Interaction of p-benzoquinone with hemoglobin in smoker ’s blood causes alteration of structure and loss of oxygen binding capacity
Publication date: 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports, Volume 3 Author(s): Arunava Ghosh, Santanu Banerjee, Amrita Mitra, Monita Muralidharan, Bappaditya Roy, Rajat Banerjee, Amit Kumar Mandal, Indu B. Chatterjee Cigarette smoke (CS) is an important source of morbidity and early mortality worldwide. Besides causing various life-threatening diseases, CS is also known to cause hypoxia. Chronic hypoxia would induce early aging and premature death. Continuation of smoking during pregnancy is a known risk for the unborn child. Although carbon monoxide (CO) is considered to be a cause of hypoxia, the effect of other compone...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 18, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Metallothionein ’s role in PCB126 induced hepatotoxicity and hepatic micronutrient disruption
Publication date: 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports, Volume 3 Author(s): W.D Klaren, S. Flor, K.N. Gibson-Corley, G. Ludewig, L.W. Robertson Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), industrial chemicals and persistent environmental pollutants, are found in rural and urban settings. Rodent studies have shown that exposure to PCB126, a dioxin-like PCB, causes a significant disruption of hepatic micronutrient homeostasis and an increase in metallothionein (MT), an antioxidant protein and metal carrier. A MT knockout mouse strain was used to assess metallothionein’s role in micronutrient disruption and overall hepatotoxicit...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 18, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Effect of Hecogenin on DNA instability
Publication date: Available online 16 June 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Marina Sampaio Cruz, Sarah Cabral Barroso, Julio Alejandro Navoni, Maria Madalena Rocha Silva Teles, José Maria Barbosa-Filho, Hugo Alexandre de Oliveira Rocha, Viviane Souza do Amaral Hecogenin is a sapogenin found in Agave species in high quantities and is responsible for the many therapeutic effects of these medicinal plants. In addition, this compound is also widely used in the pharmaceutical industry as a precursor for the synthesis of steroidal hormones and anti-inflammatory drugs. Despite Hecogenin being widely used,...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 16, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Food safety risk assessment for estimating dietary intake of sulfites in the Taiwanese population
This study used a list of 128 food items representing 83% of the total daily diet. Among the 128 food items, 59 items may contain sulfites. Samples of the 59 food items were collected and subjected to chemical analysis to determine the sulfur dioxide concentration. Health risk was assessed by calculating the ratio of exposure level to the acceptable daily intake (ADI) level of the analyte. For high-intake consumers, the HI of sulfites was 19.7% ADI for males over the age of three years at the 95th percentile; whereas for females over the age of 66, the HI was 17.8% ADI. The HI for high-intake consumers was above 10% ADI. T...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 11, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Downregulation of nicotinic and muscarinic receptor function in rats after subchronic exposure to diazinon
Publication date: Available online 7 June 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Saša R. Ivanović, Blagoje Dimitrijević, Vitomir Ćupić, Milanka Jezdimirović, Sunčica Borozan, Mila Savić, Djordje Savić Diazinon (DZN) is an organophosphate insecticide which exerts its effect through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE). In this work, we studied the development of tolerance to subchronic p.o. administration of DZN in rats, under both in vivo and in vitro conditions. A group of 20 rats (2 groups, n=10) was administered p.o. the 1/10 of established LD50 DZN (namely 55.87mg/kg bw) for 2...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 8, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Chemical and biological studies of β-carotene after exposure to Cannabis sativa smoke
Publication date: Available online 3 June 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Dulciana S. do Monte, Jonh A. Bezerra Tenório, Isla V.G.A. Bastos, Fábio de S. Mendonça, Joaquim E. Neto, Teresinha G. da Silva, Clécio S. Ramos Considering the increase in consumption of Cannabis sativa and the use of the compound β-carotene (BC) as supplement, we investigated potential changes in the chemical and biological proprieties of BC after exposure to C. sativa smoke (CSS). Our results showed that the BC exposed to CSS underwent 98.8% degradation and suffered loss of its antiradical activi...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 4, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Safety assessment of McB-E60 (extract of a Momordica sp): Subchronic toxicity study in rats
The objective of the present study was to investigate potential adverse effects, if any, of McB-E60 (extract of a Momordica sp.) in rats following subchronic administration. Sprague-Dawley rats (10/sex/group) were administered via oral gavage 0 (control), 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg body weight (bw)/day of McB-E60 for 90 days. Additional 28-day recovery groups were maintained at control and high dose levels. No mortality or significant and adverse changes in clinical signs, neurological signs, body weights gain or feed intake were noted. No toxicologically significant changes in hematology, clinical chemistry, urinalysis and or...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 25, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Categorization of nano-structured titanium dioxide according to physicochemical characteristics and pulmonary toxicity
