Differential cellular metabolite alterations in HaCaT cells caused by exposure to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-binding polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons chrysene, benzo[a]pyrene and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene
Publication date: Available online 16 September 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Sarah Potratz, Harald Jungnickel, Stefan Grabiger, Patrick Tarnow, Wolfgang Otto, Ellen Fritsche, Martin von Bergen, Andreas Luch Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous in the human environment. Since they are present in crude oilfractions used for the production of rubber and plastics, consumers may come into direct dermal contacts with these compounds (e.g., via tool handles) on a daily basis. Some individual PAHs are identified as genotoxic mutagens thereby prompting particular toxicological and environmental conce...
Source: Toxicology Reports - September 17, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Effects of Sub-Chronic Cd Exposure on Levels of Copper, Selenium, Zinc, Iron and Other Essential Metals in Rat Renal Cortex
Publication date: Available online 12 September 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Walter C. Prozialeck, Peter C. Lamar, Joshua R. Edwards Cd (Cd) is a nephrotoxic environmental pollutant that causes generalized proximal tubule dysfunction. Even though the specific mechanisms by which Cd damages the kidney have yet to be fully elucidated, there is evidence to suggest that some of these nephrotoxic effects may result from the ability of Cd to alter the levels and function of metals such as Cu, Se, Zn and Fe within the kidney. In order to further explore this issue, we examined the effects of subchronic Cd exposure o...
Source: Toxicology Reports - September 13, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

In vitro mutagenicity assay (Ames test) and phytochemical characterization of seeds oil of Helianthus annuus Linn é (sunflower)
The objective of this research was to investigate the genotoxic potential of the oil of H. annuus L. (sunflower) seeds via the Ames test as well as its oxidative properties and lipid composition. The pre-incubation method, system metabolic activation (S9 fraction) and five S. typhimurium strains (TA97, TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA102) were employed for the Ames test. The oxidative stability and fatty acid composition were analyzed by standard methods and gas chromatography. A revertant analysis showed no significant differences between the treatment doses (10–200μl/plate) and the negative controls, regardless of S9+...
Source: Toxicology Reports - September 13, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Exposure to Butyl Paraben During Gestation and Lactation in Hsd:Sprague Dawley SD Rats via Dosed Feed
Publication date: Available online 11 September 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Georgia K. Roberts, Suramya Waidyanatha, Grace E. Kissling, Brenda L. Fletcher, Melanie A.R. Silinski, Timothy R. Fennell, Helen C. Cunny, Veronica Godfrey Robinson, Chad R. Blystone Butyl paraben (BPB) is an antimicrobial used in a variety of consumer products. Due to widespread human exposure and reported estrogenic activity, the National Toxicology Program quantified internal exposure during critical periods of development. Time-mated female Hsd:Sprague Dawley SD rats were administered 0, 1500, 5000 or 15000ppm BPB via NIH-07 feed...
Source: Toxicology Reports - September 11, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Trimellitic anhydride induces low-grade mast cell degranulation without specific IgE
Conclusions TMA induced mild degranulation of mast cells without IgE, even though the phosphorylation of ERK was not detected. This reaction suggests that TMA affects humans even upon first exposure. Therefore, it is imperative to avoid human exposure to high concentrations of TMA. In order to stop the development of severe asthma in individuals with OR, we need to be able to identify cases of OR caused by TMA as soon as possible. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - September 7, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Skin manifestations in Sulfur Mustard exposed victims with ophthalmologic complications: Association between Early and Late Phase
Conclusion According to this study, the presence of blisters at the time of exposure to SM is the most important predictor of developing dermatologic complications decades later in patients with severe ophthalmologic complications from sulfur mustard exposure. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - September 1, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Characterization and Prediction of Chemical Functions and Weight Fractions in Consumer Products
Publication date: Available online 1 September 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Kristin K. Isaacs, Michael-Rock Goldsmith, Peter Egeghy, Katherine Phillips, Raina Brooks, Tao Hong, John F. Wambaugh Assessing exposures from the thousands of chemicals in commerce requires quantitative information on the chemical constituents of consumer products. Unfortunately, gaps in available composition data prevent assessment of exposure to chemicals in many products. Here we propose filling these gaps via consideration of chemical functional role. We obtained function information for thousands of chemicals from public sources...
