The Effects of Silver Nanoparticles on Mouse Embryonic Stem Self-renewal and Proliferation
The objective of this project is to determine the effects of AgNPs with different surface chemical compositions on the self-renewal and cell cycle of mESCs. Two different surface chemical compositions of AgNPs, polysaccharide-coated and hydrocarbon-coated, were used to test their toxic effects on self-renewal and proliferation of mESCs. The results indicated that both polysaccharide-coated and hydrocarbon-coated AgNPs changed the cell morphology of mESCs. Cell cycle analysis indicated that AgNPs induced mESCs cell cycle arrest at G1 and S phases through inhibition of the hyperphosphorylation of Retinoblastoma (Rb) protein....
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 16, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Comparison of the neurotoxicities between volatile organic compounds and fragrant organic compounds on human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells and primary cultured rat neurons
Publication date: Available online 12 May 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Yasue Yamada , Kohei Ohtani , Akinori Imajo , Hanae Izu , Hitomi Nakamura , Kohei Shiraishi These are many volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are synthesized, produced from petroleum or derived from natural compounds, mostly plants. Fragrant and volatile organic compounds from plants have been used as food additives, medicines and aromatherapy. Several clinical and pathological studies have shown that chronic abuse of VOCs, mainly toluene, causes several neuropsychiatric disorders. Little is known about the mechanisms of neurotoxicity...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 13, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

In-vitro anti-cholinesterase activity of essential oil from four tropical medicinal plants
Publication date: Available online 12 May 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): I.A. Owokotomo , O. Ekundayo , T.G. Abayomi , A.V. Chukwuka The chemical inhibition of acetyl-cholinesterase (AChE) is a potent strategy for addressing signal related neuropathology and natural products are potential sources of compounds with such properties. Essential oil extracts from leaf, seed, stem and rhizome of four medicinal plants [Aframomum melegueta K. Schum, Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth S.More), Monodora myristica (Gaertn.), and Ocimum gratissimum (Linn)] were tested for acetyl-cholinesterase inhibitory activity (AChEI) ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 13, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Pb Detoxification in Equisetum diffusum
Publication date: Available online 12 May 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Deepak Pant , Virbala Sharma , Pooja Singh Current research highlights the use of aquatic macrophyte Equisetum diffusum (Himalayan horsetail) for lead detoxification. This plant species can grow in waste cathode ray tube (CRT) powder and absorbs its Pb. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) analysis of plant ash shows that 68mg/kg lead concentration in the untreated plant was improved to 7600mg/kg in CRT powder after 90 days. The Role of monosilicic and/or monoplumbic acid as reaction intermediates for Pb detoxification and associated bio...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 13, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Supplemental dietary phytosterin protects against 4-nitrophenol-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in rat testes
Publication date: Available online 11 May 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Yonghui Zhang , Meiyan Song , Xiaoli Rui , Shaoxia Pu , Yansen Li , ChunMei Li 4-Nitrophenol (PNP), is generally regarded as an environmental endocrine disruptor (EED). Phytosterin (PS), a new feed additive, possesses highly efficient antioxidant activities. The transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an important regulator of cellular oxidative stress. Using rats, this study examined PNP-induced testicular oxidative damage and PS-mediated protection against that damage. The generation of MDA and H2O2 up...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 12, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The teratogenic effects of imatinib mesylate on rat fetuses
Publication date: Available online 11 May 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): M.M. El Gendy , A.M. Kandil , M.A. Helal , F.M. Zahou Imatinib mesylate, a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is the first line treatment against chronic myelogenous leukemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of imatinib mesylate on the pregnant rats and their fetuses. Pregnant rats were divided into three groups; the first group was served as a control group. The second and third groups were orally administered imatinib at doses of 36mg/kg body weight or 54mg/kg b.wt on gest...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 12, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Property of cytochrome P450 1A inducibility by polychlorinated/brominated biphenyls (Co-PXBs) detected in Japanese breast milk
