Fisetin Targets Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and Induces Apoptosis of Human B Lymphoma Raji Cells
Publication date: Available online 13 July 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Ji Yeon Lim , Joo Yun Lee , Byung Jin Byun , Seong Hwan Kim Aberrant regulation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases (PI3Ks) is known to be involved in the progression of cancers. PI3K-binding flavonoids such as quercetin and myricetin have been shown to inhibit PI3K activity, but the direct targeting of fisetin to PI3K has not been established. Here, we carried out an in silico investigation of fisetin binding to PI3K and determined fisetin's inhibitory activity in enzymatic and cell-based assays. In addition, fisetin induced apoptosis in ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 14, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Protective activity of gallic acid against glyoxal -induced renal fibrosis in experimental rats
This study was designed to evaluate the protective activity of gallic acid (GA) against glyoxal (GO) an advanced glycation intermediate-induced renal fibrosis in experimental rats. Glyoxal (i.p) at a dose of 15mg/Kg body weight/day for 4 weeks induces renal fibrosis. GA was administered orally (100mg/Kg body weight/day) along with GO for 4 weeks. The anti-fibrotic activity of GA was analyzed by measuring the collagen synthesis and deposition in renal tissues using mRNA expression analysis and Masson trichrome staining (MTS), respectively. The nephroprotective potential of GA was assessed by quantifying the markers of kidne...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Comparison of trapping profiles between d-peptides and glutathione in the identification of reactive metabolites
In conclusion, GSH still remains the gold trapping standard for reactive metabolites. However, targeted d-peptides could provide additional information about protein binding potential of electrophilic agents, but their clinical significance needs to be clarified using a wider spectrum of chemicals together with other safety estimates. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 10, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Protective effects of novel organic selenium compounds against oxidative stress in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans
Publication date: Available online 6 July 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Sílvio Terra Stefanello , Priscila Gubert , Bruna Puntel , Caren Rigon Mizdal , Marli Matiko Anraku de Campos , Syed M. Salman , Luciano Dornelles , Daiana Silva Avila , Michael Aschner , Félix Alexandre Antunes Soares (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 7, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Transplacental transfer of 2- naphthol in human placenta
Conclusion 2-NPH has the ability to rapidly across the placenta from the maternal to the fetal compartment within 15 minutes. The placenta seems to play a role in limiting the passage of 2-NPH in the fetal compartment (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 19, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Histomorphometric studies of the effects of telfairia occidentalis on alcohol-induced gonado-toxicity in male rats
Conclusion T. occidentalis attenuated the deleterious effects of alcohol to the cyto-architecture of the testis, protected the seminiferous epithelium, reduced oxidative stress and promoted spermatogenesis. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 19, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Paraquat exposure induces behavioral deficits in larval zebrafish during the window of dopamine neurogenesis
Publication date: Available online 16 June 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Jayshree Nellore , P. Nandita Exposure to environmental risk factors such as herbicides in early life has been proposed to play important roles in the development of neurodegenerative disorders in adult life. To test this hypothesis, we used a zebrafish model to link the herbicide paraquat (PQ) to disease etiology. Strikingly, treatment of 18 hpf embryonic zebrafish with low-dose PQ treatment (0.04ppm, lower than the accepted human daily exposure) resulted in 50% display of neurodegenerative phenotypes and motor deficits at various devel...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 17, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Determination of metal ion contents of two antiemetic clays use in Geophagy
Publication date: Available online 16 June 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Solomon E. Owumi , Adegboyega K. Oyelere Nausea is usually associated with early to late stages of pregnancy. Geophagy-deliberate consumption of soil- is a common method of managing gravidae-induced discomfort. To control nausea, pregnant women in Nigeria commonly eat baked clay called “Eko” and another type of clay that induces buccal constriction called “Omumu”. The metal contents in Eko and Omumu, digested under different pH conditions (acidic, alkaline and neutral), were investigated using Inductively Coupled ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 17, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Ascorbic acid attenuates antineoplastic drug 5-fluorouracil induced gastrointestinal toxicity in rats by modulating the expression of inflammatory mediators
Publication date: Available online 15 June 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Abdulrahman Khazim Al-Asmari , Abdul Quaiyoom Khan , Amal Mohammad Al-Qasim , Yara Al-Yousef Damage to the mucous membrane is a serious issue associated with chemotherapy. Gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity is complex and multistep process and unregulated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory mediators play vital role in the development of GI toxicity. In the present study we have investigated the attenuating potential of vitamin C (vit. C) on 5 fluorouracil (5-FU) induced GI toxicity by targeting oxidative stress and ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 16, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The acidic transformed nano-VO2 causes macrophage cell death by the induction of lysosomal membrane permeabilization and Ca2+ efflux