Publication date: Available online 20 May 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Naoki Hashizume, Yutaka Oshima, Makoto Nakai, Toshio Kobayashi, Takeshi Sasaki, Kenji Kawaguchi, Kazumasa Honda, Masashi Gamo, Kazuhiro Yamamoto, Yasuhiro Tsubokura, Shozo Ajimi, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Nobuya Imatanaka A potentially useful means of predicting the pulmonary risk posed by new forms of nano-structured titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) is to use the associations between the physicochemical properties and pulmonary toxicity of characterized forms of TiO2. In the present study, we conducted intratracheal administration studie...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 21, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxicological Evaluation of a Novel Umami Flavour Compound: 2-(((3-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)thio)methyl)pyridine
Publication date: Available online 18 May 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Donald S. Karanewsky, Amy J. Arthur, Hanghui Liu, Bert Chi, Lily Ida, Stacy Markison A toxicological evaluation of a umami flavour compound, 2-(((3-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)thio)methyl)pyridine (S3643; CAS 902136-79-2), was completed for the purpose of assessing its safety for use in food and beverage applications. S3643 undergoes extensive oxidative metabolism in vitro with rat microsomes producing the S3643-sulfoxide and 4′-hydroxy-S3643 as the major metabolites. In incubations with human microsomes, the O...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 19, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

14-Day Toxicity Studies of Tetravalent and Pentavalent Vanadium Compounds in Harlan Sprague Dawley Rats and B6C3F1/N Mice via Drinking Water Exposure
Conclusions Based on clinical observations and overt toxicity, sodium metavanadate appears to be more toxic than vanadyl sulfate. Differential toxicity cannot be explained by differences in total vanadium intake, based on water consumption, and may be due to differences in disposition or mechanism of toxicity. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 12, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Acute toxicity of herbicide (glyphosate) in Clarias gariepinus Juveniles
Publication date: Available online 6 May 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Ali Sani, Muhammad Khadija Idris The constant discharge of agricultural waste into aquatic environment has led to accumulation of heavy chemicals and other variety of pollutants. Herbicides present in these wastes are washed down, carried by rains and flood to nearby aquatic environment. Glyphosate is one of the most popular herbicides used by farmers in Kano because of its active reaction on killing weeds without affecting the crops. A toxicity test of Glyphosate was conducted using concentrations of 0, 0.004, 0.005, 0.006, 0.007ml/L. T...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 7, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Evaluation of toxicity of biorational insecticides against larvae of the alfalfa weevil
Publication date: Available online 5 May 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Gadi V.P. Reddy, Frank B. Antwi, Govinda Shrestha, Takashi Kuriwada The alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a major pest of alfalfa Medicago sativa L. (Fabaceae). While H. postica usually causes the most damage before the first cutting, in summer of 2015 damaging levels of the pest persisted in Montana well after the first harvest of alfalfa. Although conventional insecticides can control H. postica, these chemicals have adverse effects on non-target organisms including pollinators and natural enemy insects. ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 6, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

GLP-1 receptor agonist exenatide restores atypical antipsychotic clozapine treatment-associated glucose dysregulation and damage of pancreatic islet beta cells in mice
Conclusion Our results provide preclinical evidence of a pharmaceutical role of GLP-1RA in managing glucose dysregulation in schizophrenic patients under long-term atypical antipsychotic treatments. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 28, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Concentrations and exposure risks of some metals in facial cosmetics in nigeria
Publication date: Available online 23 April 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Chukwujindu M.A. Iwegbue, Francisca I. Bassey, Grace Obi, Godswill O. Tesi, Bice S. Martincigh The concentrations of nine metals (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) were determined in lip sticks, lip glosses, lip balms, eye pencils, eyeliners, eye shadows, blushes, mascaras and face powders. The study was aimed at providing information on the risk associated with human exposure to metals in these facial cosmetic products. The concentrations of metals in the samples were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry after digestion...