Source: Toxicology Reports - September 1, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Lack of adverse health effects following 30-weeks of dietary exposure to acrylamide at low doses in male F344 rats
We report that at the doses tested, acrylamide did not cause any changes in general well-being, body weight or food intake. Similarly, acrylamide did not cause any biologically relevant change in parameters associated with immunophenotyping, serum biochemistry or hematology. Histopathology assessment of tissues showed no changes except in the testis, where non-specific mild lesions were observed in all the groups, inclusive of the controls. No neuropathological effects of acrylamide were observed in the brain and nerve tissues. Together, these results suggest that acrylamide administered to rats through the diet at low dos...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 31, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Exposure to perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) accelerates insulitis development in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes
Publication date: Available online 29 August 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Johanna Bodin, Else-Carin Groeng, Monica Andreassen, Hubert Dirven, Unni Cecilie Nygaard Perfluoralkylated substances (PFAS) are classified as persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic substances and are widespread environmental contaminants. Humans are exposed through food, drinking water and air. We have previously reported that bisphenol A accelerates spontaneous diabetes development in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice and observed in the present study that perfluoroundecanoic acid, PFUnDA, increased insulitis development, a prerequisite fo...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 30, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Impact of prenatal and postnatal exposure to bisphenol A on female rats in a two generational study: Genotoxic and immunohistochemical implications
Publication date: Available online 28 August 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Gihan G. Moustafa, Amal A.M. Ahmed Environmental xenoestrogen contaminant bisphenol A (BPA), widely used as a monomer in the manufacture of epoxy, polycarbonate plastics and polystyrene resins. However, exposure to BPA has raised concerns, and the negative impacts of its exposure on reproduction have been controversial. The purpose of this work was directed to assess the potential adverse effects of BPA on dam rats and their first generation females in a comparative toxicological study. Fifteen pregnant female rats were classified into ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 28, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Targeted Metabolomic Profiling Indicates Structure-based Perturbations in Serum Phospholipids in Children with Acetaminophen Overdose
Publication date: Available online 23 August 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Sudeepa Bhattacharyya, Lisa Pence, Ke Yan, Pritmohinder Gill, Chunqiao Luo, Lynda G. Letzig, Pippa M. Simpson, Gregory L. Kearns, Richard D. Beger, Laura P. James Phospholipids are an important class of lipids that act as building blocks of biological cell membranes and participate in a variety of vital cellular functions including cell signaling. Previous studies have reported alterations in phosphatidylcholine (PC) and lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC) metabolism in acetaminophen (APAP)-treated animals or cell cultures. However, little...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 23, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

C-Glycosylated flavonoids from black gram husk: Protection against DNA and erythrocytes from oxidative damage and their cytotoxic effect on HeLa cells
Publication date: Available online 23 August 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): T.K. Girish, Anil K. Kumar, U.J.S. Prasada Rao C-glycosyl flavones are present in different plant tissues and they exhibit health benefits. In the present study, it was found that C-glycosyl flavones are distributed in different milled fractions of black gram and among these fractions, husk had the highest content of C-glycosyl flavones. Two C-glycosyl flavones from black gram husk were extracted and purified by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) column. The purity of each compound was assessed by analytical C18 c...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 23, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Heavy Metal Content and Potential Health Risk of Geophagic White Clay from the Kumasi Metropolis in Ghana
This study sought to determine the levels of heavy metals in the studied geophagic clay samples and to determine the potential risks of heavy metals as cumulative carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks to the health of the consumers via oral (ingestion) and dermal exposure routes. A total of thirty (30) white clay samples were analysed using Niton Thermo scientific XRF Analyser (Mobile Test S, NDTr-XL3t-86956, com 24). The clay samples were found to contain essential elements such as Ca, Fe, K and Zn as well as toxic metals such as As and Pb. There were isolated cases of the presence of Hg and all samples had Cd levels be...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 21, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Evaluation of the Deleterious Health Effects of Consumption of Repeatedly Heated Vegetable Oil
