Bisphenol A (BPA) the mighty and the mutagenic
Publication date: 2018 Source:Toxicology Reports, Volume 5 Author(s): Nasir Jalal, Austin R. Surendranath, Janak L. Pathak, Shi Yu, Chang Y. Chung Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the most widely used synthetic compounds on the planet. Upon entering the diet, its highest concentration (1–104 ng/g of tissue) has been recorded in the placenta and fetus. This accumulation of BPA can have many health hazards ranging from the easy to repair single strand DNA breaks (SSBs) to error prone double strand DNA breaks (DSBs). Although the Human liver can efficiently metabolize BPA via glucuronidation and sulfation pathways, howeve...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 20, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Bisphenol A (BPA) the mighty and the mutagenic.
Publication date: Available online 16 December 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Nasir Jalal, Austin R. Surendranath, Janak L. Pathak, Shi Yu, Chang Y. Chung Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the most widely used synthetic compounds on the planet. Upon entering the diet, its highest concentration (1–104 ng/g of tissue) has been recorded in the placenta and fetus. This accumulation of BPA can have many health hazards ranging from the easy to repair single strand DNA breaks (SSBs) to error prone double strand DNA breaks (DSBs). Although the Human liver can efficiently metabolize BPA via glucuronidation and sulfati...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 17, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Hyperosmolal vaginal lubricants markedly reduce epithelial barrier properties in a three-dimensional vaginal epithelium model
Publication date: Available online 16 December 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Seyoum Ayehunie, Ying-Ying Wang, Timothy Landry, Stephanie Bogojevic, Richard A. Cone Most of the widely used vaginal lubricants in the U.S. and Europe are strongly hyperosmolal, formulated with high concentrations of glycerol, propylene glycol, polyquaternary compounds or other ingredients that make these lubricants 4 to 30 times the osmolality of healthy vaginal fluid. Hyperosmolal formulations have been shown to cause marked toxicity to human colorectal epithelia in vivo, and significantly increase vaginal transmission of genital h...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 17, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Diclofenac - Induced Hepatotoxicity: Low, but not the High Dose of Omega -3 Fatty Acids have more Protective Effects
In conclusion, the pre-administration of N-3, preferably at a low dose, could reduce hepatotoxicity that could result from subsequent exposure to DF. Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 16, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

CYP1A gene expression as a basic factor for fipronil toxicity in Caspian kutum fish
Publication date: Available online 14 December 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Rashid Alijani Ardeshir, Hossein Zolgharnein, Abdolali Movahedinia, Negin Salamat, Ebrahim Zabihi The aim of this study was to assess the effects of fipronil insecticide on the Caspian kutum fish at different levels of biological organizations and to find possible relationship between these biomarkers. Different doses of fipronil (65, 130 and 200 mg/kg) were intraperitoneally administered to the fish for 2 weeks. After 7 and 14 days of exposure, alterations in organ-somatic index, tissue and DNA structure, oxidative stress and CYP...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 15, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

New research highlights: Impact of chronic ingestion of white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Beldia) on small-intestinal disaccharidase activity in Wistar rats
The objective of this study was to assess the gavage effects of a raw Beldia bean variety on the brush border disaccharidase activities in the jejunal mucosa of Wistar rats. Twenty young adult male rats were randomly assigned into 2 groups of 10 rats each: Control, rats were gavaged with 300 mg of a rodent pellet flour suspension (RPFS); Experimental, rats were orogastrically fed a dose of 300 mg Beldia bean flour suspension (BBFS). Prior to determining the disaccharidase activity by Dahlqvist method, the blood and stool specimens were collected on day 10. The sera and feces were screened for the presence of lectins by...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 15, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Effects of intragastrically-administered Tepary bean lectins on digestive and immune organs: Preclinical evaluation
Publication date: Available online 12 December 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Julia María Alatorre-Cruz, Wendoline Pita-López, Rosa Guadalupe López-Reyes, Roberto Augusto Ferriz-Martínez, Ricardo Cervantes-Jiménez, María de Jesús Guerrero Carrillo, Paola Jazmín Aranda Vargas, Gabriela López-Herrera, Adriana Jheny Rodríguez-Méndez, Aarón Zamora-Arroyo, Héctor Gutiérrez-Sánchez, Tércia Reis de Souza, Alejandro Blanco-Labra, Teresa García-Gasca Previous work showed that Tepary bean (Phaseolus acut...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 13, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Evaluation of acute toxicity of triazophos and deltamethrin and their inhibitory effect on AChE activity in Channa punctatus
Publication date: Available online 11 December 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Shikha Singh, Rishikesh K. Tiwari, Ravi S. Pandey Pesticides are applied to control the pests indoor and outdoor; however, their remarkable amount reaches to the aquatic system through various routes like run-off, leaching, spray-drift, effluent from factories. These are reported to have negative metabolic impact on different non-target aquatic organisms like fishes. Thus, present study is aimed to evaluate the acute toxicity of two groups of pesticides, organophosphate and pyrethroid, namely triazophos and deltamethrin, respectively....
