Hepatoprotective Effect of Methanolic Tanacetum Parthenium Extract on CCl4-Induced Liver Damage in Rats
Publication date: Available online 30 August 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Yavar Mahmoodzadeh, Mohammad Mazani, Lotfollah Rezagholizadeh The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Tanacetum Parthenium Extract (TPE) on Lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes, biochemical factors, and liver enzymes in the rats damaged by Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4). 54 male Wistar rats were divided into 9 groups each consisting of 6 rats. Two of the groups were control groups (normal and damage control groups), 4 of them were exposure groups which were respectively administered with 40, 80, and 120mg/kg of TPE a...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 30, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Taurine abated subacute dichlorvos toxicity
Publication date: Available online 30 August 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): M.G. Akande, U.S. Ahmed The aim of the study was to determine the effects of taurine in rats exposed to subacute dichlorvos toxicity. Fifty rats were weighed and assigned into five groups of ten rats each. The groups received: distilled water, soya oil (1ml/kg), taurine (50mg/kg), dichlorvos (10mg/kg) and the combination treatment group received taurine first and then dichlorvos 30minutes later. The treatments were administered once daily by oral gavage for 4 weeks. The rats were euthanized and blood samples were collected after the ter...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 30, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Emerging various environmental threats to brain and Overview of surveillance system with Zebrafish model
Publication date: Available online 30 August 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Rafael Vargas, Johny Ponce-Canchihuamán Pathologies related to neurotoxicity represent an important percentage of the diseases that determine the global burden of diseases. Neurotoxicity may be related to the increasing levels of potentially neurotoxic agents that pollute the environment, which generates concern, since agents that affect children may increase the incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders, affecting the quality of life of future citizens. Many environmental contaminants have been detected, and many of them derive ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 30, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

UVB damage onset and progression 24h post exposure in human-derived skin cells
This study investigated the acute cellular damages triggered by UVB exposure of cultured human fibroblasts and keratinocyte cells immediately and 24h post exposure in order to understand damage onset and progression. The study evaluated a number of cellular parameters including mitochondria, lysosomes, cell membrane, DNA damages as well as pro and anti-apoptotic protein expression levels. Cellular organelle damages were assessed by a battery of in vitro toxicological assays using MTS and Neutral red cytotoxicity assays. Cell membrane damages were also assessed by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme leakage from UV...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 2, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

A severe myopathy case in aged patient treated with high statin dosage
Publication date: Available online 1 August 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Canzonieri Elena, De Candia Cristina, Tarascio Salvatore, Giamporcaro Silvia, Lumera Giovanni, Rigano Giuseppe, Incognito Carmela, Privitera Filippo, Guarnaccia Agata, Foti Pietro Valerio, Palmucci Stefano, Gangemi Pietro, Fuccio-Sanzà Giulia, Signorelli Salvatore Santo Statins (S) are widely used drugs for cardiovascular prevention however their utilization may cause a various grade of muscle toxicity. Sometime S discontinuation alone is not sufficient to revert muscle injury and this can evolve in serious inflammatory muscle dis...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 2, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Farnesiferol C induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis mediated by oxidative stress in MCF-7 cell line
In this study, we sought the hypothesis that oxidative stress induced by Farnesiferol C contribute to anticancer property and induce apoptosis in MCF-7, human breast cancer cell line. We investigated the effect of Farnesiferol C on oxidative stress by measurement of some enzymes activity including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as some parameters such as total thiol and ROS levels. Also we evaluated Farnesiferol C effects on the cell cycle and apoptosis induction by using flow cytometry analysis. Our findings demonstrated that Farnesiferol C significantly induced apoptosis mediat...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 2, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Is Andrographis paniculata extract and andrographolide anaphylactic?
