Morphologic and chemical composition of particulate matter in motorcycle engine exhaust
In conclusion, it can be pointed out that the agglomeration of particles can lead to the reduction in the toxicity of particles emissions originated from two wheeled-vehicles.Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Acute and sub acute studies of catechol derivatives from Semecarpus anacardium
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Ramalingam Sundaram, Muthu Karuppaiah, Palanivelu Shanthi, Panchanatham SachdanandamAbstractThe present study was aimed at evaluating the acute and subacute toxicity of catechol derivatives (I–IV, isolated from Semecarpus anacardium nuts) in Wistar Albino rats. In acute study (14 days), catechol derivatives I–IV 800 mg/kg caused no behavioral adverse effects and mortality. Fifty percent (LD50) of mortality was observed in catechol derivatives I–III (1600 mg/kg b.wt) and catechol derivative IV (1250 mg/kg b.wt). In subacute study,...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Whole-food phytochemicals antioxidative potential in alloxan-diabetic rats
ConclusionWhole foods containing naturally occurring phytochemicals and antioxidant vitamins such as legumes and whole grains are recommended, alongside medication, for controlling hyperglycaemia, blood lipids and oxidative status in diabetes.Graphical abstractJohar_Illustration 1 (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Assessment of the antioxidant and antimutagenic activity of extracts from goji berry of Greek cultivation
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Prodromos Skenderidis, Efthalia Kerasioti, Eleftheria Karkanta, Dimitrios Stagos, Demetrios Kouretas, Konstantinos Petrotos, Christos Hadjichristodoulou, Andreas TsakalofAbstractThe aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of ultrasound assisted aqueous extracts from dry goji berry fruits cultivated in Greece. The extracts’ free radical scavenging activity was assessed by the DPPH and ABTS+ assays. The results from both assays demonstrated that the extracts exhibited strong radical scavenging activity with IC50 va...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Nevada desert dust with heavy metals suppresses IgM antibody production
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Deborah E. Keil, Brenda Buck, Dirk Goossens, Brett McLaurin, Lacey Murphy, Mallory Leetham-Spencer, Yuanxin Teng, James Pollard, Russell Gerads, Jamie C. DeWittAbstractSystemic health effects from exposure to a complex natural dust containing heavy metals from the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area (NDRA) near Las Vegas, NV, were evaluated. Several toxicological parameters were examined following lung exposure to emissive dust from three geologic sediment types heavily used for recreational off-road activities: yellow sand very rich in arsenic (termed CBN 5); a...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Protective role of Emblica officinalis hydro-ethanolic leaf extract in cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in Rats
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Rupal Purena, Rohit Seth, Renu BhattAbstractNephrotoxicity is a major limiting factor in cisplatin treatment. In the present study hydro-ethanolic leaf extract of Emblica officinalis was investigated for its protective role in cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity. The experiment was designed for 14 days and male Wistar rats were divided into 9 groups (n = 5). Group 1 served as control (with no treatment), group 2 served as a vehicle control and received 0.9% NaCl intraperitoneally (i.p.) on 11th day of the treatment, group 3 received a single dose of ci...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The consequence of NAC on sodium arsenite-induced uterine oxidative stress
We examined the electrozymographic imprint of three different enzymatic antioxidants in uterine tissue. Rats fed with sodium arsenite exhibited a significant lessening in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Uterine DNA breakage, necrosis, ovarian and uterine tissue damage, disruption in steroidogenesis were also found in arsenic treated rats. Co-administration of NAC at different doses (50 mg/kg body weight, 100 mg/kg body weight, respectively) significantly reversed the action of uterine oxidative stress markers like malondialdehyde (MDA), conjugated dienes (CD) and...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish species from the Meiliang Bay, Taihu Lake, China
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Sivakumar Rajeshkumar, Xiaoyu LiAbstractIn the present study, the bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Cd, Pb) content were determined in freshwater edible fishes Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus and Pelteobagrus fluvidraco, which were caught from the Meiliang Bay, Taihu Lake, a large, shallow and eutrophic lake of China. The results showed that the Cr, Cu, Cd and Pb content in the edible parts of the two fish species were much lower than Chinese Food Health Criterion (1994). However, the results showed marked differences in the four analyzed metal content be...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Dietary soy isoflavones during pregnancy suppressed the immune function in male offspring albino rats