Publication date: Available online 16 August 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Rekhadevi Perumalla Venkata, Rajagopal Subramanyam Consumption of repeatedly heated cooking oil (RHCO) has been a regular practice without knowing the harmful effects of use. The present study is based on the hypothesis that, heating of edible oils to their boiling points results in the formation of free radicals that cause oxidative stress and induce damage at the cellular and molecular levels. Peroxide value of heated oil, histopathological alterations, antioxidant enzyme levels and blood biochemistry were determined in Wistar rats tr...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 16, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Effects of exposure to cadmium in sperm cells of zebrafish, Danio rerio
Publication date: Available online 10 August 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Izani Bonel Acosta, Antonio Sergio Varela Junior, Estela Fernandes e Silva, Tainã Figueiredo Cardoso, Jôsie Schwartz Caldas, Rodrigo Desessards Jardim, Carine Dahl Corcini Cadmium is a natural element found in the earth’s crust; it is usually associated with other metals, but due to the impacts caused by human activity, its concentration has increased in the aquatic environment. This metal may damage aquatic animal reproduction, decreasing the rate of fertilization of organisms such as fish. Thus, this study aimed to ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 10, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Genotoxicity evaluation of alpha-linolenic acid-diacylglycerol oil
Publication date: Available online 10 August 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Hiroshi Honda, Yurika Fujita, Aya Hayashi, Naohiro Ikeda, Yuichi Ito, Osamu Morita The alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)-diacylglycerol (DAG) oil is an edible oil enriched with DAG (>80%) and ALA (>50%). Although DAG oil, which mainly consists of oleic and linoleic acids has no genotoxic concerns, the fatty acid composition could affect the chemical property of DAG. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of ALA-DAG oil using standard genotoxicity tests in accordance with the OECD guidelines. ALA-DAG...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 10, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Heavy Metal Content of Selected Personal Care Products (PCPs) Available in Ibadan, Nigeria and their Toxic Effects
In this study, the levels of zinc, cadmium, lead and nickel were assessed in 3 different classes of personal care products commonly used in Ibadan, Nigeria. Samples were analysed for heavy metals using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) after acid digestion. Estimated daily intake (EDI) of the metals and Health Risk Index (HRI) were calculated to assess the human health risks associated with the use of these PCPs. The concentrations (mg/kg) of zinc ranged from 3.75–19.3, 1.88–112,000 and 19.8–217 respectively in creams, powders and eyeliners. Cadmium ranged from ND − 0.50, ND − 36.3 and...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 5, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Neuro-Endocrine Effects of Aqueous Extract of Amaranthus viridis (Linn.) Leaf in Male Wistar Rat Model of Cyclophosphamide-Induced Reproductive Toxicity
Publication date: Available online 3 August 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Ayoka Oladele Abiodun, Ojo Opeyemi Esther, Imafidon Eseigbe Christian, Ademoye Kehinde Aderonke, Oladele Abraham Ayowole Cyclophosphamide (CP) is a widely used cytotoxic alkylating agent with antitumor and immunosuppressant properties that is associated with various forms of reproductive toxicity. The significance of natural antioxidants of plant origin should be explored, especially in a world with increasing incidence of patients in need of chemotherapy. The neuro-endocrine effects of aqueous extract of Amaranthus viridis (Linn.) leaf ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 4, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Calcium, zinc and vitamin E ameliorate cadmium-induced renal oxidative damage in albino Wistar rats
This study aimed to examine the protective effects of supplementation with calcium+zinc (Ca+Zn) or vitamin E (Vit-E) on Cd-induced renal oxidative damage. Young albino Wistar rats (180±10g) (n=6) control rats, Cd, Cd+Ca+Zn, and Cd+Vit-E groups. The experimental period was 30 days. Rats were exposed to Cd (20mg/kg body weight) alone treated as Cd treated group and the absence or presence of Ca+Zn (2mg/kg each) or Vit-E (20mg/kg body weight) supplementation treated as two separate groups. The activities of the stress marker enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione per...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 30, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Virgin olive oil ameliorates deltamethrin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice: A biochemical and immunohistochemical assessment
Conclusion Virgin olive oil exerted protective effects against deltamethrin-induced nephrotoxicity, which might be associated with its anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative properties. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 30, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Catalysis of Silver catfish Major Hepatic Glutathione Transferase proceeds via rapid equilibrium sequential random Mechanism