Publication date: Available online 29 July 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Chandrasekaran Chinampudur Velusami, Edwin Jothie Richard, Sasikumar Murugan, Bharathi Bethapudi, Ramanaiah Illuri, Deepak Mundkinajeddu Andrographis paniculata, “King of bitters” is a popularly known medicinal plant extensively used in many parts of the world for treatment of various diseases. Since recent past, anaphylactic/allergic type adverse events were reported upon A. paniculata usage, the study aimed to evaluate the anaphylactic and anaphylactoid potential of A. paniculata extract and andrographolide (a major phytoact...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 30, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Acute aflatoxin B1 − induced hepatotoxicity alters gene expression and disrupts lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in rats
In this study, alterations in lipid metabolism associated with acute aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) induced hepatotoxicity and gene expression changes underlying these effects were investigated. Rats were orally administered three doses (0.25mg/kg, 0.5mg/kg and 1.0mg/kg) of AFB1 for seven days; after which blood was collected and liver excised. Lipid profiles of plasma and liver were determined spectrophotometrically while the expression of genes associated with lipid and lipoprotein metabolism was assayed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Acute exposure to AFB1 increased the levels of plasma and liver cholesterol, ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 25, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

A hospital based epidemiological study of snakebite in Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal, India
Conclusion Snakebite is a neglected health issue in Paschim Medinipur district. Lack of snakebite data is due to under reporting. In the present study we have attempted to investigate the official data available on snakebite from 10 blocks of Paschim Medinipur district which has been identified for high snakebite incidence. Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 25, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

In vitro cytotoxicity of zinc oxide, iron oxide and copper nanopowders prepared by green synthesis
Publication date: Available online 24 July 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): S. Saranya, K. Vijayaranai, S. Pavithra, N. Raihana, K. Kumanan In vitro cytotoxic effects of ZnO, FeO and Cu metallic nanopowders (NPs) on Vero (African green monkey kidney cell line), PK 15 (Pig kidney cell line) and Madin Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cell lines were investigated at different time intervals (24 and 48hrs). MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay was used to determine the cytotoxic effects of green synthesized (plant based) nanopowders. The comparative effects of exposure period and concent...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 25, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Haematological evaluation of sodium fluoride toxicity in oryctolagus cunniculus
This study aimed to determine the toxicity of Sodium Fluoride on hematological parameters in Oryctolagus cunniculus. Twenty rabbits were acclimatized and divided in to control group and three experimental groups.Experimental group-I, II and III were treated with 10, 30 and 50 mg/kg body weight doses of Sodium Fluoride orally. Various blood parameters such as TEC, Hb, HCT, MCV, MCH, MCHC, TLC and PLT count were investigated. Result findings showed that values of blood indices in experimental groups were significantly lower than the control group. Oneway ANOVA was applied for statistical analysis. The outcomes of the ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 20, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant role of resveratrol on nicotine-induced lung changes in male rats
Publication date: Available online 17 July 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Reham Z. Hamza, Nahla S. El-Shenawy Male albino rats of Wistar strain were injected intraperitoneally with nicotine or/and resveratrol for 4 weeks. Serum Interleukin-2, Interleukin-6, alpha-fetoprotein and tumor necrosis-alpha, as well as plasma 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine of nicotine-treated rats were increased significantly. Myeloperoxidase, xanthine oxidase, nitric oxide, lipid peroxidation and total oxidative status of the lung in nicotine-treated rats were increased significantly, which were brought down to normal in resveratrol co-treat...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 18, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Neuropharmacological profile and chemical analysis of fresh rhizome essential oil of Curcuma longa (turmeric) cultivated in Southwest Nigeria
Conclusion The major component of the essential oil of this C. longa species was turmerone; the oil was slightly toxic orally but moderately toxic intraperitoneally in mice; exhibited significant anxiolytic, sedative and anticonvulsant activities in mice. Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 17, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Elements of kitchen toxicology to exploit the value of traditional (african) recipes: the case of egusi okra meal in the diet of hiv+/aids subjects