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Ghada Gamal Gaffer, Rania Abdelrahman Elgawish, Heba M.A. Abdelrazek, Hala M. Ebaid, Hend M. TagAbstractPhytoestrogens have an impact on both animals and humans due to use of legumes in animal diets as well as the increase of vegetarian diets in some human populations. Phytoestrogens thought to have varieties of adverse effects, among which immune system was involved. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of prenatal exposure to dietary soy isoflavones on some immunological parameters in male albino rat offspring. The pregnant rats were divide...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Exposure to sub-lethal dose of a combination insecticide during early embryogenesis influences the normal patterning of mesoderm resulting in incomplete closure of ventral body wall of chicks of domestic hen
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Shashikant Sharma, Gowri K. Uggini, Venus Patel, Isha Desai, Suresh BalakrishnanAbstractPesticide exposure to the non target groups especially during embryonic development has quite often resulted in congenital malformations. A commercially available combination insecticide (Ci, 50% chlorpyrifos and 5% cypermethrin) is known to induce ventral body wall defects (VBWDs) wherein abdominal viscera protrude out of the ventral body wall. Herein, an attempt was made to understand the mechanistic insight into Ci induced VBWDs. For this, before incubation, the chi...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Dose-dependent effects on rat liver miRNAs 200a/b and 429: potential early biomarkers of liver carcinogenesis
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): S.M. Plummer, J. Wright, R.A. CurrieAbstractAn increased incidence of liver tumours in the long term rodent bioassay is not an uncommon finding, invariably as a result of a non-genotoxic mode of action. Non-genotoxic liver carcinogenesis has been found to involve activation of certain nuclear hormone receptors (NHR) including the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) and arylhydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and more recently the induction of specific microRNAs (miRs), has also been demonstrated foll...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Efficacy of Lactobacillus plantarum in prevention of inflammatory bowel disease
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Bao Le, Seung Hwan YangAbstractThe incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing globally. Altered gut bacteria and bacterial metabolic pathways are two important factors in the initiation and progression of IBD. Lactobacillus plantarum is distributed in a variety of ecological niches, has a proven ability to survive gastric transit, and can colonize the intestinal tract of human and other mammals. Several studies have described the effects of L. plantarum consumption on human physiology. This review summarizes the safety and the effects of ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Montivipera bornmuelleri venom has immunomodulatory effects mainly up-regulating pro-inflammatory cytokines in the spleens of mice
This study also shows that 1 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg of M. bornmuelleri venom are able to modulate the levels of cytokines in the spleen of mice, as assessed by ELISA. In fact, this snake’s venom up-regulates TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1ß and IL-17 with a trend in decreasing IL-4 and IL-10. Therefore, by favoring Th1 and Th17 over Th2 and Treg responses, M. bornmuelleri venom might have important clinical implication especially in the field of cancer immunotherapy.Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Acetonic extract of Vernonia amygdalina (Del.) attenuates Cd-induced liver injury: Potential application in adjuvant heavy metal therapy
This study aimed at determining the effects of acetonic extract of Vernonia amygdalina leaf (AEVAL) in a Wistar rat model of Cd-induced liver injury. Phytochemical screening of the extract was carried out and its oral LD50 was determined to guide the choice of therapeutic doses. Thereafter, thirty male Wistar rats were recruited for this study. The experimental groups received 4 weeks oral graded doses of the extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) following Cd-induced liver injury. Cd-induced liver injury (5 mg/kg i.p for 5 consecutive days) was characterized by deleterious alterations in the levels of AST, ALT, ALP, total b...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Phytofabrication of Silver nanoparticles: Novel Drug to overcome hepatocellular ailments