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 12, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Hepatoprotective effect of food preservatives (butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene) on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rat
This study was carried out to establish the hepatoprotective measures of food preservative antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytolune (BHA, BHT) when mixed with food towards carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxication (230mg/kg b wt/rat/day) in rat. Biochemical markers like serum glutamate pyruvate tranaminase (AST), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin content, antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT, GPx, and malondialdehyde (MDA) as the end product of lipid peroxidanion were measured. The results had shown the elevated level of AST (121.16%), ALT (124...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 12, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxic effect of Moringa peregrina seeds on histological and biochemical analyses of adult male Albino rats
In this study, Moringa peregrina seeds, grown in high elevation mountain in Saint Catherin area, were investigated and evaluated for their toxicity with respect to its topological potential through histological and biochemical studies in Albino rats. Daily doses of 0, 500, 1000 and 2000mg/kg body weight of dry seed of M. peregrina were administered orally to 4 groups of rats for 14 days. Biochemical and histopathological results were evaluated by standard methods Measured biochemical parameters, insulin, albumin, total protein, creatinine, urea, uric acid, Follicle-stimulating hormone, Luteinizing hormone and Testosterone,...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 12, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Lateral flow immunoassay and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay as effective immunomethods for the detection of synthetic cannabinoid JWH-200 based on the newly synthesized hapten
In this study, we developed a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) and an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of JWH-200 in oral fluids. For this purpose a new hapten was prepared using a ten-step synthetic route. The developed immuno methods are based on antibodies obtained from rabbit immunised with synthesized hapten conjugated to carrier protein. The proposed methods are highly sensitive (LODLFIA =0.08±0.04ngmL−1; LODELISA =0.04±0.02ngmL−1). They were applied to the quantification of JHW-200 in spiked oral fluids. The recoveries ranged from 82 to 134% for both methods. The r...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 7, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

μSex, pregnancy, and age-specific differences of blood manganese levels in relation to iron status; what does it mean?
In conclusion, the differences between a physiological and a pathological hypermanganesemia complicate interpretation of the dose-response relationship. Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 7, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Evaluation of acute and sublethal effects of chloroquine (C18H26CIN3) on certain enzymological and histopathological biomarker responses of a freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio
In this study the toxicity of antimalarial drug chloroquine (CQ) on certain enzymological (GOT, GPT and LDH) and histopathological alterations (Gill, liver and kidney) of a freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio was studied after acute (96h) and sublethal (35 days) exposure. The median lethal concentration (96h) of CQ was 31.62mg/ml. During acute treatment (CQ at 31.62mg/ml) the treated fish groups showed a significant increase in GOT and GPT activities in blood plasma; whereas LDH activity was decreased when compare to control groups. To analyse the effects of drug at the lowest concentration, the fish were exposed to 3.16mg/ml ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 6, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Sex, pregnancy, and age-specific differences of blood manganese levels in relation to iron status; what does it mean?