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 24, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Ceramide-1-phosphate protection of cochlear hair cells against cisplatin ototoxicity
Conclusion The present findings confirmed the protective effects of C1P in the cisplatin ototoxicity. The balance between ceramide and C1P may play a critical role in the determination of hair cell fate in cisplatin ototoxicity. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 15, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Effect of Taurine on Chronic and Acute Liver Injury: Focus on Blood and Brain Ammonia
Publication date: Available online 13 April 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Reza Heidari, Akram Jamshidzadeh, Hossein Niknahad, Elnaz Mardani, Mohammad Mehdi Ommati, Negar Azarpira, Forouzan Khodaei, Azita Zarei, Maryam Ayarzadeh, Somayeh Mousavi, Narges Abdoli, Babak Shirazi Yeganeh, Arastoo Saeedi, Asma Najibi Hyperammonemia is associated with chronic and acute liver injury. There is no promising therapeutic agent against ammonia-induced complications. Hence, finding therapeutic molecules with safe profile of administration has clinical value. The present study was conducted to evaluate the role...
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 14, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Safety assessment of a standardized polyphenolic extract of clove buds: subchronic toxicity and mutagenicity studies
Publication date: Available online 8 April 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Liju Vijayasteltar, Gopakumar G., Balu Maliakel, Ramadasan Kuttan, Krishnakumar I.M. Despite the various reports on the toxicity of clove oil and its major component eugenol, systematic evaluations on the safety of polyphenolic extracts of clove buds have not been reported. Considering the health beneficial pharmacological effects and recent use of clove polyphenols as dietary supplements, the present study investigated the safety of a standardized polyphenolic extract of clove buds (Clovinol), as assessed by oral acute (5g/kg b.wt....
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 9, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Arsenic inhibits stem cell differentiation by altering the interplay between the Wnt3a and Notch signaling pathways
This study investigated whether arsenic disrupted the Wnt3a signaling pathway, critical in the formation of myotubes and neurons, during the differentiation in P19 mouse embryonic stem cells. Cells were exposed to 0, 0.1, or 0.5μM arsenite, with or without exogenous Wnt3a, for up to 9 days of differentiation. Arsenic exposure alone inhibits the differentiation of stem cells into neurons and skeletal myotubes, and reduces the expression of both β-catenin and GSK3β mRNA to ∼55% of control levels. Co-culture of the arsenic-exposed cells with exogenous Wnt3a rescues the morphological phenotype, but does not al...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 24, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Does amikacin treatment cause subclinical hearing loss in patients with cystic fibrosis?
Conclusion Repetitive exposure to AGs can cause permanent, although mild, sensorineural hearing loss. For prevention, hearing status of the patient should be closely monitored and treatment of choice should be precisely tailored according to the audiological evaluation. This is especially important in patients with CF who frequently experience medical conditions necessitating AGs use. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 23, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Anti-cancer activity of ZnO chips by sustained zinc ion release
We report anti-cancer activity of ZnO thin-film-coated chips by sustained release of zinc ions. ZnO chips were fabricated by precisely tuning ZnO thickness using atomic layer deposition, and their potential to release zinc ions relative to the number of deposition cycles was evaluated. ZnO chips exhibited selective cytotoxicity in human B lymphocyte Raji cells while having no effect on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Of importance, the half-maximal inhibitory concentration of the ZnO chip on the viability of Raji cells was 121.5 cycles, which was comparable to 65.7nM of daunorubicin, an anti-cancer drug for leuke...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 20, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Transcriptomics Analysis and Hormonal Changes of Male and Female Neonatal Rats Treated Chronically with a Low Dose of Acrylamide in their Drinking Water
Publication date: Available online 19 March 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Reyna Cristina Collí-Dulá, Marvin A. Friedman, Benjamin Hansen, Nancy D. Denslow Acrylamide is known to produce follicular cell tumors of the thyroid in rats. RccHan Wistar rats were exposed in utero to a carcinogenic dose of acrylamide (3 mg/Kg bw/day) from gestation day 6 to delivery and then through their drinking water to postnatal day 35. In order to identify potential mechanisms of carcinogenesis in the thyroid glands, we used a transcriptomics approach. Thyroid glands were collected from male pups at 10 PM and f...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 20, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Sulfur mustard-stimulated proteases and their inhibitors in a cultured normal human epidermal keratinocytes model: A potential approach for anti-vesicant drug development