Publication date: Available online 1 July 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Chiara Frazzoli, Francesca Mazzanti, Mercy Bih Achu, Guy Bertrand Pouokam, Elie Fokou The Egusi Okra soup is a traditional African meal that is considered of high nutritional value and protective against weight loss. We introduce the concept of “kitchen toxicology” to analyse the recipe of the Egusi Okra soup and highlight possible mitigation measures for toxic and/or antinutritional effects in the wide spectrum of health and nutritional needs of HIV+/AIDS subjects. In particular, we focus on toxicants (environmental contaminan...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 1, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Beyond the flavor: A green formulation of Ferula asafoetida oleo-gum-resin with fenugreek dietary fibre and its gut health potential
Publication date: Available online 30 June 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Vijayasteltar B. Liju, I.J. Jismy, Ashil Joseph, Balu Maliakel, Ramadasan Kuttana, I.M. Krishnakumar Albeit the fact that asafotida is a popular kitchen spice and Indian folklore medicine for gut disorders, its consumption at physiologically relevant dosage is greatly challenged by the unpleasant flavor characteristics. Herein we report a green approach to derive stable powder formulations of asafoetida gum with minimized taste and odor suitable for dietary applications and gut health-related disorders. Employing a water based ultrasound ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 30, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

α-lipoic acid inhibits oxidative stress in testis and attenuates testicular toxicity in rats exposed to carbimazole during embryonic period
Publication date: Available online 23 June 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): P. Prathima, K. Venkaiah, R. Pavani, T. Daveedu, M. Munikumar, M. Gobinath, M. Valli, S.B. Sainath The aim of this study was to evaluate the probable protective effect of α-lipoic acid against testicular toxicity in rats exposed to carbimazole during the embryonic period. Time-mated pregnant rats were exposed to carbimazole from the embryonic days 9 to 21. After completion of the gestation period, all the rats were allowed to deliver pups and weaned. At postnatal day 100, F1 male pups were assessed for the selected reproductive endp...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 23, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Comparison of waterborne and intraperitoneal exposure to fipronil in the Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii) on acute toxicity and histopathology
Publication date: Available online 23 June 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Rashid Alijani Ardeshir, Hossein Zolgharnein, Abdol-Ali Movahedinia, Negin Salamat, Ebrahim Zabihi Fipronil is an effective insecticide widely used in agriculture with potential ecotoxicological consequences. The median lethal dose (LD50) and concentration (LC50) of fipronil in 16.3g Caspian white fish, Rutilus frisii kutum fingerlings were determined. To determine the LD50, a total of 133 fish were assigned to 19 tanks (7 fish/tank) including one control and 6 treatment groups (300, 450, 550, 650, 750, 850mg/kg). Fish were injected intra...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 23, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Comparison of Diglycolic Acid Exposure to Human Proximal Tubule Cells In Vitro and Rat Kidneys In Vivo
Publication date: Available online 23 June 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Miriam E. Mossoba, Sanah Vohra, Howard Toomer, Shelia Pugh-Bishop, Zachary Keltner, Vanessa Topping, Thomas Black, Nicholas Olejnik, Ana Depina, Kathleen Belgrave, Jessica Sprando, Joyce Njorge, Thomas J. Flynn, Paddy L. Wiesenfeld, Robert L. Sprando Diglycolic acid (DGA) is present in trace amounts in our food supply and is classified as an indirect food additive linked with the primary GRAS food additive carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). Carboxymethyl starches are used as a filler/binder excipient in dietary supplement tablets and a thicke...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 23, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Tissue specific effects of feeds supplemented with grape pomace or olive oil mill wastewater on detoxification enzymes in sheep
Publication date: Available online 23 June 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Efthalia Kerasioti, Zoi Terzopoulou, Ourania Komini, Ioannis Kafantaris, Sotiria Makri, Dimitrios Stagos, Konstantinos Gerasopoulos, Nikita Y. Anisimov, Aristides M. Tsatsakis, Demetrios Kouretas The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of livestock feed supplemented with grape pomace (GP) or olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) byproducts on the enzymatic activity and protein expression of antioxidants enzymes, in liver and spleen tissue of sheep. Thus, 36 male sheep of Chios breed were divided into 3 homogeneous groups, co...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 23, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

First report on distribution of heavy metals and proximate analysis in marine edible puffer fishes collected from Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve, South India
Publication date: Available online 15 June 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Karunanidhi Kaleshkumar, Rajendran Rajaram, Pandurangan Dhinesh, Arumugam Ganeshkuamr In the present study, the heavy metal concentration in different organs (skin, tissue, liver, kidney, gill, intestine, and ovary) and muscle proximate composition were studied in marine edible puffer fishes Takifugu oblongus, Lagocephalus guentheri, Arothron hispidus, Chelonodon patoca and Arothron immaculatus collected from Mandapam fish landing centre, South east coast of India. Heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb & Zn) were analyzed in different organs f...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 16, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