In conclusion, the differences between a physiological and a pathological hypermanganesemia complicate interpretation of the dose-response relationship. Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 6, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Clinical value of drugs of abuse point of care testing in an emergency department setting
Conclusions The use of point of care TST-U in an Emergency Department helps physicians to understand the clinical condition of a patient. They influence the way a patient is treated to a lesser extent. These tests are most helpful in patients with decreased consciousness, psychiatric or neurological symptoms and mostly unhelpful in patients who, upon admission, are already known to be intoxicated. Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - December 2, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Neutralization of Naja naja venom induced lethality, edema and myonecrosis by ethanolic root extract of Coix lacryma-jobi
Publication date: Available online 24 November 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): K.S. Rajesh, B.R. Bharath, C.V. Rao, K.I. Bhat, K.S. Chandrashekhar Bhat K. S, Pritesh Bhat Coix lacryma-jobi, commonly known as job’s tear, is a tall grain-bearing tropical plant of the family Poaceae. The ethanolic root extract (ERE) of the plant was investigated for the first time for anti-venom activity against Indian cobra Naja naja venom. In-vitro studies were conducted to determine neutralization of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity of the Naja naja venom by the ERE. ERE showed significant inhibition of PLA2 activity, whic...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 25, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Longitudinal survey of lead, cadmium, and copper in seagrass Syringodium filiforme from a former bombing range (Vieques, Puerto Rico)
Publication date: Available online 24 November 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Elba Díaz, Dustin Pérez, Johanna Delgado Acevedo, Arturo Massol-Deyá Trace element composition in plant biomass could be used as an indicator of environmental stress, management practices and restoration success. A longitudinal study was conducted to compare Pb, Cd, and Cu content in seagrass Syringodium filiforme collected at a former bombing range in Puerto Rico with those of a Biosphere Reserve under similar geoclimatic conditions. Trace elements were measured by atomic absorption after dry-ashing of samples an...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 25, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

A retrospective study of clinico-epidemiological profile of snakebite related deaths at a Tertiary care hospital in Midnapore, West Bengal, India
Conclusion Snake bite is a neglected, life-threatening emergency in developing countries such as India and demands immediate anti-venom therapy. Hospital studies are a key source of information about snake bites. The ready availability and appropriate use of AVS, close monitoring of patients, the institution of ventilator support and if required, early referral to a larger hospital all help to reduce the mortality. Thus knowledge of the varied clinical manifestations of snake bite is important for effective management in hospitals by a complete health care team. Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 25, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxic effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (BDE 47 and 99) and localization of BDE-99 –induced cyp1a mRNA in zebrafish larvae
In this study, the toxicities of BDE-47 and BDE-99 at environmentally relevant concentrations (50 and 500nM) were evaluated in newly hatched zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae in vivo. A time-course study (8, 24, 48, and 96h) was performed. BDE-99 was observed to cause yolk sac edema and pericardial edema after 72h of exposure. Real-time polymerase chain reaction assay and whole-mount in situ hybridization assay confirmed cyp1a induction by BDE-99 in the liver and intestine. Continuous down-regulation of trβ by as much as 2.1-fold after 96h and transient down-regulation of ttr by 7.1-fold after 24h indicated the interfere...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 15, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

MicroRNAs and toxicology: a love marriage microRNAs in liquid biopsies are minimal-invasive biomarkers for tissue-specific toxicity
Publication date: Available online 13 November 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Elisabeth Schraml, Matthias Hackl, Johannes Grillari With the dawn of personalized medicine, secreted microRNAs (miRNAs) have come into the very focus of biomarker development for various diseases. MiRNAs fulfil key requirements of diagnostic tools such as i) non or minimally invasive accessibility, ii) robust, standardized and non-expensive quantitative analysis, iii) rapid turnaround of the test result and iv) most importantly because they provide a comprehensive snapshot of current physiologic process in cells and tissues that pack...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 14, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Gastro-protective effect of methanol extract of Vernonia amygdalina (del.) leaf on aspirin-induced gastric ulcer in Wistar rats
This study investigated the protective effects of methanol extract of Vernonia amygdalina leaf (MEVA) on aspirin induced gastric ulcer in rats. Thirty Wistar rats, 150–200g were divided into six groups as follows: Group 1 (control) rats received 2ml/kg of propylene glycol for 28 consecutive days. Group 2 (Ulcer Control) received 150mg/kg/day of aspirin suspended in 3ml of 1% carboxymethylcellulose in water orally for 3 consecutive days during which the rats were fasted for the induction of ulcer. Group 3 received cimetidine at 100mg/kg/day orally for 28 consecutive days and thereafter treated as group 2. Groups 4, 5 ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 14, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Bitter Orange (Citrus aurantium L.) Extract Subchronic 90-Day Safety Study in Rats
This study, performed per OECD 408 guidance, examined the 90-day subchronic safety/toxicity of an extract standardized to 50% p-synephrine at doses of 100, 300 and 1000mg/kg/day to male and female rats. No adverse effects were observed with respect to any of the observed parameters of clinical signs, functional observations of sensory reactivity, grip strength and motor activity, ophthalmology, body weights, hematology, food consumption, urinalysis, organ weights, as well as gross and microscopic pathology at termination at any of the doses in either sex. Treatment at 1000mg/kg body weight/day of the extract resulted in no...