This study aimed to treat hepatocellular ailments with biologically prepared silver nanoparticle (AgNPs). AgNPs were formulated using Morus alba leaf extract and their synthesis and characterization were determined by UV–visible spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Scanning Electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Zeta analysis. In vitro studies on HepG2 cell lines for cytotoxic effect and in vivo studies in a rat model for hepatoprotective effect were carried out using biologically prepared AgNPs as curing agents. Dose response cytotoxic...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Hematologic and serologic status of military working dogs given standard diet containing natural botanical supplements
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Eunchae Lee, Jun-Ha Choi, Ha-Jeong Jeong, Sung-Gu Hwang, Sangrak Lee, Jae-Wook OhAbstractThe health of military working dogs (MWDs) deployed with Korean troops is of prime importance. The aim of our study was to investigate the hematologic and serologic status of Korean MWDs given natural botanical supplements. To do this, 11 natural botanicals were selected based on relevant references and combined to supplement MWDs. Throughout the 16-week experimental periods, there was no significant difference in body weights of individual dogs. The Hemoglobin (HGB),...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Glutathione and Inter-α-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 3 (Itih3) mRNA levels in nicotine-treated Cd44 knockout mice
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Rochelle N. Wickramasekara, Seth Morrill, Yasmine Farhat, Sarah J. Smith, Deniz Yilmazer-HankeAbstractCluster of differentiation 44 (Cd44), a hyaluronan receptor, and the secreted hyaluronan-binding protein Inter-α-trypsin Inhibitor Heavy chain 3 (Itih3) play an important role in cancer and oxidative stress. Smoking of tobacco reduces Itih3 in the plasma and activates hyaluronan signaling through Cd44, but the impact of Cd44 on Itih3 expression is unknown. Here, we studied changes induced by the tobacco component nicotine on the glutathione (GSH) an...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The return of an old nemesis: Survival after severe tricyclic antidepressant toxicity, a case report
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Al Giwa, Edwin OeyAbstractTricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) were first approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use as antidepressants in the 1950s. Although their function as an antidepressant in the U.S. has largely been replaced by newer and safer alternatives, they are still prescribed for various conditions, including chronic pain and intractable depression. We will discuss a case of a TCA overdose presenting with generalized tonic-clonic seizures and multiple recurrent cardiac arrests. This is a case of a 34 year-old female who was brou...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The most important inferences from the Ekaterinburg nanotoxicology team’s animal experiments assessing adverse health effects of metallic and metal oxide nanoparticles
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Marina P. Sutunkova, Larisa I. Privalova, Ilzira A. Minigalieva, Vladimir B. Gurvich, Vladimir G. Panov, Boris A. KatsnelsonAbstractDuring 2009–2017 we have studied nanoparticles of elemental silver or gold and of iron, copper, nickel, manganese, lead, zinc, aluminium and titanium oxides (Me-NPs) using, in most cases, a single low-dose intratracheal instillation 24 h before the bronchoalveolar lavage to obtain a fluid for cytological and biochemical assessment and, in all cases, repeated intraperitoneal injections in non-lethal doses to induce sub...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Effects of the environmental endocrine disrupting compound benzo[a]pyrene on thyroidal status of abu mullet (Liza abu) during short-term exposure
In conclusion, according to the results of the present investigation, short term exposure to sublethal concentrations of BaP significantly affected thyroid function in fish. The results revealed BaP ability to alter thyroid function. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Varied dose exposures to ultrafine particles in the motorcycle smoke cause kidney cell damages in male mice
This study was aimed to investigate mice kidney cell physical damage (deformation) due to motorcycle exhaust emission exposures. The motorcycle exhaust emissions were sucked from the muffler with the rate of 33 cm3/s and passed through an ultrafine particle filter system before introduced into the mice exposure chamber. The dose concentration of the exhaust emissions was varied by setting the injected time of the 20s, 40s, 60s, 80s, and 100s. The mice were exposed to the smoke in the chamber for 100 s twice a day. The impact of the ultrafine particles on the kidney was observed by identifying the histological image of ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Heavy metal contamination of prenatal vitamins