Publication date: Available online 11 May 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Hideki Kakutani , Osamu Aozasa , Ema Akiyama , Teruyuki Nakao , Souichi Ohta Coplanar polychlorinated/brominated biphenyls (Co-PXBs) belong to a class of structurally similar chemicals known as polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. We found that the milk of Japanese primiparous and multiparous mothers was similarly contaminated with Co-PXB congeners. Co-PXBs time- and dose-dependently increased ethoxyresorufin-O-deethoxylase (EROD activity) in HepG2 cells. The EROD activity of liver microsomes collected from C57BL/6 mice exposed to these...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 12, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of iron chelators
In this study, the antioxidant activity of the iron chelators: caffeic acid (CA), 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA), desferroxamine B (FOB) and benzohydroxamic acid (BHA) were determined using five different in vitro antioxidant assays. The antioxidant assays used were: iron binding ability, reducing ability using the potassium ferricyanide reduction method, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, H2O2 scavenging activity and OH scavenging activity. The standard used for the iron binding ability was Na2EDTA whereas vitamin C was used as a standard for the remaining assays. The iron chelators showed...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 12, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Chitosan nano particles and quercetin modulate gene expression and prevent the genotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 in rat liver
Publication date: Available online 12 May 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Mosaad A. Abdel-Wahhab , Abdulhadi Aljawish , Aziza A. El-Nekeety , Sekena H. Abdel-Aiezm , Heba A.M. Abdel-Kader , Bertrand H. Rihn , Olivier Joubert The aims of the current study were to prepare chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) and to evaluate its protective role alone or in combination with quercetin (Q) against AFB1-induce cytotoxicity in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 12 groups and treated orally for 4 weeks as follow: the control group, the group treated with AFB1 (80μg/kg b.w) in corn oil, the groups treated with ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 12, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Role of Garlic Extract and Silymarin Compared to Dimercaptosuccinic Acid (DMSA) in Treatment of Lead Induced Nephropathy in Adult Male Albino Rats
This study was conducted to compare the curative role of garlic combined with silymarin versus dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in decreasing lead induced nephrotoxicity in adult male albino rats. The period of lead intoxication extended for 3 months followed by either 1 month treatment with garlic and silymarin or 5 days treatment with DMSA. Lead poisoning caused non-significant difference in kidney function tests (BUN and serum creatinine) while, it caused significant elevation in kidney lead level, significant decrease in renal antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase and significant elevation in kidney malondialdehyde. ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 8, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Co-administration of Fresh Grape Fruit Juice (GFJ) and Bergamottin Prevented Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity after Paracetamol Overdose in Rats
In conclusion, GFJ and BGT prevented PAR-induced hepatotoxicity after PAR overdose in rats, and this calls for appropriate observation studies in humans. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 8, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxicological evaluations of Stigma maydis (corn silk) aqueous extract on haematological and lipid parameters in Wistar rats
Publication date: Available online 17 April 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Sabiu Saheed , Ajani E. Oladipipo , Abubakar A. Abdulazeez , Sulyman A. Olarewaju , Nurain O. Ismaila , Irondi A. Emmanuel , Quadri D. Fatima , Abubakar A. Yon Despite the acclaimed phytotherapeutic attributes of Stigma maydis in folkloric medicine, there is paucity of information on its toxicity profile on haematological and lipid parameters. The toxicological effect of aqueous extract of corn silk at 100, 200 and 400mg/kg body weight on haematological indices in Wistar rats were evaluated progressively at 24hrs after 1, 7, 14, 21 and ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 5, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Zn(II) released from zinc oxide nano/micro particles suppresses vasculogenesis in human endothelial colony-forming cells
