobaccos, as opposed to 3R4F, present lower amounts of condensed products in the traps than in the filters. In general, RYO tobaccos also provide lower yields of most of the compounds detected in the gas fr...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Nickel nanowires induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by generation of reactive oxygen species in HeLa cells
Publication date: 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports, Volume 1 Author(s): ChangGuo Ma , MengMeng Song , Ye Zhang , ManQing Yan , Min Zhang , Hong Bi Nickel nanowires (Ni NWs) have great potential to be used as a living cell manipulation tool and developed into an anticancer agent. However, their candidacy as biomedical appliances need detailed human cell studies, such as study of the interaction between Ni NWs and tumor cells. The present study investigated the cytotoxicity of Ni NWs in HeLa cells. A dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth was observed by using the MTT assay. We demonstrated that Ni NWs induced oxidative st...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Behavioral side effects of prophylactic therapies against soman-induced seizures and lethality in rats
Publication date: 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports, Volume 1 Author(s): Trond Myhrer , Siri Enger , Pål Aas Four medical therapies previously shown to exert varying degrees of protection against a convulsant dose of soman were assessed for potential behavioral side effects in a novelty test. In Experiment 1, HI-6 (1-[([4-(aminocarbonyl)pyridino] methoxy)methyl]-2-[(hydroxyimino)methyl]pyridinium) (125mg/kg), scopolamine (1mg/kg), physostigmine (0.1mg/kg), levetiracetam (50mg/kg), and procyclidine (20mg/kg) were tested separately. In Experiment 2, the combination of HI-6, scopolamine, and physostigmine (termed the phy...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Studies on the potential protective effect of cinnamon against bisphenol A- and octylphenol-induced oxidative stress in male albino rats
In conclusion, CAE could ameliorate the oxidative toxic effects of BPA and OP indicating its protective antioxidant effect. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Pathology review of proliferative lesions of the exocrine pancreas in two chronic feeding studies in rats with ammonium perfluorooctanoate
Publication date: 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports, Volume 1 Author(s): Jessica M. Caverly Rae , Steven R. Frame , Gerald L. Kennedy , John L. Butenhoff , Shu-Ching Chang Two chronic dietary studies, conducted years apart, with ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO) in Sprague Dawley rats have been previously reported. Although both included male 300ppm dietary dose groups, only the later study, conducted in 1990–1992 by Biegel et al., reported an increase in proliferative lesions (hyperplasia and adenoma) of the acinar pancreas. An assessment of the significance of the differences between both studies requires careful c...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

In vivo and in vitro toxicity of nanogold conjugated snake venom protein toxin GNP-NKCT1
Publication date: 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports, Volume 1 Author(s): Partha Pratim Saha , Tanmoy Bhowmik , Anjan Kumar Dasgupta , Antony Gomes Research on nanoparticles has created interest among the biomedical scientists. Nanoparticle conjugation aims to target drug delivery, increase drug efficacy and imaging for better diagnosis. Toxicity profile of the nanoconjugated molecules has not been studied well. In this communication, the toxicity profile of snake venom cytotoxin (NKCT1), an antileukemic protein toxin, was evaluated after its conjugation with gold nanoparticle (GNP-NKCT1). Gold nanoparticle conjugation with ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