This report suggests that the interplay with environmental factors or living organisms can results in physicochemical transformation of nanomaterials and the ensuing distinctive biological effects. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 12, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

A single acute hepatotoxic dose of CCl4 causes oxidative stress in the rat brain
Publication date: Available online 11 June 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): K.R. Ritesh , A. Suganya , H.V. Dileepkumar , Y. Rajashekar , T. Shivanandappa Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), a hepatotoxic agent, is widely used to study the toxic mechanisms in experimental animals. We have investigated whether oxidative stress is induced in the brain at a single hepatotoxic dosage (1ml/kg bw) of CCl4. Increased lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein carbonyls (PC) content and glutathione (GSH) depletion was observed in the brain regions of rats treated with CCl4 which was higher than that of liver. A drastic reduction in the...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 12, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Cannabis Hyperemesis Syndrome ACase Report Review of Treatment
Conclusion : Our patient reported the vomiting episodes were associated with the regular usage of cannabis over 19 years. One theory on the effectiveness of hot showers states that it may correct the disequilibrium of the thermoregulatory system in the hypothalamus. Another theory suggests that the concept of peripheral vasodilation and redistribution of blood flow from the splanchnic circulation to peripheral musculature helps decrease vomiting. This research gap shows that further studying of cannabis and its effects are still needed. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 10, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Distribution of three non-essential trace metals (Cadmium, Mercury and Lead) in the organs of fish from Aiba Reservoir, Iwo, Nigeria
This study shows similarity (p > 0.05) in the distribution of Cd, Hg and Pb among fish species; and a non-uniform distribution of toxic trace metals within fish organs with Kidney > Liver > Gill ≥ Intestine ≥ Muscle. Canonical variate analysis shows clear discrimination of Clarias macromystax and Channa obscura for gill trace metal levels of Cd, Hg and Pb while Labeo senegalensis and Oreochromis niloticus were discriminated for liver trace metal values of Cd and Pb only when compared to other fish species studied. The discrimination of some fish species based on trace metals in the gills and live...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 8, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Quality evaluation of commercially sold table water samples in Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria and surrounding environments
Publication date: Available online 7 June 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): D.O. Okorie , C.O Eleazu , O.W. Akabuogu In Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria (MOUAU) and surrounding environments, table water of different brands is commercially hawked by vendors. To the best of our knowledge, there is no scientific documentation on the quality of these water samples. Hence this study which evaluated the quality of different brands of water samples commercially sold in MOUAU and surrounding environments. The physicochemical properties (pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), biochemical oxygen demand...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 8, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Health risk characterization for exposure to benzene in service stations and petroleum refineries environments using human adverse response data
Publication date: Available online 5 June 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Benjamin Edokpolo , Qiming Jimmy Yu , Des Connell Health risk characterization of exposure to benzene in service stations and petroleum refineries has been carried out in previous studies using guideline values set by various agencies. In this work, health risk was characterised with the exposure data as cumulative probability distribution (CPD) plots but using human epidemiological data. This was achieved by using lowest observable adverse effects levels (LOAEL) data plotted as cumulative probability lowest effects distribution (CPLED). ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 7, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Erectile Dysfunction Drugs and Oxidative Stress in the Liver of Male Rats
Publication date: Available online 6 June 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Salah Sheweita , Basant Salama , Mustafa Hassan Erectile dysfunction (ED) affected the lives of more than 300 million men worldwide. Erectile dysfunction drugs (EDD), known as phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDEIs), have been used for treatment of ED. It has been shown that oxidative stress plays an important role in the progression of erectile dysfunction. Oxidative stress can be alleviated or decreased by antioxidant enzymes. Therefore, the present study aims at investigating the changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as supe...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 7, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

1,4-benzoquinone-induced STAT-3 hypomethylation in AHH-1 cells: role of oxidative stress