Publication date: Available online 1 July 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Ayodele O. Kolawole Fish hepatic glutathione transferases are connected with the elimination of intracellular pollutants and detoxification of organic micro-pollutants in their aquatic ecosystem. The two-substrate steady state kinetic mechanism of Silver catfish (Synodontis eupterus) major hepatic glutathione transferases purified to apparent homogeneity was explored. The enzyme was dimeric enzyme with a monomeric size of 25.6kDa. Initial-velocity studies and Product inhibition patterns by methyl glutathione and chloride with respect to ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 26, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The Combined Fixed-Dose Antituberculous Drugs Alter Some Reproductive Functions with oxidative stress involvement in Wistar Rats
Publication date: Available online 19 July 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): O. Awodele, A.A. Momoh, N.A. awolola, O.E. kale The reproductive toxicity of combined fixed-dose first-line antituberculosis (CFDAT) regimen was assessed in rats. Thirty-two (32) Wistar rats weighing 168.1±8.0g were divided into four groups of eight rats per group. Two groups of male and female rats were administered oral distilled water (1.6ml) and CFDAT drugs containing rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol (RIPE, 92.5mg/m2 per body surface area) per male and female group respectively for forty-five days. Serum ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 26, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Evaluation of time-dependent toxicity and combined effects for a series of mono-halogenated acetonitrile-containing binary mixtures
Publication date: Available online 25 July 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Douglas A. Dawson, Daphne Guinn, Gerald Pöch Mixture and time-dependent toxicity (TDT) was assessed for a series of mono-halogenated acetonitrile-containing combinations. Inhibition of bioluminescence in Aliivibrio fischeri was measured after 15, 30 and 45-min of exposure. Concentration-response (x/y) curves were determined for each chemical alone at each timepoint, and used to develop predicted x/y curves for the dose-addition and independence models of combined effect. The x/y data for each binary mixture was then evaluated aga...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 26, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Effect of a controlled food-chain mediated exposure to cadmium and arsenic on oxidative enzymes in the tissues of rats
Conclusion From the results obtained in the current study, it could be concluded that exposure to cadmium and arsenic through the food chain leads to accumulation of these metals in the tissues of experimental rats leading to the inhibition of oxidative enzymes, thus affecting several normal metabolic processes. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 26, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Interaction of p-benzoquinone with hemoglobin in smoker ’s blood causes alteration of structure and loss of oxygen binding capacity
Publication date: 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports, Volume 3 Author(s): Arunava Ghosh, Santanu Banerjee, Amrita Mitra, Monita Muralidharan, Bappaditya Roy, Rajat Banerjee, Amit Kumar Mandal, Indu B. Chatterjee Cigarette smoke (CS) is an important source of morbidity and early mortality worldwide. Besides causing various life-threatening diseases, CS is also known to cause hypoxia. Chronic hypoxia would induce early aging and premature death. Continuation of smoking during pregnancy is a known risk for the unborn child. Although carbon monoxide (CO) is considered to be a cause of hypoxia, the effect of other compone...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 18, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Metallothionein ’s role in PCB126 induced hepatotoxicity and hepatic micronutrient disruption
Publication date: 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports, Volume 3 Author(s): W.D Klaren, S. Flor, K.N. Gibson-Corley, G. Ludewig, L.W. Robertson Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), industrial chemicals and persistent environmental pollutants, are found in rural and urban settings. Rodent studies have shown that exposure to PCB126, a dioxin-like PCB, causes a significant disruption of hepatic micronutrient homeostasis and an increase in metallothionein (MT), an antioxidant protein and metal carrier. A MT knockout mouse strain was used to assess metallothionein’s role in micronutrient disruption and overall hepatotoxicit...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 18, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Effect of Hecogenin on DNA instability
Publication date: Available online 16 June 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Marina Sampaio Cruz, Sarah Cabral Barroso, Julio Alejandro Navoni, Maria Madalena Rocha Silva Teles, José Maria Barbosa-Filho, Hugo Alexandre de Oliveira Rocha, Viviane Souza do Amaral Hecogenin is a sapogenin found in Agave species in high quantities and is responsible for the many therapeutic effects of these medicinal plants. In addition, this compound is also widely used in the pharmaceutical industry as a precursor for the synthesis of steroidal hormones and anti-inflammatory drugs. Despite Hecogenin being widely used,...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 16, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Food safety risk assessment for estimating dietary intake of sulfites in the Taiwanese population