A novel aromatic mutagen, 5-amino-6-hydroxy-8H-benzo[6,7]azepino[5,4,3-de]quinolin-7-one (ABAQ), induces colonic preneoplastic lesions in mice
Publication date: 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports, Volume 1 Author(s): Takahiro Kochi , Masahito Shimizu , Yukari Totsuka , Yohei Shirakami , Takayuki Nakanishi , Tetsushi Watanabe , Takuji Tanaka , Hitoshi Nakagama , Keiji Wakabayashi , Hisataka Moriwaki The benzoazepinoqunolinone derivative, 5-amino-6-hydroxy-8H-benzo[6,7]azepino[5,4,3-de]quinolin-7-one (ABAQ), which is produced in a mixture of glucose and tryptophan incubated at 37°C under physiological conditions in the presence or absence of hydroxyl radicals caused by the Fenton reaction, is a novel aromatic mutagen. In the current study, we determined the tumor...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Which exposure stage (gestation or lactation) is more vulnerable to atrazine toxicity? Studies on mouse dams and their pups
Publication date: 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports, Volume 1 Author(s): Sameeh A. Mansour , Doha A. Mohamed , Jean F. Sutra Either during gestation or lactation, the experimental mouse dams received one of the following treatments: (a) diet free of pesticide; (b) diet enriched with atrazine (ATZ); 31.0μgkg−1; (c) diet free of pesticide+oral vitamin E (α-tocopherol; 200mgkg−1 per mouse); and (d) diet enriched with ATZ (31.0μgkg−1)+oral vitamin E (200mgkg−1 per mouse). At the weaning, pups and dams were killed and selected organs and blood samples were collected for analyses. Compared with...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Evaluation for the anti-urolithiatic activity of Launaea procumbens against ethylene glycol-induced renal calculi in rats
Conclusion These results indicate that methanolic extracts of L. procumbens leaves are effective against the urolithiasis. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Concentration- and time-dependent genotoxicity profiles of isoprene monoepoxides and diepoxide, and the cross-linking potential of isoprene diepoxide in cells
Publication date: 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports, Volume 1 Author(s): Yan Li , Avishay Pelah , Jing An , Ying-Xin Yu , Xin-Yu Zhang Isoprene, a possible carcinogen, is a petrochemical and a natural product being primarily produced by plants. It is biotransformed to 2-ethenyl-2-methyloxirane (IP-1,2-O) and 2-(1-methylethenyl)oxirane (IP-3,4-O), both of which can be further metabolized to 2-methyl-2,2′-bioxirane (MBO). MBO is mutagenic, but IP-1,2-O and IP-3,4-O are not. While IP-1,2-O has been reported being genotoxic, the genotoxicity of IP-3,4-O and MBO, and the cross-linking potential of MBO have not been examine...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Experimental intraperitoneal injection of alcohol in rats: Peritoneal findings and histopathology
Conclusion An intraperitoneal injection of alcohol in rats caused peritoneal inflammation or fibrosis during the first 2 weeks. However, these peritoneal abnormalities were short-lived and had completely disappeared after 3 weeks. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Epigallocatechin gallate supplementation protects against renal injury induced by fluoride intoxication in rats: Role of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling
Publication date: 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports, Volume 1 Author(s): S. Thangapandiyan , S. Miltonprabu Fluoride intoxication generates free radicals, causing oxidative stress that plays a critical role in the progression of nephropathy. In the present study, we hypothesized that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), found in green tea, protects the kidneys of rats treated with fluoride by preventing oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. Pretreatment of fluoride-treated rats with EGCG resulted in a significant normalization of creatinine clearance and levels of urea, uric acid, and creatinine. Fluoride intoxication ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Dietary feeding of flavokawain A, a Kava chalcone, exhibits a satisfactory safety profile and its association with enhancement of phase II enzymes in mice
In this study, male FVB/N mice were fed with an AIN-76A diet or AIN-76A diet supplemented with 0.6% (6g/kg food) FKA or 0.6% commercial kava root extract (KRE) for three weeks. Dietary feeding of FKA did not affect food consumption and body weight. Histopathological examination of liver, kidney, colon, lung, heart, spleen, and thymus revealed no signs of FKA-induced toxicity. Biochemical serum analysis and histological examination confirmed normal organ function in FKA-treated mice. The cytotoxicity profile showed FKA had minimal side effects on bone marrow and small intestinal epithelial cells compared with Adriamycin. In...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Announcing the launching of Toxicology Reports
Publication date: 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports, Volume 1 Author(s): Lawrence H. Lash (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Effect of Nɛ-carboxymethyllysine on oxidative stress and the glutathione system in beta cells
Publication date: Available online 27 June 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Daniëlle M.P.H.J. Boesten , Atlanta G.I.M. Elie , Marie-José Drittij-Reijnders , Gertjan J.M. den Hartog , Aalt Bast One of the pathways involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications is the formation of excessive levels of advanced glycation end (AGE) products. Nɛ-carboxymethyllysine (CML) is one of the best-characterized AGEs. Because little is known about the effects of AGEs on pancreatic beta cells, we investigated the effect of CML on human pancreatic cells and determined the activity and gene expression of glut...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

In vitro analysis of the phytotoxic and genotoxic potential of Aligarh wastewater and Mathura refinery wastewater
Publication date: Available online 27 June 2014 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Naveed Ahmad Fazili , Masood Ahmad Present report deals with the phytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Mathura refinery waste water and Aligarh waste water of Northern India. The IC50 value in A.cepa root growth inhibition test was recorded to be 0.14X and 0.10X for Mathura refinery and Aligarh industrial waste waters respectively. Significant decline in the survival of various E.coli K12 DNA repair defective mutants was observed when the tester strains were exposed to the aforementioned samples. The order of sensitivity was invariably as: A...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research