Publication date: Available online 2 May 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Saeko Tada-Oikawa , Gaku Ichihara , Yuka Suzuki , Kiyora Izuoka , Wenting Wu , Yoshiji Yamada , Takashi Mishima , Sahoko Ichihara Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles have been widely used in industry, cosmetics, and biomedicine. Recent studies suggested that these nanoparticles could have a major impact on the cardiovascular system. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) contribute to postnatal endothelial repair and regeneration. The present study dissected the effects of ZnO nanoparticles on vasculogenesis using human endothelial colony forming ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 5, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Comparative Metal Oxide Nanoparticle Toxicity Using Embryonic Zebrafish
Publication date: Available online 2 May 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Leah C. Wehmas , Catherine Anders , Jordan Chess , Alex Punnoose , Cliff B. Pereira , Juliet A. Greenwood , Robert L. Tanguay Engineered metal oxide nanoparticles (MO NPs) are finding increasing utility in the medical field as anticancer agents. Before validation of in vivo anticancer efficacy can occur, a better understanding of whole-animal toxicity is required. We compared the toxicity of seven widely used semiconductor MO NPs made from zinc oxide (ZnO), titanium dioxide, cerium dioxide and tin dioxide prepared in pure water and in synt...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 5, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Hexavalent chromium induces apoptosis in Human Liver (HepG2) cells via redox imbalance
Publication date: Available online 8 April 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Joydeep Das , Abhijit Sarkar , Parames C. Sil Hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), is an environmental toxicant and is associated with hepatotoxicity. However, very little is known about the intracellular antioxidant defense mechanism against Cr(VI)-induced cytotoxicity in hepatocytes. In the present study, we cultured Human Liver (HepG2) cells in the absence or presence of Cr(VI) and determined its effect on cellular oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, apoptosis and the expression of the transcription factor Nrf2 and the Nrf2-dependent anti...
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 8, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Safety Assessment of the Microalgae Nannochloropsis Oculata
This study investigates the safety of N. oculata in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats administered a 0 or 10mL/kg bw/rat N. oculata (10E8 viable cells/mL) suspension by oral gavage once daily for 14 consecutive days. No mortalities occurred and no signs of toxicity were observed during the study. No treatment-related effects were seen for body weight, food consumption, urinalysis, clinical chemistry, hematology, gross pathology, organ weights, or histopathology. Although statistically significant effects were noted for some endpoints, none were considered to be of toxicological significance. The N. oculata suspension was...
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 8, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Mitochondrial toxicity of triclosan on mammalian cells
Publication date: Available online 7 April 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Charmaine Ajao , Maria A. Andersson , Vera V. Teplova , Szabolcs Nagy , Carl G. Gahmberg , Leif. C. Andersson , Maria Hautaniemi , Balazs Kakasi , Merja Roivainen , Mirja Salkinoja-Salonen Effects of triclosan (5-chloro-2′-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol) on mammalian cells were investigated using human peripheral blood mono nuclear cells (PBMC), keratinocytes (HaCaT), porcine spermatozoa and kidney tubular epithelial cells (PK-15), murine pancreatic islets (MIN-6) and neuroblastoma cells (MNA) as targets. We show that triclosan (1&nda...
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 7, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Konzo prevention in six villages in the DRC and the dependence of konzo prevalence on cyanide intake and malnutrition
Publication date: Available online 7 April 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): J.P. Banea , J. Howard Bradbury , C. Mandombi , D. Nahimana , Ian C. Denton , Matthew P. Foster , N. Kuwa , D. Tshala Katumbay Six villages in Boko Health Zone, Bandundu Province, DRC were studied with 4588 people,144 konzo cases and konzo prevalences of 2.0-5.2%. Konzo incidence is increasing rapidly in this area. Food consumption scores were obtained from the households with konzo and the mean % malnutrition calculated for each village. Urine samples were obtained from 50 school children from each village and % high urinary thiocyanate...