The objectives of this study were to elucidate the regulatory mechanism of the hypomethylated STAT3 involved in benzene toxicity in vitro. As 1,4-benzoquinone (1,4-BQ) is one of benzene's major toxic metabolites, AHH-1 cells were treated by 1,4-BQ for 24hours with or without pretreatment of the antioxidant a–LA or the methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-Aza-2' deoxycytidine (5-aza). The cell viability was investigated using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. ROS was determined via 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) flow cytometric assays. The level of oxidative s...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 6, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Evaluation of zinc effect on cadmium action in lipid peroxidation and metallothionein levels in the brain
Publication date: Available online 5 June 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Marcos M. Braga , Tuiskon Dick , Diogo L. de Oliveira , Adriele Scopel-Guerra , Ben Hur M. Mussulini , Diogo O. de Souza , João Batista T. da Rocha Cadmium (Cd) is a known hepato- and nephrotoxic pollutant and zinc (Zn) metalloproteins are important targets of Cd. Hence, the administration of Zn may mitigate Cd toxic effects. However, the interaction of Cd and Zn has been little investigated in the brain. Previously, we reported a protective effect of Zn on mortality caused by Cd in rats. Here, we tested whether the protective effe...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 6, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Determination of some soft drink constituents and contamination by some heavy metals in Nigeria
This study evaluated some constituents of twenty-six soft drinks in Nigeria and investigated the presence of some heavy metal contaminants. The soft drinks were screened for the presence of sugar, carbon dioxide, phosphate and alcohol as well as the pH and acidity determined. The level of cadmium, mercury and lead were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The study showed the presence of sugar, carbon dioxide, phosphate, and alcohol in the soft drinks. The soft drinks were acidic in nature, pH ranging from 3 to 5 with a mean of 3.6 and the acid concentration was relatively low between 3 and 12g/L with a me...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 29, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Self-reported Lupus flare: Association with everyday home and personal product exposure
Conclusions Everyday product exposures can impact on symptom exacerbation in SLE. Some offering protection and others increased health risk. Identifying environmental associations offer the possibility of life-style interventions to reduce illness impact. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 29, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Effect of trivalent arsenicals on cell proliferation in mouse and human microvascular endothelial cells
In this study, human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC1) and mouse microvascular endothelial cells (MFP-MVEC) were exposed to arsenite (iAsIII), monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII), or dimethylarsinous acid (DMAIII) for 72h to evaluate cytotoxicity, and for 24, 48 or 72h to evaluate cell proliferation. Both cell lines showed similar LC50 values, from 0.1 to 2.4μM, for all three trivalent arsenicals. The endothelial cells treated with1nM to 1μM concentrations of the three trivalent arsenicals did not show increased cell proliferation at 24, 48 or 72h or increased rate of proliferation at 72h of exposure. Overall, cyt...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 21, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The use of urinary and kidney SILAM proteomics to monitor kidney response to high dose morpholino oligonucleotides in the mdx mouse
Publication date: Available online 19 May 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Aiping Zhang , Kitipong Uaesoontrachoon , Conner Shaughnessy , Jharna R. Das , Sree Rayavarapu , Kristy J. Brown , Patricio Ray , Kanneboyina Nagaraju , John N. van den Anker , Eric P. Hoffman , Yetrib Hathout Phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligonucleotides (PMO) are used as a promising exon-skipping gene therapy for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). One potential complication of high dose PMO therapy is its transient accumulation in the kidneys. Therefore new urinary biomarkers are needed to monitor this treatment. Here, we carried out a...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 19, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

“Occupational health hazards of trichloroethylene among workers in relation to altered mRNA expression of cell cycle regulating genes (p53, p21, bax and bcl-2) and PPARA”
Publication date: Available online 15 May 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Meenu Varshney , Abhijit Chandra , Rajeev Jain , Riaz Ahmad , Vipin Bihari , C. Keshava Chandran , Mohana K.R. Mudiam , Satykam Patnaik , S.K. Goel Trichloroethylene (TCE) is widely used as a metal degreaser in industrial processes. The present study reports on the effects of TCE exposure on workers employed in the lock industries. To ensure exposure of the workers to TCE, its toxic metabolites, trichloroacetic acid (TCA), dichloroacetic acid (DCA) and trichloroethanol (TCEOH) were detected in the plasma of the subjects through solid phas...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 16, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The Effects of Silver Nanoparticles on Mouse Embryonic Stem Self-renewal and Proliferation
The objective of this project is to determine the effects of AgNPs with different surface chemical compositions on the self-renewal and cell cycle of mESCs. Two different surface chemical compositions of AgNPs, polysaccharide-coated and hydrocarbon-coated, were used to test their toxic effects on self-renewal and proliferation of mESCs. The results indicated that both polysaccharide-coated and hydrocarbon-coated AgNPs changed the cell morphology of mESCs. Cell cycle analysis indicated that AgNPs induced mESCs cell cycle arrest at G1 and S phases through inhibition of the hyperphosphorylation of Retinoblastoma (Rb) protein....