p-Benzoquinone initiates non-invasive urothelial cancer through aberrant tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR, MAP kinase activation and cell cycle deregulation: prevention by vitamin C
Publication date: Available online 15 June 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Shinjini Ganguly, Ayan Chandra, Dhruba J. Chattopadhyay, Indu B. Chatterjee According to WHO classification system, non-invasive urothelial carcinoma represents urothelial carcinoma in situ (CIS) and dysplasia. Dysplastic urothelium often progresses to CIS that further advances to urothelial carcinoma (UC). The strongest risk factor for UC is cigarette smoking. However, the pathogenesis of cigarette smoke (CS)-induced UC is poorly understood. Earlier we had shown that p-benzoquinone (p-BQ), a major toxic quinone derived from p-benzosemiqu...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 16, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of the Presence of Ciguatoxin, P-CTX-1B, in Spanish Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson) from waters in New South Wales (Australia)
Publication date: Available online 15 June 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Gurjeet S. Kohli, Kristina Haslauer, Chowdhury Sarowar, Anna Liza Kretzschmar, Mark Boulter, D.Tim Harwood, Olivier Laczka, Shauna A. Murray Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is a tropical disease caused by the consumption of fish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). Currently, the only feasible prevention methods for CFP are to avoid the consumption of fish of certain species from some regions, avoid larger fish of certain species, or avoid all fish caught from specific regions. Here, we quantified levels of P-CTX-1B in Spanish Mackerel (S...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 16, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Perspectives of the Nrf-2 signaling pathway in cancer progression and therapy
Publication date: Available online 13 June 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Priyanka Basak, Pritam Sadhukhan, Poulami Sarkar, Parames C. Sil The Nuclear factor erythroid2-related factor2 (Nrf2), a master regulator of redox homoeostasis, is a key transcription factor regulating a wide array of genes for antioxidant and detoxification enzymes. It protects organs from various kinds of toxic insults. On the other hand, activation of Nrf2 is also correlated with cancer progression and chemoresistance. Downregulation of Nrf2 activity has attracted an increasing amount of attention as it may provide an alternative cance...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 14, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Vitamin C acts as a Hepatoprotectant in Carbofuran Treated Rat Liver Slices in vitro
Publication date: Available online 9 June 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Sunil Kumar Jaiswal, Vivek Kumar Gupta, Md. Dilshad Ansari, Nikhat J. Siddiqi, Bechan Sharma Carbamates, most commonly used pesticides in agricultural practices, have been reported to produce free radicals causing deleterious effects in animals. The present study was designed to assess the carbofuran induced oxidative stress in rat liver slices in vitro and also to evaluate protective role of vitamin C by incubating them in Krebs-Ringer HEPES Buffer (KRHB) containing incubation media (Williams medium E (WME) supplemented with glucose and a...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 10, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Evaluation of dermal irritation and skin sensitization due to Vitacoxib
Publication date: Available online 10 June 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Jianzhong Wang, Zhiyuan Li, Feifei Sun, Shusheng Tang, Suxia Zhang, Pengyyue Lv, Jing Li, Xingyuan Cao The prediction of side-effects is a key issue in the REACH initiative on chemicals in the preclinical testing of drugs. The dermal irritation and skin sensitization toxicity potential of a new molecule, vitacoxib, were invested in rabbits and guinea pigs in compliance with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development guideline. To assess dermal irritation, rabbits were dermally attached to vitacoxib for 72h or repeated appli...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 10, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Use of anabolic androgenic steroids produces greater oxidative stress responses to resistance exercise in strength-trained men
In conclusion, use of AAS is associated with alterations in immune function resulting in oxidative stress, and cell damage; however, high-intensity resistance exercise could increase greater oxidative stress biomarkers in strength-trained men. Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 9, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Modelling the Dynamics of Toxicity Associated with Aflatoxins in Foods and Feeds
Publication date: Available online 6 June 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Hafizu Ibrahim Kademi, Isa Abdullahi Baba, Farouk Tijjani Saad In this paper, we developed a mathematical model that describes the dynamics of aflatoxins in plants, animals, and humans. Four equilibrium points were found, and their stability analyses were conducted using threshold quantities. If both are less than one, the standardized toxic limit is not exceeded, while if both are greater than one the toxic limit is exceeded in both animals and humans. Standardized toxic limit is exceeded in a relevant host (animals or humans) when their ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 7, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

In vitro biological assessment of Homalium zeylanicum and isolation of lucidenic acid A triterpenoid