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 7, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Assessment of changes in energy metabolism parameters provoked by carbon tetrachloride in Wistar rats and the protective effect of white grape juice
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of organic and conventional grape juices consumption on the behavior of rats and their neuroprotective effect on the activity of brain energy metabolism enzymes in different brain areas of adult rats on the experimental model of hepatic encephalopathy. Male Wistar rats (90-days-old) were treated once a day with conventional or organic white grape juice by gavage for 14 days (7μL/g) On the 15th day the rats received carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in a single dose of 3.0mL/kg. Cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum were dissected to measure the activity of creatine ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 6, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Onset of the lymphocytic infiltration and hyperplasia preceding the proliferation in F1 mouse lungs from the N- ethyl- N-nitrosourea exposed mothers: Prevention during the lactation period by inositol hexaphosphate
Publication date: Available online 2 April 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Satya Sahay , Prakash Tiwari , Krishna P. Gupta Maternal exposure to a carcinogen is associated with increased risk of different cancers in the offspring. The foetus is highly sensitive to carcinogens and this contributes to the foetal basis of the onset of disease. The better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the early stage of lung tumorigenesis in the offspring is needed for the newer preventive strategies. We evaluated the effects of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) given on the 17th day of gestation and antitumor agen...
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 3, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Investigation of repeated dose (90 day) oral toxicity, reproductive/developmental toxicity and mutagenic potential of ‘calebin a’
In conclusion, 100mg/kg/day of Calebin A is not likely to produce any significant toxic effects in male and female Wistar rats and no reproductive or developmental toxicity was observed at the same dose and hence Calebin A at 100mg/kg was determined as “No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL)” under the test conditions. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 3, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Determination of Maximum Tolerated Dose and Toxicity of Inauhzin in Mice
Publication date: Available online 24 March 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Qi Zhang , Shelya X. Zeng , Hua Lu Reactivating the tumor suppressor p53 offers an attractive strategy for developing cancer therapy. We recently identified Inauhzin (INZ) as a novel non-genotoxic p53-activating compound. To develop INZ into a clinically applicable anticancer drug, we have initiated preclinical toxicity studies. Here, we report our study on determining the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of INZ analog, Inauhzin-C (INZ (C)), following intraperitoneal (i.p) administration (Phase A) and its toxicity following i.p administrati...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 25, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

MUCOADHESIVE FORMULATION OF Bidens pilosa L. (ASTERACEAE) REDUCES INTESTINAL INJURY FROM 5-FLUOROURACIL-INDUCED MUCOSITIS IN MICE
In this study, B. pilosa glycolic extract was formulated (BPF) with poloxamer, a mucoadhesive copolymer, was used for treatment of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced mucositis in mice. As expected, animals only treated with 5-FU (200mg/kg) presented marked weight loss, reduction of intestinal villi, crypts and muscular layer, which was associated with severe disruption of crypts, oedema, inflammatory infiltrate and vacuolization in the intestinal tissue, as compared to the control group and healthy animals only treated with BPF. On the other hand, the treatment of intestinal mucositis-bearing mice with BPF (75, 100 or 125mg/kg)...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 24, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Effects of chromic chloride on chick embryo fibroblast viability
The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of chromic chloride (CrCl3) on chick embryo fibroblast (CEF) viability. The cells were incubated with CrCl3 (0.02, 0.1, 0.5, 2.5, 12.5, and 62.5μM), and the viability was determined using MTT assay, morphological detection and flow cytometry. The results show that lower concentrations of CrCl3 (0.02, 0.1, and 0.5μM) did not damage CEF viability. At 0.1μM, CrCl3 can increase CEF viability (P<0.05). However, at higher concentrations of CrCl3 (2.5, 12.5, and 62.5μM), the number of apoptotic and necrotic cells (P<0.01) and intracellular reactive o...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 24, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Short-term changes in intracellular ROS localization after the silver nanoparticles exposure depending on particle size