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 16, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Comparison of the neurotoxicities between volatile organic compounds and fragrant organic compounds on human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells and primary cultured rat neurons
Publication date: Available online 12 May 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Yasue Yamada , Kohei Ohtani , Akinori Imajo , Hanae Izu , Hitomi Nakamura , Kohei Shiraishi These are many volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are synthesized, produced from petroleum or derived from natural compounds, mostly plants. Fragrant and volatile organic compounds from plants have been used as food additives, medicines and aromatherapy. Several clinical and pathological studies have shown that chronic abuse of VOCs, mainly toluene, causes several neuropsychiatric disorders. Little is known about the mechanisms of neurotoxicity...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 13, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

In-vitro anti-cholinesterase activity of essential oil from four tropical medicinal plants
Publication date: Available online 12 May 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): I.A. Owokotomo , O. Ekundayo , T.G. Abayomi , A.V. Chukwuka The chemical inhibition of acetyl-cholinesterase (AChE) is a potent strategy for addressing signal related neuropathology and natural products are potential sources of compounds with such properties. Essential oil extracts from leaf, seed, stem and rhizome of four medicinal plants [Aframomum melegueta K. Schum, Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth S.More), Monodora myristica (Gaertn.), and Ocimum gratissimum (Linn)] were tested for acetyl-cholinesterase inhibitory activity (AChEI) ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 13, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Pb Detoxification in Equisetum diffusum
Publication date: Available online 12 May 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Deepak Pant , Virbala Sharma , Pooja Singh Current research highlights the use of aquatic macrophyte Equisetum diffusum (Himalayan horsetail) for lead detoxification. This plant species can grow in waste cathode ray tube (CRT) powder and absorbs its Pb. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) analysis of plant ash shows that 68mg/kg lead concentration in the untreated plant was improved to 7600mg/kg in CRT powder after 90 days. The Role of monosilicic and/or monoplumbic acid as reaction intermediates for Pb detoxification and associated bio...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 13, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Supplemental dietary phytosterin protects against 4-nitrophenol-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in rat testes
Publication date: Available online 11 May 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Yonghui Zhang , Meiyan Song , Xiaoli Rui , Shaoxia Pu , Yansen Li , ChunMei Li 4-Nitrophenol (PNP), is generally regarded as an environmental endocrine disruptor (EED). Phytosterin (PS), a new feed additive, possesses highly efficient antioxidant activities. The transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an important regulator of cellular oxidative stress. Using rats, this study examined PNP-induced testicular oxidative damage and PS-mediated protection against that damage. The generation of MDA and H2O2 up...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 12, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The teratogenic effects of imatinib mesylate on rat fetuses
Publication date: Available online 11 May 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): M.M. El Gendy , A.M. Kandil , M.A. Helal , F.M. Zahou Imatinib mesylate, a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is the first line treatment against chronic myelogenous leukemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of imatinib mesylate on the pregnant rats and their fetuses. Pregnant rats were divided into three groups; the first group was served as a control group. The second and third groups were orally administered imatinib at doses of 36mg/kg body weight or 54mg/kg b.wt on gest...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 12, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Property of cytochrome P450 1A inducibility by polychlorinated/brominated biphenyls (Co-PXBs) detected in Japanese breast milk
Publication date: Available online 11 May 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Hideki Kakutani , Osamu Aozasa , Ema Akiyama , Teruyuki Nakao , Souichi Ohta Coplanar polychlorinated/brominated biphenyls (Co-PXBs) belong to a class of structurally similar chemicals known as polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. We found that the milk of Japanese primiparous and multiparous mothers was similarly contaminated with Co-PXB congeners. Co-PXBs time- and dose-dependently increased ethoxyresorufin-O-deethoxylase (EROD activity) in HepG2 cells. The EROD activity of liver microsomes collected from C57BL/6 mice exposed to these...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 12, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of iron chelators
In this study, the antioxidant activity of the iron chelators: caffeic acid (CA), 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA), desferroxamine B (FOB) and benzohydroxamic acid (BHA) were determined using five different in vitro antioxidant assays. The antioxidant assays used were: iron binding ability, reducing ability using the potassium ferricyanide reduction method, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, H2O2 scavenging activity and OH scavenging activity. The standard used for the iron binding ability was Na2EDTA whereas vitamin C was used as a standard for the remaining assays. The iron chelators showed...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 12, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Chitosan nano particles and quercetin modulate gene expression and prevent the genotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 in rat liver