This study used a list of 128 food items representing 83% of the total daily diet. Among the 128 food items, 59 items may contain sulfites. Samples of the 59 food items were collected and subjected to chemical analysis to determine the sulfur dioxide concentration. Health risk was assessed by calculating the ratio of exposure level to the acceptable daily intake (ADI) level of the analyte. For high-intake consumers, the HI of sulfites was 19.7% ADI for males over the age of three years at the 95th percentile; whereas for females over the age of 66, the HI was 17.8% ADI. The HI for high-intake consumers was above 10% ADI. T...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 11, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Downregulation of nicotinic and muscarinic receptor function in rats after subchronic exposure to diazinon
Publication date: Available online 7 June 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Saša R. Ivanović, Blagoje Dimitrijević, Vitomir Ćupić, Milanka Jezdimirović, Sunčica Borozan, Mila Savić, Djordje Savić Diazinon (DZN) is an organophosphate insecticide which exerts its effect through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE). In this work, we studied the development of tolerance to subchronic p.o. administration of DZN in rats, under both in vivo and in vitro conditions. A group of 20 rats (2 groups, n=10) was administered p.o. the 1/10 of established LD50 DZN (namely 55.87mg/kg bw) for 2...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 8, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Chemical and biological studies of β-carotene after exposure to Cannabis sativa smoke
Publication date: Available online 3 June 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Dulciana S. do Monte, Jonh A. Bezerra Tenório, Isla V.G.A. Bastos, Fábio de S. Mendonça, Joaquim E. Neto, Teresinha G. da Silva, Clécio S. Ramos Considering the increase in consumption of Cannabis sativa and the use of the compound β-carotene (BC) as supplement, we investigated potential changes in the chemical and biological proprieties of BC after exposure to C. sativa smoke (CSS). Our results showed that the BC exposed to CSS underwent 98.8% degradation and suffered loss of its antiradical activi...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 4, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Safety assessment of McB-E60 (extract of a Momordica sp): Subchronic toxicity study in rats
The objective of the present study was to investigate potential adverse effects, if any, of McB-E60 (extract of a Momordica sp.) in rats following subchronic administration. Sprague-Dawley rats (10/sex/group) were administered via oral gavage 0 (control), 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg body weight (bw)/day of McB-E60 for 90 days. Additional 28-day recovery groups were maintained at control and high dose levels. No mortality or significant and adverse changes in clinical signs, neurological signs, body weights gain or feed intake were noted. No toxicologically significant changes in hematology, clinical chemistry, urinalysis and or...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 25, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Categorization of nano-structured titanium dioxide according to physicochemical characteristics and pulmonary toxicity
Publication date: Available online 20 May 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Naoki Hashizume, Yutaka Oshima, Makoto Nakai, Toshio Kobayashi, Takeshi Sasaki, Kenji Kawaguchi, Kazumasa Honda, Masashi Gamo, Kazuhiro Yamamoto, Yasuhiro Tsubokura, Shozo Ajimi, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Nobuya Imatanaka A potentially useful means of predicting the pulmonary risk posed by new forms of nano-structured titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) is to use the associations between the physicochemical properties and pulmonary toxicity of characterized forms of TiO2. In the present study, we conducted intratracheal administration studie...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 21, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxicological Evaluation of a Novel Umami Flavour Compound: 2-(((3-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)thio)methyl)pyridine
Publication date: Available online 18 May 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Donald S. Karanewsky, Amy J. Arthur, Hanghui Liu, Bert Chi, Lily Ida, Stacy Markison A toxicological evaluation of a umami flavour compound, 2-(((3-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)thio)methyl)pyridine (S3643; CAS 902136-79-2), was completed for the purpose of assessing its safety for use in food and beverage applications. S3643 undergoes extensive oxidative metabolism in vitro with rat microsomes producing the S3643-sulfoxide and 4′-hydroxy-S3643 as the major metabolites. In incubations with human microsomes, the O...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 19, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

14-Day Toxicity Studies of Tetravalent and Pentavalent Vanadium Compounds in Harlan Sprague Dawley Rats and B6C3F1/N Mice via Drinking Water Exposure
Conclusions Based on clinical observations and overt toxicity, sodium metavanadate appears to be more toxic than vanadyl sulfate. Differential toxicity cannot be explained by differences in total vanadium intake, based on water consumption, and may be due to differences in disposition or mechanism of toxicity. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 12, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Acute toxicity of herbicide (glyphosate) in Clarias gariepinus Juveniles