The objective of this work evaluates in vitro antioxidant, antidiabetic, and antiinflammatory properties of hydroalcohol extract of bark of H. zeylanicum (HAHZ). It also describes isolation and structure determination of lucidenic acid A, which is the first report in this plant. In order to explain the role of antioxidant principles, DPPH, nitric oxide, hydroxyl, superoxide and metal chelating assays were performed. Antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory activities were investigated by quantifying α-amylase, α-glucosidase and protein denaturation inhibitory activities of HAHZ. Biochemical estimations were performed...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 5, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine as a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage in workers exposed to low-dose benzene
Publication date: Available online 31 May 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Concettina Fenga, Silvia Gangemi, Michele Teodoro, Venerando Rapisarda, Kirill Golokhvast, Anca Docea, Aristidis M. Tsatsakis, Chiara Costa The present study aims to investigate the relation between exposure to low-dose benzene and the occurrence of oxidative DNA damage in gasoline station workers, as well as the possible role of interfering or confounding factors. Urine levels of 8-OHdG were evaluated by a competitive immunoassay in a group of 80 men, employed in gasoline stations located in East Sicily and compared with a control group (...
Source: Toxicology Reports - June 2, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Neurotoxic effect of active ingredients in sunscreen products, a contemporary review
Publication date: Available online 27 May 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Joanna A. Ruszkiewicz, Adi Pinkas, Beatriz Ferrer, Tanara V. Peres, Aristides Tsatsakis, Michael Aschner Sunscreen application is the main strategy used to prevent the maladies inflicted by ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Despite the continuously increasing frequency of sunscreen use worldwide, the prevalence of certain sun exposure-related pathologies, mainly malignant melanoma, is also on the rise. In the past century, a variety of protective agents against UV exposure have been developed. Physical filters scatter and reflect UV rays and che...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 28, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

CYP polymorphisms and pathological conditions related to chronic exposure to organochlorine pesticides
Publication date: Available online 26 May 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Anca Oana Docea, Loukia Vassilopoulou, Domniki Fragou, Andreea Letitia Arsene, Concettina Fenga, Leda Kovatsi, Dimitrios Petrakis, Valerii N. Rakitskii, Alexander E. Nosyrev, Boris N. Izotov, Kirill S. Golokhvast, Alexander M. Zakharenko, Antonis Vakis, Christina Tsitsimpikou, Nikolaos Drakoulis The association between genetic variations in the cytochrome P450 (CYP) family genes and pathological conditions related to long-term exposure to organochlorine compounds (OCs) deserves further elucidation. OCs are persistent organic pollutants wit...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 27, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Phthalates and Heavy Metals as Endocrine Disruptors in Food: a Study on Pre-Packed Coffee Products
Publication date: Available online 17 May 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Luca De Toni, Francesco Tisato, Roberta Seraglia, Marco Roverso, Valentina Gandin, Cristina Marzano, Roberto Padrini, Carlo Foresta Phthalate plasticizers and heavy metals are widely recognized to be pollutants that interfere with key developmental processes such as masculinization. We investigated the release of phthalates and heavy metals in coffee brewed from coffee packed in single-serve coffee containers made from different types of materials: metal, biodegradable and plastics. We detected with GC–MS small amounts phthalates, be...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 18, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Flame retardant tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TDCPP) toxicity is attenuated by N-acetylcysteine in human kidney cells
This study evaluated the toxicity of the commonly used fire retardant tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TDCPP) in cell line derived from the kidney, a major tissue target of organohalogen toxicity. TDCPP inhibited cell growth at lower concentrations (IC50 27μM), while cell viability and toxicity were affected at higher concentrations (IC50 171μM and 168μM, respectively). TDCPP inhibited protein synthesis and caused cell cycle arrest, but only at higher concentrations. Additionally, the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) reduced cell toxicity in cells treated with TDCPP, suggesting that exposure to TDCPP increa...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 18, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Oxidative injury caused by individual and combined exposure of neonicotinoid, organophosphate and herbicide in zebrafish
Publication date: Available online 17 May 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Saurabh Shukla, Reena C. Jhamtani, M.S. Dahiya, Rakhi Agarwal The greatest challenge in environmental toxicology is to understand the effects of mixture toxicity as environmental pollutants co-exist and exhibit combined effects. Thus, it is necessary to evaluate the mixture toxicity associated with two or more co-existing compounds. Pesticides are widely used to control pest, they are ubiquitous in nature and present in all environmental components. Pesticide residue can be detected in almost all components of environment and food samples....