Publication date: Available online 23 March 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Akira Onodera , Fumiko Nishiumi , Kisa Kakiguchi , Atsushi Tanaka , Nami Tanabe , Aki Honma , Katsutoshi Yayama , Yasuo Yoshioka , Kumiko Nakahira , Shigenobu Yonemura , Itaru Yanagihara , Yasuo Tsutsumi , Yuichi Kawai Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis. These effects are enhanced by smaller particles. Using live-cell imaging, we show that AgNPs induced ROS production rapidly in a size-dependent manner after exposure of cells to 70-nm and 1-nm AgNPs (AgNPs-70, AgNPs-1), but ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 24, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

CYP3A4 inhibition by Psoralea corylifolia and its major components in human recombinant enzyme, differentiated human hepatoma HuH-7 and HepaRG cells
In this study, CYP3A4 inhibition and hepatotoxicity of P. corylifolia and its major components were evaluated in human recombinant CYP3A4 enzyme, differentiated human hepatoma HuH-7 and HepaRG cells. LC/MS-TOF was used to identify the major components of P. corylifolia fruit methanol-water extract. P. corylifolia and its major bioactive components psoralen and isopsoralen were then incubated with human recombinant CYP3A4 (10min) or differentiated HuH-7 and HepaRG cells (24h) prior to CYP3A4 activity and cytotoxicity assays. P. corylifolia extract, psoralen, and isopsoralen concentration dependently inhibited CYP3A4 activit...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 24, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Ergot alkaloids: from witchcraft till in silico analysis. Multi-receptor analysis of ergotamine metabolites
This study was thus aimed at assessing whether the in silico modeling can be an effective tool to investigate the interaction between multiple serotonin receptors and a wide set of ergotamine metabolites, including experimentally detected molecules and predicted derivatives. Validated models provided precious insights about the effects exerted by metabolic modifications on the receptor-ligand interaction. Such structural information may be useful to support the design of further experimental analysis. Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 24, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Further development of mathematical description for combined toxicity: A case study of lead–fluoride combination
Publication date: 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports, Volume 2 Author(s): Vladimir G. Panov , Boris A. Katsnelson , Anatoly N. Varaksin , Larisa I. Privalova , Ekaterina P. Kireyeva , Marina P. Sutunkova , Irene E. Valamina , Olga Yu. Beresneva In this article, we check and develop further some postulates of the theory and mathematical modeling of combined toxic effect that we proposed earlier [1]. To this end, we have analyzed the results of an experiment on rats exposed during 6 weeks to repeated intraperitoneal injections of lead acetate, sodium fluoride or both. The development of intoxication was estimated quantitativel...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 19, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Value of shared preclinical safety studies – The eTOX database
Publication date: 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports, Volume 2 Author(s): Katharine Briggs , Chris Barber , Montserrat Cases , Philippe Marc , Thomas Steger-Hartmann A first analysis of a database of shared preclinical safety data for 1214 small molecule drugs and drug candidates extracted from 3970 reports donated by thirteen pharmaceutical companies for the eTOX project (www.etoxproject.eu) is presented. Species, duration of exposure and administration route data were analysed to assess if large enough subsets of homogenous data are available for building in silico predictive models. Prevalence of treatment related effects...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 17, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Isolation and Characterization of Gallic Acid and Methyl Gallate from the Seed Coats of Givotia rottleriformis Griff. and their Anti-Proliferative Effect on Human Epidermoid Carcinoma A431 Cells
In this study we have isolated and chemically characterized the bioactive compounds GA and MG from the bioassay guided methanolic (MeOH) seed coat extracts of G. rottleriformis. The fractions obtained from open silica column chromatography were subjected to in vitro enzymatic assays. Among seven fractions we found that only fraction 5 and 6 showed significant inhibition activity towards COX-1 with an IC50 value of 28μg/mL and 9.3μg/mL and COX-2 with an IC50 value of 35/mL and 7.0μg/mL respectively. However, we could not find 5-LOX enzyme inhibition activity. MG (10mg/g DW) and GA (6mg/g DW) were the major compound...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 14, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Effect of Nigella sativa Linn oil on tramadol-induced hepato- and nephrotoxicity in adult male albino rats