In this study, we observed that SM stimulates several proteases and the epidermal-dermal attachment protein laminin-5 is one of the substrates. We propose that following SM exposure of the skin, laminin-5 degradation causes the detachment of the epidermis from the dermis and, therefore, vesication. We utilized gelatin zymography, Western blotting, immuno-fluorescence staining, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses to study the SM-stimulated proteases and laminin-5 degradation in NHEK. Two major protease bands (64kDa and 72kDa) were observed by zymography in SM-exposed cells. Addition of serine protease ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 15, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Severe anaphylactic reaction to mediterranean jellyfish (Ropilhema nomadica) envenomation: Case report
We present a 15-year-old female patient with an anaphylactic reaction to a jellyfish sting, sustained while surfing in the Mediterranean Sea. She experienced immediate difficulty in breathing, hoarseness and itching and was taken by ambulance to the emergency department, receiving intramuscular adrenaline on the way. She presented with periorbital swelling and facial edema and improved with systemic steroids and antihistamines. She was discharged 2 days later with allergy service follow up at our institution. This is the first case report documenting anaphylaxis due to Mediterranean jellyfish envenomation. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 15, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Cytotoxic effects of nickel nanowires in human fibroblasts
Publication date: Available online 9 March 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Laura P. Felix, Jose E. Perez, Maria F. Contreras, Timothy Ravasi, Jürgen Kosel The increasing interest in the use of magnetic nanostructures for biomedical applications necessitates rigorous studies to be carried out in order to determine their potential toxicity. This work attempts to elucidate the cytotoxic effects of nickel nanowires (NWs) in human fibroblasts WI-38 by a colorimetric assay (MTT) under two different parameters: NW concentration and exposure time. This was complemented with TEM and confocal images to assess t...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 11, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Evaluation of sesamol-induced histopathological, biochemical, haematological and genomic alteration after acute oral toxicity in female C57BL/6 mice
In conclusions, the present study has classified sesamol toxicity and assessed organ-wise acute oral toxicity of sesamol in female C57BL/6 mice. Therefore, these findings may be useful for the selection of dosages for further pre-clinical evaluation and potential drug developmental of sesamol. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 11, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Genetic and rat toxicity studies of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
Conclusion The genotoxicity assays and repeated dose toxicity study support the safe use of CGTase in production of alpha-glycosyl isoquercitrin. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 9, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Apocynin reduced doxycycline-induced acute liver injury in ovariectomized mice
Publication date: Available online 5 March 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Satoru Mitazaki, Midori Hashimoto, Yui Matsuhashi, Shigeyoshi Honma, Miwako Suto, Naho Kato, Kouichi Hiraiwa, Makoto Yoshida, Sumiko Abe To determine the physiological role of estrogen in the development of liver injury, we examined the sensitivities of sham and ovariectomy (ovx) mice against doxycycline (DOXY) −induced acute liver injury. Ovx or sham operation was performed in C57BL/6J wild-type female mice of eight weeks of age. Sham mice and ovx mice were treated with DOXY (240mg/kg ip) 8 weeks after the operation, 30mi...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 6, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Repeated dose studies with pure Epigallocatechin-3-gallate demonstrated dose and route dependant hepatotoxicity with associated dyslipidemia
This study has been carried out to estimate the maximum tolerated non-toxic dose of pure EGCG and to identify the treatment related risk factors. In a fourteen day consecutive treatment, two different administration modalities were compared, offering an improved [i.p (intraperitoneal)] and limited [p.o (oral)] bioavailability. A trend of dose and route dependent hepatotoxicity was observed particularly with i.p treatment and EGCG increased serum lipid profile in parallel to hepatotoxicity. Fourteen day tolerable dose of EGCG was established as 21.1mg/kg for i.p and 67.8mg/kg for p.o. We also observed that, EGCG induced eff...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 6, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Assessment of heavy metals contamination and human health risk in shrimp collected from different farms and rivers at Khulna-Satkhira region, Bangladesh
This study is aimed to assess the heavy metals contamination and health risk in Shrimp (Macrobrachium rosenbergii and Penaeus monodon) collected from Khulna-Satkhira region in Bangladesh. The results showed that the Pb concentrations (0.52–1.16mg/kg) in all shrimp samples of farms were higher than the recommended limit. The Cd levels (0.05–0.13mg/kg) in all samples and Cr levels in all farms except tissue content at Satkhira farm were higher than the permissible limits. The individual concentration of Pb, Cd, and Cr between shrimp tissue and shell in all rivers and farms were not statistically significant (P&am...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 6, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxicological evaluation of two novel bitter modifying flavour compounds: 3-(1-((3,5-dimethylisoxazol-4-yl)methyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-1-(3-hydroxybenzyl)imidazolidine-2,4-dione and 3-(1-((3,5-dimethylisoxazol-4-yl)methyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-1-(3-hydroxybenzyl)-5,5-dimethylimidazolidine-2,4-dione