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 17, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Amelioration of the Cyclophosphamide induced genotoxic damage in mice by the ethanolic extract of Equisetum arvense
Publication date: Available online 11 May 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Jasbir Kour, Md Niamat Ali, Hilal Ahmad Ganaie, Nahida Tabassum In the present study, we evaluated the potential of the plant E. arvense against the cytotoxic and mutagenic effects induced by cyclophosphamide (chemotherapeutic agent) in the bone marrow cells of mice using the Chromosome assay (CA) and Mitotic index (MI) in vivo as the biomarkers. The study was performed following 3 protocols: pre-treatment, simultaneous treatment and post-treatment with the ethanolic extract of the plant. The results demonstrated that the plant extract was...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 12, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Vinblastine, an anticancer drug, causes constipation and oxidative stress as well as others disruptions in intestinal tract in rat
Publication date: Available online 6 May 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Kaïs Rtibi, Dhekra Grami, Slimen Selmi, Mohamed Amri, Hichem Sebai, Lamjed Marzouki The purpose of this study is to examine the gastrointestinal disorders after injection of vinblastine (2mgkg−1 b.w. i.v.) in rats. Animals were divided into two equal groups: Group 1 was considered as a control group (NaCl, 0.9%). Group 2 was treated with intravenous injection of vinblastine for 7 days. Loperamide (2mgkg−1) was injected in a saline solution subcutaneously to induce constipation in another group of rats during the same period...
Source: Toxicology Reports - May 8, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Investigating the application of a nitroreductase-expressing transgenic zebrafish line for high-throughput toxicity testing
Publication date: Available online 27 April 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Anna C. Chlebowski, Jane K. La Du, Lisa Truong, Staci L. Massey Simonich, Robert L. Tanguay Nitroreductase enzymes are responsible for the reduction of nitro functional groups to amino functional groups, and are found in a range of animal models, zebrafish (Danio rerio) excluded. Transgenic zebrafish models have been developed for tissue-specific cell ablation, which use nitroreductase to ablate specific tissues or cell types following exposure to the non-toxic pro-drug metronidazole (MTZ). When metabolized by nitroreductase, MTZ produce...
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 28, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Genotoxicity and Antioxidant Activity of Spices and Herbs used in Brazilian cuisine
Publication date: Available online 20 April 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Regildo M.G. Silva, Ana Carolina M. Carvalho, Larissa S. Matiolli, Célia C.M. Figueiredo, Amanda C. Gomes, Paulo C. Ferreira, Luciana P. Silva Spices are natural plant products, which have been used not only as flavoring and coloring agents, but also as food preservatives and folk medicines throughout the world for thousands of years. Many spices also have been recognized by having both digestive stimulant and carminative actions and also antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic and anti-carcinogenic potential. Antioxidant...