In conclusion, this study suggested that concomitant use of NsL oil with tramadol proved to be capable of ameliorating tramadol-induced hepato- and nephrotoxicity which might be due to its antioxidant potential. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 14, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Prolongation of Chemically-Induced Methemoglobinemia in Mice Lacking α-synuclein: A Novel Pharmacologic and Toxicologic Phenotype
Publication date: Available online 12 March 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Yien-Ming Kuo , Robert L. Nussbaum The protein α-synuclein is considered central to the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD) on genetic and histopathological grounds. It is widely expressed in fetal life and continues to be highly expressed in adult neural tissues, red blood cells and platelets, while the remainder of adult tissues are reported to have little or no expression. Despite cellular and molecular evidence for a role in neuronal function including synaptic vesicle trafficking, neurotransmitter release, mitochondrial fu...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 12, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Exposure to bisphenol A, but not phthalates, increases spontaneous diabetes type 1 development in NOD mice
In conclusion, exposure to BPA, but not to phthalates or mixed exposure to BPA and phthalates, accelerated diabetes development in NOD mice, apparently in part via systemic immune alterations including decreased macrophage function. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 1, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Reduced kidney levels of lysophosphatidic acids in rats after chronic administration of aristolochic acid: Its possible protective role in renal fibrosis
In this study, we analyzed the molecular species of LPA and its precursor lysophospholipids in kidney tissue from rats exposed to AA. Daily intraperitoneal injections of AA for 35 days to rats gave rise to fibrosis in kidney, decreased the kidney levels of LPA, lysophosphatidylserine and lysophosphatidylinositol. In rat renal cell lines (NRK52E and NRK49F), AA-induced cytotoxicity was potentiated by Ki16425, LPA1, 3 receptor antagonist. The level of mRNA encording α-smooth muscle actin was significantly increased by AA-treatment only in NRK52E cells, while the mRNA level of collagen III was decreased in both NRK52E a...
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 28, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Comparative study of the cytotoxic and genotoxic potentials of zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles
Publication date: Available online 19 February 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Maryam Khan , Alim Husain Naqvi , Masood Ahmad Nanoparticles (NPs) of zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) are receiving increasing attention due to their widespread applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effect of ZnO and TiO2 NPs at different concentrations (50, 100, 250 and 500ppm) and compare them with their respective salts using a battery of cytotoxicity, and genotoxicity parameters. To evaluate cytotoxicity, we have used human erythrocytes and for genotoxic studies human lymphocytes have been use...
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 19, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Sub-chronic exposure to fipronil induced oxidative stress, biochemical and histotopathological changes in the liver and kidney of male albino rats
Publication date: Available online 19 February 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Abdel-Tawab H. Mossa , Eman S. Swelam , Samia M.M. Mohafrash Fipronil (FPN) is a broad-spectrum N-phenylpyrazole insecticide and has been used in agriculture and public health since the mid-1990s. The present study was designed to investigate the adverse effects of sub-chronic exposure to the FPN on the liver and kidney of male rats at three concentrations 0.1, 1 and 10mg/L in drinking water for 45 days. Serum aspartate aminotransferases (AST), alanine aminotransferases (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LD...
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 19, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

In vitro modulatory effects of Terminalia arjuna, arjunic acid, arjunetin and arjungenin on CYP3A4, CYP2D6 and CYP2C9 enzyme activity in human liver microsomes
Publication date: Available online 17 February 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Alice Varghese , Jay Savai , Nancy Pandita , Ram Gaud Terminalia arjuna is a tree having an extensive medicinal potential in cardiovascular disorders. Triterpenoids are mainly responsible for cardiovascular properties. Alcoholic & aqueous bark extracts of Terminalia arjuna, arjunic acid, arjunetin & arjungenin were evaluated for their potential to inhibit CYP3A4, CYP2D6 and CYP2C9 enzymes in human liver microsomes. We have demonstrated that alcoholic & aqueous bark extract of T. arjuna showed potent inhibition...