Publication date: Available online 6 May 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Ali Sani, Muhammad Khadija Idris The constant discharge of agricultural waste into aquatic environment has led to accumulation of heavy chemicals and other variety of pollutants. Herbicides present in these wastes are washed down, carried by rains and flood to nearby aquatic environment. Glyphosate is one of the most popular herbicides used by farmers in Kano because of its active reaction on killing weeds without affecting the crops. A toxicity test of Glyphosate was conducted using concentrations of 0, 0.004, 0.005, 0.006, 0.007ml/L. T...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 7, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Evaluation of toxicity of biorational insecticides against larvae of the alfalfa weevil
Publication date: Available online 5 May 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Gadi V.P. Reddy, Frank B. Antwi, Govinda Shrestha, Takashi Kuriwada The alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a major pest of alfalfa Medicago sativa L. (Fabaceae). While H. postica usually causes the most damage before the first cutting, in summer of 2015 damaging levels of the pest persisted in Montana well after the first harvest of alfalfa. Although conventional insecticides can control H. postica, these chemicals have adverse effects on non-target organisms including pollinators and natural enemy insects. ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 6, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

GLP-1 receptor agonist exenatide restores atypical antipsychotic clozapine treatment-associated glucose dysregulation and damage of pancreatic islet beta cells in mice
Conclusion Our results provide preclinical evidence of a pharmaceutical role of GLP-1RA in managing glucose dysregulation in schizophrenic patients under long-term atypical antipsychotic treatments. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 28, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Concentrations and exposure risks of some metals in facial cosmetics in nigeria
Publication date: Available online 23 April 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Chukwujindu M.A. Iwegbue, Francisca I. Bassey, Grace Obi, Godswill O. Tesi, Bice S. Martincigh The concentrations of nine metals (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) were determined in lip sticks, lip glosses, lip balms, eye pencils, eyeliners, eye shadows, blushes, mascaras and face powders. The study was aimed at providing information on the risk associated with human exposure to metals in these facial cosmetic products. The concentrations of metals in the samples were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry after digestion...
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 24, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Ceramide-1-phosphate protection of cochlear hair cells against cisplatin ototoxicity
Conclusion The present findings confirmed the protective effects of C1P in the cisplatin ototoxicity. The balance between ceramide and C1P may play a critical role in the determination of hair cell fate in cisplatin ototoxicity. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 15, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Effect of Taurine on Chronic and Acute Liver Injury: Focus on Blood and Brain Ammonia
Publication date: Available online 13 April 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Reza Heidari, Akram Jamshidzadeh, Hossein Niknahad, Elnaz Mardani, Mohammad Mehdi Ommati, Negar Azarpira, Forouzan Khodaei, Azita Zarei, Maryam Ayarzadeh, Somayeh Mousavi, Narges Abdoli, Babak Shirazi Yeganeh, Arastoo Saeedi, Asma Najibi Hyperammonemia is associated with chronic and acute liver injury. There is no promising therapeutic agent against ammonia-induced complications. Hence, finding therapeutic molecules with safe profile of administration has clinical value. The present study was conducted to evaluate the role...
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 14, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Safety assessment of a standardized polyphenolic extract of clove buds: subchronic toxicity and mutagenicity studies
Publication date: Available online 8 April 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Liju Vijayasteltar, Gopakumar G., Balu Maliakel, Ramadasan Kuttan, Krishnakumar I.M. Despite the various reports on the toxicity of clove oil and its major component eugenol, systematic evaluations on the safety of polyphenolic extracts of clove buds have not been reported. Considering the health beneficial pharmacological effects and recent use of clove polyphenols as dietary supplements, the present study investigated the safety of a standardized polyphenolic extract of clove buds (Clovinol), as assessed by oral acute (5g/kg b.wt....
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 9, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Arsenic inhibits stem cell differentiation by altering the interplay between the Wnt3a and Notch signaling pathways
This study investigated whether arsenic disrupted the Wnt3a signaling pathway, critical in the formation of myotubes and neurons, during the differentiation in P19 mouse embryonic stem cells. Cells were exposed to 0, 0.1, or 0.5μM arsenite, with or without exogenous Wnt3a, for up to 9 days of differentiation. Arsenic exposure alone inhibits the differentiation of stem cells into neurons and skeletal myotubes, and reduces the expression of both β-catenin and GSK3β mRNA to ∼55% of control levels. Co-culture of the arsenic-exposed cells with exogenous Wnt3a rescues the morphological phenotype, but does not al...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 24, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Does amikacin treatment cause subclinical hearing loss in patients with cystic fibrosis?