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 21, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Reviews of the toxicity behavior of five potential engineered Nanomaterials (ENMs) into the aquatic ecosystem
Publication date: Available online 4 April 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Shanaz Jahan, Ismail Bin Yusoff, Yatimah Binti Alias, Ahmad Farid Bin Abu Bakar Presently, engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are used in a wide variety of commercial applications, resulting in an uncontrolled introduction into the aquatic environment. The purpose of this review is to summarize the pathways and factors that controlling the transport and toxicity of five extensively used ENMs. These toxicological pathways are of great importance and need to be addressed for sustainable implications of ENMs without environmental liabilities. H...
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 11, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Experimental study and mathematical modeling of toxic metals combined action as a scientific foundation for occupational and environmental health risk assessment. A summary of results obtained by the Ekaterinburg research team (Russia)
Publication date: Available online 11 April 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Ilzira A. Minigalieva, Boris A.Katsnelson, Vladimir G. Panov, Anatoly N. Varaksin, Vladimir B.Gurvich, Larisa I. Privalova, Marina P. Sutunkova, Svetlana V. Klinova Assessment of cumulative health risks associated with the widely observed combined effects of two or more metals and their compounds on the organism has the toxicology of mixtures as its scientific basis although there is no full match between such assessment and this basis while some of the contradictions between them are of a fundamental nature. This state of things may be ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 11, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Biomonitorization of iron accumulation in the substantia nigra from Lewy body disease patients
Publication date: Available online 31 March 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Belén Fernández, Isidro Ferrer, Fernando Gil, Sabine Hilfiker Iron levels in the healthy human brain are known to be high in certain areas such as the substantia nigra (SN), and increase further with age. In addition, there is some evidence for a further increase in iron load in the SN of Parkinsońs disease (PD) patients as compared to controls, which correlates with motor disability. Here, we have analyzed total iron levels in cells as well as mouse and human brain samples by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Our data...
Source: Toxicology Reports - April 1, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Assessment of the potential health risks associated with the aluminium, arsenic, cadmium and lead content in selected fruits and vegetables grown in Jamaica
Publication date: Available online 29 March 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Johann M.R. Antoine, Leslie A. Hoo Fung, Charles N. Grant Thirteen Jamaican-grown food crops − ackee (Blighia sapida), banana (Musa acuminate), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), carrot (Daucus carota), cassava (Manihot esculenta), coco (Xanthosoma sagittifolium), dasheen (Colocasia esculenta), Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo), sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and turnip (Brassica rapa) − were analysed for aluminium, arsenic, cadmium and lead by ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 29, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

dEpsidones inhibit aromatase activity and tumor cell proliferation in a co-culture of human primary breast ADIPOSE fibroblasts and T47D breast tumor cells
Publication date: Available online 19 March 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Suthat Chottanapund, M.B.M.Van Duursen, Anne Zwartsen, Supatchaya Timtavorn, Panida Navasumrit, Prasat Kittakoop, Sanya Sureram, Mathuros Ruchirawat, Martin Van den Berg Naturally occurring depsidones from the marine fungus Aspergillus unguis are known to have substantial anti-cancer activity, but their mechanism of action remains elusive. The purpose of this study was to examine the anti-aromatase activity of two common depsidones, unguinol and aspergillusidone A, in a co-culture system of human primary breast adipose fibroblasts and ho...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 20, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Ovarian protection in cyclophosphamide-treated mice by fennel
Publication date: Available online 14 March 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Hassanpour Azam, Yousefian Shirin, Askaripour Majid, Sharififar Fariba, Ezzatabadipour Massood Evaluation of protective effect of fennel on mouse ovary against the destructive effects of cyclophosphamide (CP) was the aim of this study. Adult female NMARI mice were randomly divided into six groups (n=8): (A) negative control, (B) CP200mg/kg, (C) fennel 400mg/kg/day, (E, F, and D) that received fennel 200, 400 and 100mg/kg/day respectively+CP200mg/kg. Their ovary weight, volume, and diameter (WVD) were measured. Five micron sections were s...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 14, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Bortezomib alters sour taste sensitivity in mice
In this study, we investigated the characteristics of bortezomib-induced taste disorder and the underlying mechanism in mice. Among the five basic tastes, the sour taste sensitivity of mice was significantly increased by bortezomib administration. In bortezomib-administered mice, protein expression of PKD2L1 was increased. The increased sour taste sensitivity induced by bortezomib returned to the control level on cessation of its administration. These results suggest that an increase in protein expression of PKD2L1 enhances the sour taste sensitivity in bortezomib-administered mice, and this alteration is reversed on cessa...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 11, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Organochlorine pesticide residues in dried cocoa beans obtained from cocoa stores at Ondo and Ile-Ife, Southwestern Nigeria
Publication date: Available online 6 March 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): J.A.O. Oyekunle, O.A. Akindolani, M.B. Sosan, A.S. Adekunle Levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in dried cocoa beans obtained from cocoa produce stores at Ondo and Ile-Ife, Southwestern Nigeria. Cocoa beans samples were sun dried to a constant weight, pulverized and soxhlet extracted with dichloromethane to obtain the OCPs. Qualitative identification and quantitative evaluation of the extracted OCPs after clean-up on silica gel were accomplished with the aid of a Gas Chromatography coupled with an Electron Capture D...