This study was designed to assess toxic element contamination in prenatal supplements.Twenty-six commonly used prenatal vitamin brands including one prescription brand were collected from Canadian health-food outlets and pharmacies, and tested for toxic element contamination. Results were compared to established endpoints.All samples contained Lead with average amounts being (0.535 μgm), 20/51 samples exceeded established standards for lead toxicity (0.50 μgm/day), with one sample yielding 4. μgm/day. Three samples registered inorganic arsenic levels above acceptable limits. Cadmium levels did not exceed curre...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Effects of endosulfan isomers on cytokine and nitric oxide production by differentially activated RAW 264.7 cells
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Alexander I. Terry, Sandra Benitez-Kruidenier, Gregory K. DeKreyAbstractEndosulfan is an organochlorine insecticide comprised of two isomers: endosulfan-α and endosulfan-β. Endosulfan exposure has been shown to elevate some inflammatory factors, such as nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), in animals or cultures of animal cells. Because the two endosulfan isomers can vary in their biological activities, the goal of this study was to determine if individual endosulfan isomers differentially impact production of NO or TNF by the mou...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Bioactive profiling and therapeutic potential of mushroom (Pleurotus tuberregium) extract on Wistar albino rats (Ratus norvegicus) exposed to arsenic and chromium toxicity
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Emmanuel Temiotan Ogbomida, Kate Omofonmwan, Igiogbe Aganmwonyi, Iriagbonse Priscillia Fasipe, Alex Enuneku, Lawrence I.N. EzemonyeAbstractMushroom species are valued in gourmet traditions around the world for their unique taste, aroma, nutritional value and medicinal potentials. The bioactive profiling of P. tuberregium mushroom was evaluated to determine it therapeutic effect on Wistar albino rats exposed to arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr) toxicity. Proximate analysis of P. tuberregium showed high composition of carbohydrate (80.24) followed by moisture ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Ellagic acid attenuates arsenic induced neuro-inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction associated apoptosis
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Fakiha Firdaus, Mohd Faraz Zafeer, Ehraz Anis, Masood Ahmad, Mohammad AfzalAbstractArsenic, being a global pollutant needs a potential remedy which could fight against its associated toxicities. Ellagic acid (EA) is a known agent for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects, and it is commonly found in fruits. The present study is designed to determine protective efficacy of EA against arsenic induced toxicity with special mention to inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction in hippocampi of wistar rats. Rats were pre-treated with EA ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

A 14-day repeated-dose oral toxicological evaluation of an isothiocyanate-enriched hydro-alcoholic extract from Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds in rats
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Youjin Kim, Asha Jaja-Chimedza, Daniel Merrill, Odete Mendes, Ilya RaskinAbstractA 14-d short-term oral toxicity study in rats evaluated the safety of moringa isothiocyanate-1 (MIC-1)-enriched hydro-alcoholic moringa seeds extract (MSE). Rats (5 males/5 females per group) were gavaged daily for 14 d with the vehicle control or MSE, at 78 (low), 257 (mid-low), 772 (mid-high), or 2571 (high) mg/kg bw/d, standardized to MIC-1 (30, 100, 300, or 1000 mg/kg bw/d, respectively). Toxicological endpoints included body weight and weight gain, food consumption...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Protective effects of Asparagus officinalis extract against Bisphenol A- induced toxicity in Wistar rats
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Seyedeh Mahsa Poormoosavi, Hosein Najafzadehvarzi, Mohammad Amin Behmanesh, Reza AmirgholamiAbstractAsparagus officinalis is an herbal medicine with remarkable antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antihepatotoxic properties. The present study aimed to investigate whether Bisphenol A (BPA) could induce histopathological changes and oxidative stress in the liver and kidney tissues of male rats. In addition, we evaluated whether the co-administration of the Asparagus officinalis extract (AOE) could prevent the possible damages. In total, 40 adult male Wistar ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Determination of trace metals in fruit juices in the Portuguese market