Conclusion Repetitive exposure to AGs can cause permanent, although mild, sensorineural hearing loss. For prevention, hearing status of the patient should be closely monitored and treatment of choice should be precisely tailored according to the audiological evaluation. This is especially important in patients with CF who frequently experience medical conditions necessitating AGs use. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 23, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Anti-cancer activity of ZnO chips by sustained zinc ion release
We report anti-cancer activity of ZnO thin-film-coated chips by sustained release of zinc ions. ZnO chips were fabricated by precisely tuning ZnO thickness using atomic layer deposition, and their potential to release zinc ions relative to the number of deposition cycles was evaluated. ZnO chips exhibited selective cytotoxicity in human B lymphocyte Raji cells while having no effect on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Of importance, the half-maximal inhibitory concentration of the ZnO chip on the viability of Raji cells was 121.5 cycles, which was comparable to 65.7nM of daunorubicin, an anti-cancer drug for leuke...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 20, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Transcriptomics Analysis and Hormonal Changes of Male and Female Neonatal Rats Treated Chronically with a Low Dose of Acrylamide in their Drinking Water
Publication date: Available online 19 March 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Reyna Cristina Collí-Dulá, Marvin A. Friedman, Benjamin Hansen, Nancy D. Denslow Acrylamide is known to produce follicular cell tumors of the thyroid in rats. RccHan Wistar rats were exposed in utero to a carcinogenic dose of acrylamide (3 mg/Kg bw/day) from gestation day 6 to delivery and then through their drinking water to postnatal day 35. In order to identify potential mechanisms of carcinogenesis in the thyroid glands, we used a transcriptomics approach. Thyroid glands were collected from male pups at 10 PM and f...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 20, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Sulfur mustard-stimulated proteases and their inhibitors in a cultured normal human epidermal keratinocytes model: A potential approach for anti-vesicant drug development
In this study, we observed that SM stimulates several proteases and the epidermal-dermal attachment protein laminin-5 is one of the substrates. We propose that following SM exposure of the skin, laminin-5 degradation causes the detachment of the epidermis from the dermis and, therefore, vesication. We utilized gelatin zymography, Western blotting, immuno-fluorescence staining, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses to study the SM-stimulated proteases and laminin-5 degradation in NHEK. Two major protease bands (64kDa and 72kDa) were observed by zymography in SM-exposed cells. Addition of serine protease ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 15, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Severe anaphylactic reaction to mediterranean jellyfish (Ropilhema nomadica) envenomation: Case report
We present a 15-year-old female patient with an anaphylactic reaction to a jellyfish sting, sustained while surfing in the Mediterranean Sea. She experienced immediate difficulty in breathing, hoarseness and itching and was taken by ambulance to the emergency department, receiving intramuscular adrenaline on the way. She presented with periorbital swelling and facial edema and improved with systemic steroids and antihistamines. She was discharged 2 days later with allergy service follow up at our institution. This is the first case report documenting anaphylaxis due to Mediterranean jellyfish envenomation. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 15, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Cytotoxic effects of nickel nanowires in human fibroblasts
Publication date: Available online 9 March 2016 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Laura P. Felix, Jose E. Perez, Maria F. Contreras, Timothy Ravasi, Jürgen Kosel The increasing interest in the use of magnetic nanostructures for biomedical applications necessitates rigorous studies to be carried out in order to determine their potential toxicity. This work attempts to elucidate the cytotoxic effects of nickel nanowires (NWs) in human fibroblasts WI-38 by a colorimetric assay (MTT) under two different parameters: NW concentration and exposure time. This was complemented with TEM and confocal images to assess t...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 11, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Evaluation of sesamol-induced histopathological, biochemical, haematological and genomic alteration after acute oral toxicity in female C57BL/6 mice
In conclusions, the present study has classified sesamol toxicity and assessed organ-wise acute oral toxicity of sesamol in female C57BL/6 mice. Therefore, these findings may be useful for the selection of dosages for further pre-clinical evaluation and potential drug developmental of sesamol. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 11, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Genetic and rat toxicity studies of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
Conclusion The genotoxicity assays and repeated dose toxicity study support the safe use of CGTase in production of alpha-glycosyl isoquercitrin. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 9, 2016 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research