Publication date: Available online 12 May 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Mosaad A. Abdel-Wahhab , Abdulhadi Aljawish , Aziza A. El-Nekeety , Sekena H. Abdel-Aiezm , Heba A.M. Abdel-Kader , Bertrand H. Rihn , Olivier Joubert The aims of the current study were to prepare chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) and to evaluate its protective role alone or in combination with quercetin (Q) against AFB1-induce cytotoxicity in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 12 groups and treated orally for 4 weeks as follow: the control group, the group treated with AFB1 (80μg/kg b.w) in corn oil, the groups treated with ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 12, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Role of Garlic Extract and Silymarin Compared to Dimercaptosuccinic Acid (DMSA) in Treatment of Lead Induced Nephropathy in Adult Male Albino Rats
This study was conducted to compare the curative role of garlic combined with silymarin versus dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in decreasing lead induced nephrotoxicity in adult male albino rats. The period of lead intoxication extended for 3 months followed by either 1 month treatment with garlic and silymarin or 5 days treatment with DMSA. Lead poisoning caused non-significant difference in kidney function tests (BUN and serum creatinine) while, it caused significant elevation in kidney lead level, significant decrease in renal antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase and significant elevation in kidney malondialdehyde. ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 8, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Co-administration of Fresh Grape Fruit Juice (GFJ) and Bergamottin Prevented Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity after Paracetamol Overdose in Rats
In conclusion, GFJ and BGT prevented PAR-induced hepatotoxicity after PAR overdose in rats, and this calls for appropriate observation studies in humans. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 8, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxicological evaluations of Stigma maydis (corn silk) aqueous extract on haematological and lipid parameters in Wistar rats
Publication date: Available online 17 April 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Sabiu Saheed , Ajani E. Oladipipo , Abubakar A. Abdulazeez , Sulyman A. Olarewaju , Nurain O. Ismaila , Irondi A. Emmanuel , Quadri D. Fatima , Abubakar A. Yon Despite the acclaimed phytotherapeutic attributes of Stigma maydis in folkloric medicine, there is paucity of information on its toxicity profile on haematological and lipid parameters. The toxicological effect of aqueous extract of corn silk at 100, 200 and 400mg/kg body weight on haematological indices in Wistar rats were evaluated progressively at 24hrs after 1, 7, 14, 21 and ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 5, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Zn(II) released from zinc oxide nano/micro particles suppresses vasculogenesis in human endothelial colony-forming cells
Publication date: Available online 2 May 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Saeko Tada-Oikawa , Gaku Ichihara , Yuka Suzuki , Kiyora Izuoka , Wenting Wu , Yoshiji Yamada , Takashi Mishima , Sahoko Ichihara Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles have been widely used in industry, cosmetics, and biomedicine. Recent studies suggested that these nanoparticles could have a major impact on the cardiovascular system. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) contribute to postnatal endothelial repair and regeneration. The present study dissected the effects of ZnO nanoparticles on vasculogenesis using human endothelial colony forming ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 5, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Comparative Metal Oxide Nanoparticle Toxicity Using Embryonic Zebrafish
Publication date: Available online 2 May 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Leah C. Wehmas , Catherine Anders , Jordan Chess , Alex Punnoose , Cliff B. Pereira , Juliet A. Greenwood , Robert L. Tanguay Engineered metal oxide nanoparticles (MO NPs) are finding increasing utility in the medical field as anticancer agents. Before validation of in vivo anticancer efficacy can occur, a better understanding of whole-animal toxicity is required. We compared the toxicity of seven widely used semiconductor MO NPs made from zinc oxide (ZnO), titanium dioxide, cerium dioxide and tin dioxide prepared in pure water and in synt...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 5, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Hexavalent chromium induces apoptosis in Human Liver (HepG2) cells via redox imbalance
Publication date: Available online 8 April 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Joydeep Das , Abhijit Sarkar , Parames C. Sil Hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), is an environmental toxicant and is associated with hepatotoxicity. However, very little is known about the intracellular antioxidant defense mechanism against Cr(VI)-induced cytotoxicity in hepatocytes. In the present study, we cultured Human Liver (HepG2) cells in the absence or presence of Cr(VI) and determined its effect on cellular oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, apoptosis and the expression of the transcription factor Nrf2 and the Nrf2-dependent anti...