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Mariana Anastácio, A.P. Marreilha dos Santos, Michael Aschner, Luísa MateusAbstractFruit juices are amongst the most non-alcoholic beverages appreciated and consumed in European countries, including Portugal. These beverages contain minerals, nutrients, trace elements, vitamins and phytochemicals, which are essential for a healthy life. However, fruit juices may also contain high levels of metals, posing a health risk to humans, especially to children, since they consume more fruit juice per body weight unit, and have a less varied diet than...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

A comprehensive review on chromium induced alterations in fresh water fishes
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): A. Bakshi, A.K. PanigrahiAbstractChromium is considered as one of the most common ubiquitous pollutants in the aquatic environment, but the pure metallic form is absent naturally. There are three oxidation states in case of Chromium viz., Cr (II), Cr (III), Cr (VI). Among which Cr (II) is most unstable. Cr (III) and Cr (VI) are the stable oxidation state of Chromium in the environment. Being one of the commonly used metals Chromium and its particulates enter the aquatic medium through effluents discharged from different industries like textiles, tanneries...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Assessment of fipronil toxicity on wistar rats: A hepatotoxic perspective
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): R.M. Kartheek, M. DavidAbstractExtensive pesticide application has contributed to environmental contamination globally, imposing adverse health effects on non-target organisms. Need for an understanding of cellular response following pesticide exposure is, therefore, paradigmatic for elucidating perturbations occurring within biological systems. The present investigation was aimed to examine safe and toxic dose level of a persistent, synthetic, phenylpyrazole based insecticide, Fipronil (FPN) on rat liver. Experimental animals were divided into four group...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

The study of acute and chronic toxicity of the sodium-, calcium-, iron-polygalacturonate pharmacological substance in rabbits
This study allow to classify PG Na,Ca,Fe as a preparation of the 6th class with respect to harmless drugs. An estimate of the chronic toxicity of PG Na,Ca,Fe at administration of preparation in the form of boluses to rabbits in doses 0.025, 0.262 and 0.5 g/kg of the body weight demonstrated that the general condition and behavior of animals did not differ from the norm. The data of hematological and biochemical studies of blood serum and urine, electrocardiographic studies, the study of the mass coefficients of the internal organs of the experimental rabbits, treated with PG Na,Ca,Fe in the mentioned doses for 60 days,...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Influence of formulation of ZnO nanoblokes containing metallic ions dopants on their cytotoxicity and protective factors: An in vitro study on human skin cells exposed to UVA radiation
This study shows that the synthesized Zn-based nanocomposites have potential to be used as safer and more effective sunscreens than ZnO.Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

NiO nanoparticles induce cytotoxicity mediated through ROS generation and impairing the antioxidant defense in the human lung epithelial cells (A549): Preventive effect of Pistacia lentiscus essential oil
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Khiari Mohamed, Kechrid Zine, Klibet Fahima, Elfeki Abdelfattah, Shaarani Md. Sharifudin, Krishnaiah DudukuAbstractNickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO NPs) have attracted increasing attention owing to potential capacity to penetrate to several human cell systems and exert a toxic effect. Elsewhere, the use of medicinal plants today is the form of the most widespread medicine worldwide. Utilizing aromatic plants as interesting source of phytochemicals constitute one of the largest scientific concerns. Thus this study was focused to investigate antioxidant and ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Essential oil from Cymbopogon flexuosus as the potential inhibitor for HSP90
This study shows the anticancer mechanism exhibited by the essential oil of C. flexuosus is by the inhibition of the important chaperone protein HSP90.Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Oral toxicity study of sports nutritional powder in Wistar rats: A 90 day repeated dose study
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Joby Jacob, Augustine Amalraj, Chandradhara Divya, Suresh Janadri, P.M. Manjunatha, Sreeraj GopiAbstractFitnox is a newly developed dietary ingredient for physical endurance composed of the extracts of Moinga oleifera leaf (45–50%), Kaempferia parviflora (black ginger) root (15–20%) and Punica granatum peel (25–30%). The aim of this study was to assess the subchronic oral toxicity of Fitnox (test substance) - in Wistar albino rats. Forty rats equally divided into 4 groups (control male, control female, treatment male and treatment female...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

What is the meaning of ‘A compound is carcinogenic’?