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 18, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Differential effect of estradiol and bisphenol A on Set8 and Sirt1 expression in prostate cancer
This study demonstrates that the effects of estrogen and BPA on HME expression varies and that the presence of both the estrogen receptor and androgen receptor may be important for therapeutic intervention. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 18, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Free radicals quenching potential, protective properties against oxidative mediated ion toxicity and HPLC phenolic profile of a Cameroonian spice: Piper guinneensis
In conclusion, P. guineense extracts demonstrated significant antioxidant property and may be used as a prospective protector against metal related toxicity. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 18, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Determination of some Soft Drink Constituents and Contamination by some Heavy Metals in Nigeria
This study evaluated some constituents of twenty six soft drinks in Nigeria and investigated the presence of some heavy metal contaminants. The soft drinks were screened for the presence of sugar, carbon dioxide, phosphate and alcohol as well as the pH and acidity determined. The level of cadmium, mercury and lead were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The study showed the presence of sugar, carbon dioxide, phosphate, and alcohol in the soft drinks. The soft drinks were acidic in nature, pH ranging from 3 to 5 with a mean of 3.6 and the acid concentration was relatively low between 3 to 12g/L with a mea...
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 14, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Serum perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentrations in normal and hyperlipidemic female hamsters dosed orally with ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO) for up to 30 days
In this study, female hamsters, which transport and regulate cholesterol in a manner similar to humans, were fed normal diet or diet supplemented with 0.05% cholesterol and 10% coconut oil (high-fat diet) resulting in hyperlipidemia throughout the study in supplemented animals. Hamsters on either a normal and high-fat diet were given oral doses of 0.1, 1.0, or 10mg APFO/kg for 30 days. Serum PFOA concentrations evaluated 24hours after 1, 10, 20, and 30 doses of APFO were not altered in hyperlipidemic hamsters compared to those fed normal diet. For a given dose group, serum concentrations of PFOA were highest following the ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 14, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Microcystin uptake and biochemical responses in the freshwater clam Corbicula leana P. exposed to toxic and non-toxic Microcystis aeruginosa: evidence of tolerance to cyanotoxins
Publication date: Available online 7 February 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Thanh-Luu Pham , Kazuya Shimizu , Thanh-Son Dao , Lan-Chi Hong-Do , Motoo Utsumi We investigated the accumulation and adverse effects of toxic and non-toxic Microcystis in the edible clam Corbicula leana. Treated clams were exposed to toxic Microcystis at 100μg of MC (microcystin)-LReq L−1 for 10 days. The experimental organism was then placed in toxin-free water and fed on non-toxic Microcystis for the following 10 days for depuration. Filtering rates (FRs) by C. leana of toxic and non-toxic Microcystis and of the green alga...
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 14, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

One time nose-only inhalation of MWCNTs: Exploring the mechanism of toxicity by intermittent sacrifice in Wistar rats
Publication date: Available online 7 February 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Arul Prakash Francis , Selvam Ganapathy , Venkata Rajsekhar Palla , Prakhya Balakrishna Murthy , Thiyagarajan Devasena We have investigated the time-dependent effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in rats upon single inhalation exposure followed by intermittent sacrifice. The effects were monitored by analyzing the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and histopathological analysis. Cell count, neutrophils, lymphocytes, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, protein and cytokines (Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-&alph...
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 14, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Purinergic signaling mediates oxidative stress in UVA-exposed THP-1 cells
Publication date: Available online 7 February 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Ayumi Kawano , Akimitsu Hayakawa , Shuji Kojima , Mitsutoshi Tsukimoto , Hikaru Sakamoto Ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation, the major UV component of solar radiation, can penetrate easily to the dermis, where it causes significant damage to cellular components by inducing formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). On the other hand, extracellular ATP is released in response to various stimuli, and activates purinergic P2X7 receptor, triggering ROS production and cell death. Here, we examined the hypothesis that ATP release followed by ac...