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 8, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Safety Assessment of the Microalgae Nannochloropsis Oculata
This study investigates the safety of N. oculata in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats administered a 0 or 10mL/kg bw/rat N. oculata (10E8 viable cells/mL) suspension by oral gavage once daily for 14 consecutive days. No mortalities occurred and no signs of toxicity were observed during the study. No treatment-related effects were seen for body weight, food consumption, urinalysis, clinical chemistry, hematology, gross pathology, organ weights, or histopathology. Although statistically significant effects were noted for some endpoints, none were considered to be of toxicological significance. The N. oculata suspension was...
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 8, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Mitochondrial toxicity of triclosan on mammalian cells
Publication date: Available online 7 April 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Charmaine Ajao , Maria A. Andersson , Vera V. Teplova , Szabolcs Nagy , Carl G. Gahmberg , Leif. C. Andersson , Maria Hautaniemi , Balazs Kakasi , Merja Roivainen , Mirja Salkinoja-Salonen Effects of triclosan (5-chloro-2′-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol) on mammalian cells were investigated using human peripheral blood mono nuclear cells (PBMC), keratinocytes (HaCaT), porcine spermatozoa and kidney tubular epithelial cells (PK-15), murine pancreatic islets (MIN-6) and neuroblastoma cells (MNA) as targets. We show that triclosan (1&nda...
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 7, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Konzo prevention in six villages in the DRC and the dependence of konzo prevalence on cyanide intake and malnutrition
Publication date: Available online 7 April 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): J.P. Banea , J. Howard Bradbury , C. Mandombi , D. Nahimana , Ian C. Denton , Matthew P. Foster , N. Kuwa , D. Tshala Katumbay Six villages in Boko Health Zone, Bandundu Province, DRC were studied with 4588 people,144 konzo cases and konzo prevalences of 2.0-5.2%. Konzo incidence is increasing rapidly in this area. Food consumption scores were obtained from the households with konzo and the mean % malnutrition calculated for each village. Urine samples were obtained from 50 school children from each village and % high urinary thiocyanate...
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 7, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Assessment of changes in energy metabolism parameters provoked by carbon tetrachloride in Wistar rats and the protective effect of white grape juice
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of organic and conventional grape juices consumption on the behavior of rats and their neuroprotective effect on the activity of brain energy metabolism enzymes in different brain areas of adult rats on the experimental model of hepatic encephalopathy. Male Wistar rats (90-days-old) were treated once a day with conventional or organic white grape juice by gavage for 14 days (7μL/g) On the 15th day the rats received carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in a single dose of 3.0mL/kg. Cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum were dissected to measure the activity of creatine ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 6, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Onset of the lymphocytic infiltration and hyperplasia preceding the proliferation in F1 mouse lungs from the N- ethyl- N-nitrosourea exposed mothers: Prevention during the lactation period by inositol hexaphosphate
Publication date: Available online 2 April 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Satya Sahay , Prakash Tiwari , Krishna P. Gupta Maternal exposure to a carcinogen is associated with increased risk of different cancers in the offspring. The foetus is highly sensitive to carcinogens and this contributes to the foetal basis of the onset of disease. The better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the early stage of lung tumorigenesis in the offspring is needed for the newer preventive strategies. We evaluated the effects of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) given on the 17th day of gestation and antitumor agen...