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Schrenk DieterAbstractChemical Carcinogens are compounds which can cause cancer in humans and experimental animals. This property is attributed to many chemicals in the public discussion, resulting in a widespread perception of danger and threat. In contrast, a scientific analysis of the wide and non-critical use of the term ‚carcinogenic’ is warranted. First, it has to be clarified if the compound acts in a genotoxic or non-genotoxic manner. In the latter case, an ineffective (safe) threshold dose without cancer risk can be assumed. In additi...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Effects of formaldehyde exposure on the development of pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin in mice
In conclusion our study showed that FA exposure aggravates the lung neutrophils influx and collagen production, but did not alter the lung elastance, mucus production, oedema and interstitial tickening. This work contributes to understand the effects of pollution in the development of PF.Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Biochemical effects of commercial feedstuffs on the fry of climbing perch (Anabas testudineus) and its impact on Swiss albino mice as an animal model
This study assesses the biochemical effects of commercially available fish feedstuffs on the fry of climbing perch (Anabas testudineus). Subsequently, its impact on experimental animal, Swiss albino mice, is also examined. In order to access the impact of commercial fish feed and feed consumption fish on the experimental animal, the proximate, biochemical and histopathological analyses were done using standard methods. The proximate composition as well as the concentrations of Pb, Ni, Mn, As, Zn, and Cd in the fish feed, different parts of the A. testudineus fish and different parts of the A. testudineus fish-treated exper...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Evaluation of the systemic toxicity and mutagenicity of OLIGOPIN®, procyanidolic oligomers (OPC) extracted from French Maritime Pine Bark extract
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): L Segal, MG Penman, Y PiriouAbstractThe potential systemic toxicity of Oligopin®, a French Maritime Pine Bark extract (FMPBE) rich in procyanidolic oligomers, was evaluated in an acute oral limit test and a 90-day repeated dose oral toxicity study with Sprague Dawley rats. The potential mutagenicity was assessed in a bacterial reverse mutation assay and in vitro mammalian chromosome aberration assay with human lymphocytes. The results indicate that Oligopin® was nongenotoxic in both bacterial and human cell assays, was not acutely toxic via oral a...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Development, qualification, validation and application of the Ames test using a VITROCELL® VC10® smoke exposure system
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Kathy Fowler, Wanda Fields, Victoria Hargreaves, Lesley Reeve, Betsy BombickAbstractThe Ames test has established use in the assessment of potential mutagenicity of tobacco products but has generally been performed using partitioned exposures (e.g. total particulate matter [TPM], gas vapor phase [GVP]) rather than whole smoke (WS). The VITROCELL®VC10® smoke exposure system offers multiple platforms for air liquid interface (ALI), or air agar interface (AAI) in the case of the Ames test exposure to mimic in vivo-like conditions for assessing the to...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Black bean peptides inhibit glucose uptake in Caco-2 adenocarcinoma cells by blocking the expression and translocation pathway of glucose transporters
The objective was to evaluate the effect of black bean protein fraction (PFRA), and its derived peptides on glucose uptake, SGLT1 and GLUT2 expression and translocation on Caco-2 cells. The effect of treatments was evaluated on glucose uptake, protein expression and localization and gene expression on Caco-2 cells. PFRA (10 mg/mL) lowered glucose uptake from 27.4% after 30 min to 33.9% after 180 min of treatment compared to untreated control (p 
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Influence of smoking and smoking cessation on levels of urinary 11-dehydro thromboxane B2
ConclusionsUrinary 11-dehydrothromboxaneB2 levels are increased in cigarette smokers, however, more data are needed to elucidate the effects of smoking cessation on urinary 11-dehydrothromboxaneB2 excretion. (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Neuro- and nephroprotective effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract against carboplatin and thalidomide through modulation of inflammation, tumor suppressor protein p53, neurotransmitters, oxidative stress and histology
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Mokhtar Ibrahim Yousef, Dina K.A.M. Khalil, Heba M. AbdouAbstractThe combination of thalidomide and carboplatin is one of the most potent chemotherapeutic strategies for the treatment of cancer. However, limited studies have been conducted on the neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of both chemotherapeutic agents. The aim of our study was to assess the toxicity of thalidomide and carboplatin combination on brain and kidney and investigate the protective effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE). Thalidomide and carboplatin induced up-regulation of...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Methylmercury promotes breast cancer cell proliferation
Discussion and conclusionsClarifying the effects of MeHg on breast cancer will improve our understanding of how environmental toxins affect tumor progression and may lead to the development of future therapeutic strategies.Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

HPLC-DAD fingerprinting analysis, antioxidant activities of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray leaves and its inhibition of key enzymes linked to Alzheimer’s disease
This study characterized the phenolic constituents, evaluated the antioxidant properties of phenolic extracts from T. diversifolia leaves used as traditional medicine in Africa and its inhibition of key enzymes linked to Alzheimer’s disease. The extract was rich in phenolic acids (gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid) and flavonoids (apigenin) and had 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil radical scavenging abilities (IC50 = 41.05 μg. mL−1), 2,2-Azino-bis3-ethylbenthiazoline-6sulphonic acid radical scavenging ability (IC50 = 33.51 μg. mL−1), iron chelation (IC50 =...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Acute toxicity of water and aqueous extract of soils from Champotón river in Lactuca sativa L.