Publication date: Available online 28 February 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Donald S. Karanewsky, Amy J. Arthur, Hanghui Liu, Bert Chi, Lily Ida, Stacy Markison A toxicological evaluation of two novel bitter modifying flavour compounds, 3-(1-((3,5-dimethylisoxazol-4-yl)methyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-1-(3-hydroxybenzyl)imidazolidine-2,4-dione (S6821, CAS 1119831-25-2) and 3-(1-((3,5-dimethylisoxazol-4-yl)methyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-1-(3-hydroxybenzyl)-5,5-dimethylimidazolidine-2,4-dione (S7958, CAS 1217341-48-4), were completed for the purpose of assessing their safety for use in food and beverage applications. ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 29, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Exposure of the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) to sediments contaminated with heavy metals down-regulates the gene expression of stress biomarkers
Publication date: Available online 26 February 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Said Benhamed, Francisco A. Guardiola, Salvadora Martínez, María J.M. Sánchez, Carmen P. Sirvent, Mohammed Mars, María A. Esteban Heavy metals incidence in the aquatic environment and its accumulation in fish are under constant review. Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) specimens were exposed for two weeks to sediments highly concentrated in metals, collected at the Portman Bay (Murcia, Spain). The metals bioaccumulation was tested in liver, muscle and skin. The potential of the sediment exposure to ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 27, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Antioxidant protection of gallic acid against toxicity induced by Pb in blood, liver and kidney of rats
In conclusion, GA decreased Pb-induced oxidative damages not by decreasing Pb bioaccumulation, but by improving antioxidant defenses, thus GA may be promising in the treatment of Pb intoxications. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 24, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Hepato- and neuro-protective effects of watermelon juice on acute ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rats
Publication date: 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports, Volume 3 Author(s): Omolola R. Oyenihi, Blessing A. Afolabi, Ayodeji B. Oyenihi, Olusegun J. Ogunmokun, Oluwafemi O. Oguntibeju Chronic and acute alcohol exposure has been extensively reported to cause oxidative stress in hepatic and extra-hepatic tissues. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is known to possess various beneficial properties including; antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-diabetic, anti-ulcerogenic effects. However, there is a lack of pertinent information on its importance in acute alcohol-induced hepato- and neuro-toxicity. The present study e...
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 14, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Oral administration of Nigella sativa oil ameliorates the effect of cisplatin on membrane enzymes, carbohydrate metabolism and oxidative damage in rat liver
In conclusion, NSO appears to protect CP induced hepatotoxicity by improving energy metabolism and strengthening antioxidant defense mechanism. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 13, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Comment on “Hypercholesterolemia with consumption of PFOA-laced Western diets is dependent on strain and sex of mice” by Rebholz S.L. et al. Toxicology Reports 2016; 3: 46–54.
Publication date: Available online 11 February 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Hans M.G. Princen, Marianne G. Pouwer, Elsbet J. Pieterman A recent article in Toxicology Reports by [26] reported increased plasma cholesterol levels (primarily as HDL) in C57BL/6 (male and female) and BALB/c (male only) mice given high fat (Westernized) diet which also contained PFOA. The authors concluded that PFOA ingestion leads to hypercholesterolemia and they stated these data were “consistent with human observational findings”. There are several key factors which have not been considered in their study and we o...
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 11, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Interaction of p-benzoquinone with hemoglobin in smoker’s blood causes alteration of structure and loss of oxygen binding capacity
Publication date: Available online 9 February 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Arunava Ghosh, Santanu Banerjee, Amrita Mitra, Monita Muralidharan, Bappaditya Roy, Rajat Banerjee, Amit Kumar Mandal, Indu B. Chatterjee Cigarette smoke (CS) is an important source of morbidity and early mortality worldwide. Besides causing various life-threatening diseases, CS is also known to cause hypoxia. Chronic hypoxia would induce early aging and premature death. Continuation of smoking during pregnancy is a known risk for the unborn child. Although carbon monoxide (CO) is considered to be a cause of hypoxia, the effec...