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 3, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Investigation of repeated dose (90 day) oral toxicity, reproductive/developmental toxicity and mutagenic potential of ‘calebin a’
In conclusion, 100mg/kg/day of Calebin A is not likely to produce any significant toxic effects in male and female Wistar rats and no reproductive or developmental toxicity was observed at the same dose and hence Calebin A at 100mg/kg was determined as “No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL)” under the test conditions. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 3, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Determination of Maximum Tolerated Dose and Toxicity of Inauhzin in Mice
Publication date: Available online 24 March 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Qi Zhang , Shelya X. Zeng , Hua Lu Reactivating the tumor suppressor p53 offers an attractive strategy for developing cancer therapy. We recently identified Inauhzin (INZ) as a novel non-genotoxic p53-activating compound. To develop INZ into a clinically applicable anticancer drug, we have initiated preclinical toxicity studies. Here, we report our study on determining the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of INZ analog, Inauhzin-C (INZ (C)), following intraperitoneal (i.p) administration (Phase A) and its toxicity following i.p administrati...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 25, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

MUCOADHESIVE FORMULATION OF Bidens pilosa L. (ASTERACEAE) REDUCES INTESTINAL INJURY FROM 5-FLUOROURACIL-INDUCED MUCOSITIS IN MICE
In this study, B. pilosa glycolic extract was formulated (BPF) with poloxamer, a mucoadhesive copolymer, was used for treatment of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced mucositis in mice. As expected, animals only treated with 5-FU (200mg/kg) presented marked weight loss, reduction of intestinal villi, crypts and muscular layer, which was associated with severe disruption of crypts, oedema, inflammatory infiltrate and vacuolization in the intestinal tissue, as compared to the control group and healthy animals only treated with BPF. On the other hand, the treatment of intestinal mucositis-bearing mice with BPF (75, 100 or 125mg/kg)...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 24, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Effects of chromic chloride on chick embryo fibroblast viability
The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of chromic chloride (CrCl3) on chick embryo fibroblast (CEF) viability. The cells were incubated with CrCl3 (0.02, 0.1, 0.5, 2.5, 12.5, and 62.5μM), and the viability was determined using MTT assay, morphological detection and flow cytometry. The results show that lower concentrations of CrCl3 (0.02, 0.1, and 0.5μM) did not damage CEF viability. At 0.1μM, CrCl3 can increase CEF viability (P<0.05). However, at higher concentrations of CrCl3 (2.5, 12.5, and 62.5μM), the number of apoptotic and necrotic cells (P<0.01) and intracellular reactive o...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 24, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Short-term changes in intracellular ROS localization after the silver nanoparticles exposure depending on particle size
Publication date: Available online 23 March 2015 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Akira Onodera , Fumiko Nishiumi , Kisa Kakiguchi , Atsushi Tanaka , Nami Tanabe , Aki Honma , Katsutoshi Yayama , Yasuo Yoshioka , Kumiko Nakahira , Shigenobu Yonemura , Itaru Yanagihara , Yasuo Tsutsumi , Yuichi Kawai Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis. These effects are enhanced by smaller particles. Using live-cell imaging, we show that AgNPs induced ROS production rapidly in a size-dependent manner after exposure of cells to 70-nm and 1-nm AgNPs (AgNPs-70, AgNPs-1), but ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 24, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

CYP3A4 inhibition by Psoralea corylifolia and its major components in human recombinant enzyme, differentiated human hepatoma HuH-7 and HepaRG cells
In this study, CYP3A4 inhibition and hepatotoxicity of P. corylifolia and its major components were evaluated in human recombinant CYP3A4 enzyme, differentiated human hepatoma HuH-7 and HepaRG cells. LC/MS-TOF was used to identify the major components of P. corylifolia fruit methanol-water extract. P. corylifolia and its major bioactive components psoralen and isopsoralen were then incubated with human recombinant CYP3A4 (10min) or differentiated HuH-7 and HepaRG cells (24h) prior to CYP3A4 activity and cytotoxicity assays. P. corylifolia extract, psoralen, and isopsoralen concentration dependently inhibited CYP3A4 activit...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 24, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Ergot alkaloids: from witchcraft till in silico analysis. Multi-receptor analysis of ergotamine metabolites
This study was thus aimed at assessing whether the in silico modeling can be an effective tool to investigate the interaction between multiple serotonin receptors and a wide set of ergotamine metabolites, including experimentally detected molecules and predicted derivatives. Validated models provided precious insights about the effects exerted by metabolic modifications on the receptor-ligand interaction. Such structural information may be useful to support the design of further experimental analysis. Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 24, 2015 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research