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Carlos A. Chan-Keb, Claudia M. Agraz-Hernández, Roman A. Perez-Balan, Mónica I. Gómez-Solano, Teresita D.N.J. Maldonado-Montiel, Baldemar Ake-Canche, Eduardo J. Gutiérrez-AlcántaraAbstractThe seeds germination, stem and root elongation of water lettuces (Lactuca sativa L) were used to evaluate the phytotoxicity of water and soil of Champotón River, Campeche, Mexico. water and soil sample were collected from two sampling sites. Lettuce seeds were exposed to three different dilutions of water and aqueous extract of ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Capsaicinoids improve consequences of physical activity
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): Kazim Sahin, Cemal Orhan, Mehmet Tuzcu, Nurhan Sahin, Fusun Erten, Vijaya JuturuAbstractThe purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of capsaicinoids (CAPs) on lipid metabolism, inflammation, antioxidant status and the changes in gene products involved in these metabolic functions in exercised rats. A total of 28 male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 7) (i) No exercise and no CAPs, (ii) No exercise + CAPs (iii) Regular exercise, (iv) Regular exercise + CAPs. Rats were administered as 0.2 mg capsaicin...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Cissus quadrangularis extract (CQR-300) inhibits lipid accumulation by downregulating adipogenesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells
The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-obesity activity and the action mechanism of Cissus quadrangularis extracts (CQR-300) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Cissus quadrangularis was extracted with hot water, resulting in CQR-300. The anti-obesity activity of CQR-300 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes was examined by Oil-red O staining. Possible mechanisms of CQR-300 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were determined by real-time PCR and western blot. Treatment with CQR-300 inhibited lipid accumulation without showing cytotoxicity to 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Furthermore, CQR-300 decreased adipogenesis/lipogenesis-related mRNA expression levels of fatty...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Carcinogenic activity of pentabrominated diphenyl ether mixture (DE-71) in rats and mice
Publication date: 2018Source: Toxicology Reports, Volume 5Author(s): J.K. Dunnick, A.R. Pandiri, B.A. Merrick, G.E. Kissling, H. Cunny, E. Mutlu, S. Waidyanatha, R. Sills, H.L. Hong, TV. Ton, T. Maynor, L. Recio, S.L. Phillips, M.J. Devito, A. BrixAbstractPentabrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants have been phased out in Europe and in the United States, but these lipid soluble chemicals persist in the environment and are found human and animal tissues. PBDEs have limited genotoxic activity. However, in a 2-year cancer study of a PBDE mixture (DE-71) (0, 3, 15, or 50 mg/kg (rats); 0, 3, 30, or 100 mg/kg (mic...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Evaluation of genotoxicity of Euphorbia triaculeata Forssk. extract on mice bone marrow cells in vivo
This study also deals with the effect of E. triaculeata on the standard drug cyclophosphamide (CP) treatment in mice. Three different doses 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight were selected. In micronucleus assay, single oral dose administration of Euphorbia triaculeata extract at the three doses did not increase the number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. Similarly, a single oral administration of Euphorbia triaculeata extract showed no significant changes on mitotic indices or in induction of chromosomal aberrations in mice bone marrow cells. Pretreatment with E. triaculeata extract significantly reduced t...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research