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 10, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Inhibitory effect of Camellia sinensis, Ilex paraguariensis and Ardisia compressa tea extracts on the proliferation of human head and neck squamous carcinoma cells
Publication date: Available online 1 February 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Marco Vinicio Ramirez-Mares, Hideka Kobayashi, Elvira Gonzalez de Mejia In vitro cell proliferation, cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis were investigated, using three human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines (OSCC-3, SCC-61, and SQ-20B). Aqueous extracts of Camellia sinensis, Ilex paraguariensis, and Ardisia compressa were tested and (−) epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) was used for comparison. For EGCG the IC50 values were between 80 and 166μM and for the extracts among 75 and 505μM eq....
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 2, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Altered global gene expression profiles in human gastrointestinal epithelial Caco2 cells exposed to nanosilver
Publication date: Available online 22 January 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Saura C. Sahu Extensive consumer exposure to food- and cosmetics-related consumer products containing nanosilver is of public safety concern. Therefore, there is a need for suitable in vitro models and sensitive predictive rapid screening methods to assess their toxicity. Toxicogenomic profile showing subtle changes in gene expressions following nanosilver exposure is a sensitive toxicological endpoint for this purpose. We evaluated the Caco2 cells and global gene expression profiles as tools for predictive rapid toxicity screening o...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 23, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

ABC Gene-Ranking for Prediction of Drug-Induced Cholestasis in Rats
Publication date: Available online 18 January 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Yauheniya Cherkas, Michael K. McMillian, Dhammika Amaratunga, Nandini Raghavan, Jennifer C. Sasaki As legacy toxicogenomics databases have become available, improved data mining approaches are now key to extracting and visualizing subtle relationships between toxicants and gene expression. In the present study, a novel “aggregating bundles of clusters” (ABC) procedure was applied to separate cholestatic from non-cholestatic drugs and model toxicants in the Johnson & Johnson (Janssen) rat liver toxicogenomics d...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 20, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The possible role of intravenous lipid emulsion in the treatment of chemical warfare agent poisoning
Publication date: Available online 18 January 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Arik Eisenkraft, Avshalom Falk Organophosphates (OPs) are cholinesterase inhibitors that lead to a characteristic toxidrome of hypersecretion, miosis, dyspnea, respiratory insufficiency, convulsions and, without proper and early antidotal treatment, death. Most of these compounds are highly lipophilic. Sulfur mustard is a toxic lipophilic alkylating agent, exerting its damage through alkylation of cellular macromolecules (e.g., DNA, proteins) and intense activation of pro-inflammatory pathways. Currently approved antidotes against O...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 20, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Prevalence of aflatoxin and fumonisins (b1+b2) in maize consumed in rural malawi
Publication date: Available online 18 January 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Daniel S. Mwalwayo, Bernard Thole A study was carried out to assess levels of contamination of aflatoxins and fumonisins (B1 +B2) in maize produced, stored and consumed in rural households in Malawi. A total of 9 districts were selected across the country representing 3 districts from each of the Northern, Central and Southern regions respectively. Households were selected at random in each district where 10 maize samples were collected for laboratory analysis. Aflatoxins and fumonisins were analyzed using a single step lateral flow...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 20, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxicity determinants of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: the relationship between functionalization and agglomeration
Publication date: Available online 19 January 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Manfredi Allegri, Dimitrios K. Perivoliotis, Massimiliano G. Bianchi, Martina Chiu, Alessandra Pagliaro, Malamatenia A. Koklioti, Aikaterini-Flora A. Trompeta, Enrico Bergamaschi, Ovidio Bussolati, Constantinos A. Charitidis The elucidation of toxicity determinants of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) is still incomplete. Functionalization with carboxyl groups is, however, commonly used to mitigate MWCNT toxicity, although the rationale for the mitigating effect has not been fully clarified yet. In this work, two optimi...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 20, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Cyanotoxins at low doses induce apoptosis and inflammatory effects in murine brain cells: potential implications for neurodegenerative diseases
This study investigated whether mammalian brain and immune cells can be a target of certain cyanotoxins, at doses approximating those in the guideline levels for drinking water, either alone or in mixtures. We examined the effects on cellular viability, apoptosis and inflammation signalling of several toxins on murine macrophage-like RAW264.7, microglial BV-2 and neuroblastoma N2a cell lines. We tested cylindrospermopsin (CYN), microcystin-LR (MC-LR), and anatoxin-a (ATX-a), individually as well as their mixture. In addition, we studied the neurotoxins β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) and its isomer 2,4-diaminobutyric...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 16, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Omega-3 and alpha-tocopherol provide more protection against contaminants in novel feeds for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) than omega-6 and gamma tocopherol