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 14, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Biochemical changes associated with ascorbic acid-cisplatin combination therapeutic efficacy and protective effect on cisplatin-induced toxicity in tumor-bearing mice
This study examines the comparative therapeutic effectiveness and toxicities of cisplatin alone and in combination of dietary ascorbic acid (AA) in ascites Dalton's lymphoma-bearing mice. The findings show that the combination treatment of mice with ascorbic acid plus cisplatin has much better therapeutic efficacy against murine ascites Dalton's lymphoma (DL) in comparison to cisplatin alone and this may involve a decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase activity and increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) in Dalton's lymphoma tumor cells. At the same time, combination treatment indicates a protective role of ascorbic ac...
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 14, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Deficiency of macro- and micronutrients induced by Lentinula edodes
Publication date: Available online 8 February 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): D. Grotto , M. Gerenutti , V.C.O. Souza , F. Barbosa Jr Mushroom Lentinula edodes has been widely studied therapeutically. However, there is no data regarding its daily intake level safety. Since L edodes has many active compounds known to bind to metals, we evaluated macro and micronutrients in liver and kidney of healthy rats after subchronic exposure to L. edodes. Rats were divided into four groups, receiving water and L. edodes at 100, 400 and 800mg/kg/day. The treatment lasted 30 days. Essential elements (Zn, Cu, Mg, Fe, Mn, Se, ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 14, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Effects of Triglycerides Levels in Human Whole Blood on the Extraction of 19 Commonly Used Drugs using Liquid-liquid Extraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
In conclusion, TG levels in whole blood noticeably influence drug recovery to variable extents depending on the LLE solvent. Chlorobutane showed minimal influences from TG content in whole blood and thus is the recommended LLE solvent for forensic drug extraction. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 14, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Interaction of DNA-lesions induced by sodium fluoride and radiation and its influence in apoptotic induction in cancer cell lines
This study herein suggested that single exposure with extremely low concentration of NaF unable to induce DNA lesions whereas higher concentration induced DNA lesions interact with the radiation-induced DNA lesions. Both are probably repaired rapidly thus showed increased interactive effect. Coexposure to NaF and radiation induces more apoptosis in cancer cell lines which could be due to increased exchange aberrations through lesions interaction and downregulating anti-apoptotic genes. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 14, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Further development of mathematical description for combined toxicity (a case study of lead-fluoride combination)
Publication date: Available online 10 February 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Vladimir G. Panov , Boris A. Katsnelson , Anatoly N. Varaksin , Larisa I. Privalova , Ekaterina P. Kireyeva , Irene E. Valamina , Olga Yu. Beresneva In this article, we check and develop further some postulates of the theory and mathematical modeling of combined toxic effect that we proposed earlier [1]. To this end, we have analyzed the results of an experiment on rats exposed during 6 weeks to repeated intraperitoneal injections of lead acetate, sodium fluoride or both. The development of intoxication was estimated quantitatively w...
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 14, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Assessment of the genotoxic/clastogenic potential of coumarin derivative 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin (aesculetin) in multiple mice organs
Publication date: Available online 27 January 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Eduardo de Souza Marques , Daiane Bernardoni Salles , Edson Luis Maistro 6,7-Dihydroxycoumarin (6,7-HC) (aesculetin) is a natural and synthetic coumarin derivative with great interest for use by humans due to their potent antioxidant properties. Considering that there are no reports that assess the in vivo genetic toxicity of 6,7-HC, the aim of the present study was to investigate its genotoxic potential in terms of DNA damage in peripheral blood, liver, bone marrow and testicular cells of Swiss albino mice by the comet assay, and its...
Source: Toxicology Reports - January 29, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research