Source: Toxicology Reports - March 7, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Trifluoperazine inhibits acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity and hepatic reactive nitrogen formation in mice and in freshly isolated hepatocytes
Publication date: Available online 27 February 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Sudip Banerjee, Stepan B. Melnyk, Kimberly J. Krager, Nukhet Aykin-Burns, Sandra S. McCullough, Laura P. James, Jack A. Hinson The hepatotoxicity of acetaminophen (APAP) occurs by initial metabolism to N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine which depletes GSH and forms APAP-protein adducts. Subsequently, the reactive nitrogen species peroxynitrite is formed from nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide leading to 3-nitrotyrosine in proteins. Toxicity occurs with inhibited mitochondrial function. We previously reported that in hepatocytes the nNOS (NOS...
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 28, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Safety assessment of freeze-dried powdered Cassiae Semen: evaluation of chronic toxicity (26-week) in Sprague-Dawley rats
Publication date: Available online 24 February 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Yanyu Pei, Ruoyao Wei, Jingjiang Sun, Hong Gao There is a lack of safety assessment data regarding the long-term consumption of Cassiae Semen (Leguminosae, the seeds of Cassia obtusifolia L. and Cassia tora L.). Thus, we evaluated the toxicity of freeze-dried powdered Cassiae Semen in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were intragastrically administered freeze-dried powdered Cassiae Semen at a dose of 0.5, 2.2, or 10.0g/kg body weight/day for 26 weeks; several variables were assessed after 13 and 26 weeks as well as after a 4-w...
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 25, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Aerosol characterization and pulmonary responses in rats after short-term inhalation of fumes generated during resistance spot welding of galvanized steel
Publication date: Available online 22 February 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): James M. Antonini, Aliakbar Afshari, Terence G. Meighan, Walter McKinney, Mark Jackson, Diane Schwegler-Berry, Dru A. Burns, Ryan F. LeBouf, Bean T. Chen, Mohammad Shoeb, Patti C. Zeidler-Erdely Resistance spot welding is a common process to join metals in the automotive industry. Adhesives are often used as sealers to seams of metals that are joined. Anti-spatter compounds sometimes are sprayed onto metals to be welded to improve the weldability. Spot welding produces complex aerosols composed of metal and volatile compounds (VOCs) w...
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 23, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Diacetyl and 2,3-Pentanedione in Breathing Zone and Area Air During Large-Scale Commercial Coffee Roasting, Blending and Grinding Processes
Publication date: Available online 21 February 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Michael J. McCoy, Kimberly A. Hoppe Parr, Kim E. Anderson, Jim Cornish, Matti Haapala, John Greivell Recently described scientific literature has identified the airborne presence of 2,3-butanedione (diacetyl) and 2,3-pentanedione at concentrations approaching or potentially exceeding the current American Conference of Industrial Hygienists’ (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) at commercial coffee roasting and production facilities. Newly established National Institutes of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Expo...
Source: Toxicology Reports - February 21, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research