Publication date: Available online 14 January 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Liv Søfteland, Marc H.G. Berntssen, Jennifer A. Kirwan, Trond R. Størseth, Mark R. Viant, Bente E. Torstensen, Rune Waagbø, Pål A. Olsvik Extended use of plant ingredients in Atlantic salmon farming has increased the need for knowledge on the effects of new nutrients and contaminants in plant based feeds on fish health and nutrient-contaminant interactions. Primary Atlantic salmon hepatocytes were exposed to a mixture of PAHs and pesticides alone or in combination with the nutrients ARA, EPA, α...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 14, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Heat-induced alterations in cashew allergen solubility and IgE binding
Publication date: Available online 14 January 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Christopher P. Mattison, Yvette Bren-Mattison, Barry Vant-Hull, Aurora M. Vargas, Richard L. Wasserman, Casey C. Grimm Cashew nuts are an increasingly common cause food allergy. We compared the soluble protein profile of cashew nuts following heating. SDS-PAGE indicated that heating can alter the solubility of cashew nut proteins. The 11S legumin, Ana o 2, dominates the soluble protein content in ready to eat and mildly heated cashew nuts. However, we found that in dark-roasted cashew nuts, the soluble protein profile shifts and...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 14, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Occupational Exposure To Pesticides And Occurrence Of The Chromosomal Translocation t(14;18) Among Farmers In Jordan
Conclusion Our results indicate that pesticides increased the frequency of chromosomal translocation in the 14q32 region. Accordingly, the presented data agrees with previous suggestions from the literature that pesticides might be involved in the development of NHL through the t(14;18) pathway. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 13, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Assessment of PAHs levels in some fish and seafood from different coastal waters in the Niger Delta
Publication date: Available online 13 January 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): EO Nwaichi, SA Ntorgbo Levels of sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 30 edible tissues of selected frequently-consumed fish and seafood collected from three coastal waters of Niger Delta, namely, Sime, Kporghor and Iko were investigated in 2014. Gas chromatographic analysis were employed for PAHs determination. Observed mean PAHs levels in the samples ranged from below detection limit (BD) of analytical instrument to 22.400±0.050μgkg−1 wet wt. in L. littorea, BD to 87.400±0.030μgkg−1 we...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 13, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Dose- and time-dependent changes in tissue levels of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and its sulfate and glucuronide conjugates following repeated administration to female Wistar Han Rats
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dose and repeated administration of TBBPA on the level of TBBPA, TBBPA-glucuronide (GA) and TBBPA-sulfate (S) conjugates in plasma, liver and uterus of female Wistar Han rats administered TBBPA (50, 100, 250, 500 or 1000mg/kg) for 28 consecutive days. In accordance with this objective, TBBPA sulfation was used as a surrogate for evaluating the potential for estradiol sulfation to be limited at high dose levels of TBBPA. Blood samples were collected at 4 and 8hours post-dosing on study day 7, 14, and 28, while liver and uterus were collected at the same time points f...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 12, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Nrf2 activators as potential modulators of injury in human kidney cells
Publication date: Available online 12 January 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Amandla Atilano-Roque, Xia Wen, Lauren M. Aleksunes, Melanie S. Joy Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of solid tumors, with clinical use often complicated by kidney toxicity. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived-2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor involved in kidney protectant effects. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Nrf2 activators oltipraz, sulforaphane, and oleanolic acid could protect human kidney cells against cisplatin-induced injury and to compare the protective effects b...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 12, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Hepato and neuro-protective effects of watermelon juice on acute ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rats
Publication date: Available online 12 January 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Omolola R. Oyenihi, Blessing A. Afolabi, Olusegun J. Ogunmokun, Oluwafemi O. Oguntibeju, Ayodeji B. Oyenihi Chronic and acute alcohol exposure has been extensively reported to cause oxidative stress in hepatic and extra-hepatic tissues. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is known to possess various beneficial properties including; antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-diabetic, anti-ulcerogenic effects. However, there is a lack of pertinent information on its importance in acute alcohol-induced hepato- and neuro-toxicity. T...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 12, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research