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 13, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Acute oral toxicity evaluation of aqueous ethanolic extract of Saccharum munja Roxb. roots in albino mice as per OECD 425 TG
Conclusions From the data obtained in this study, It can be concluded that though LD50 is greater than 2000mg/kg b.w. but moderate toxicity signs appeared in liver, kidney, lipid profile and CBC also showed blood dyscresias at limit dose. Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - November 1, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Integration of novel approaches demonstrates simultaneous metabolic inactivation and CAR-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis of a nitrification inhibitor
Publication date: Available online 28 October 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Jessica L. LaRocca, Reza J. Rasoulpour, B.Bhaskar Gollapudi, David L. Eisenbrandt, Lynea A. Murphy, Matthew J. LeBaron Nitrapyrin, a nitrification inhibitor, produces liver tumors in mice at high doses. Several experiments were performed to investigate molecular, cellular, and apical endpoints to define the key events leading to the tumor formation. These data support a mode-of-action (MoA) characterized by constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) nuclear receptor (NR) activation, increased hepatocellular proliferation leading to hepatoc...
Source: Toxicology Reports - October 28, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Use of Toll-like receptor assays for the detection of bacterial contaminations in icodextrin batches released for peritoneal dialysis
Publication date: Available online 23 October 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Hêla Hacine-Gherbi, Agnès Denys, Mathieu Carpentier, Arnaud Heysen, Pierrick Duflot, Pierre Lanos, Fabrice Allain Icodextrin is a starch derivative used for preparing solutions of peritoneal dialysis. Unfortunately, peptidoglycans (PGN) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) have been reported to contaminate certain icodextrin batches and to contribute to the development of sterile peritonitis. The decision of selecting or rejecting icodextrin batches is however difficult, because of limitations in the detection of these bacterial ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - October 24, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Bisphenol S impairs blood functions and induces cardiovascular risks in rats
In conclusion, BPS probably impairs the functions of blood and promotes cardiovascular risks in rats. Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - October 21, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Magnesium stearate, a widely-Used food additive, exhibits a lack of in vitro and in vivo genotoxic potential
Publication date: Available online 16 October 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Cheryl A. Hobbs, Kazuhiko Saigo, Mihoko Koyanagi, Shim-mo Hayashi Magnesium stearate is widely used in the production of dietary supplement and pharmaceutical tablets, capsules and powders as well as many food products, including a variety of confectionery, spices and baking ingredients. Although considered to have a safe toxicity profile, there is no available information regarding its potential to induce genetic toxicity. To aid safety assessment efforts, magnesium sulfate was evaluated in a battery of tests including a bacterial rev...
Source: Toxicology Reports - October 16, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Dietary intake of heavy metals from eight highly consumed species of cultured fish and possible human health risk implications in Bangladesh
Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): A.K.M.Atique Ullah, M.A. Maksud, S.R. Khan, L.N. Lutfa, Shamshad B. Quraishi Concentrations of five heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, As and Hg) in eight highly consumed cultured fish species (Labeo rohita, Clarias gariepinus, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Cyprinus capio, Puntius sarana, Oreochromis mossambicus, Pangasius pangasius and Anabas testudineus) collected from four wholesale markets of Dhaka city, Bangladesh (Karwan Bazar, Mohammadpur Town Hall, Newmarket and Mirpur-1) were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) in order ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - October 13, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Sub-acute administration of lower doses of nicotine caused sex-dependent improvement of renal function in Wistar rats
This study aimed at determining dose- and sex-specific effects of sub-acute (28 days) NIC administration on some indices of kidney function in Wistar rats. Forty rats (20 males and 20 females), 8–9 weeks old (each housed in separate metabolic cage), were used for this study such that graded doses of NIC (1, 2 and 4mg/kg i.p. for 28 days) were administered to both sexes while each control received distilled water at 0.2ml/100g i.p. Blood was collected under ketamine anesthesia (10mg/kg i.m) for analyses and results obtained were compared at p <0.05. The result showed beneficial alterations in plasma and urine l...
Source: Toxicology Reports - October 11, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic waves alters acetylcholinesterase gene expression, exploratory and motor coordination-linked behaviour in male rats
In conclusions, these data showed that long term exposure to WiFi may lead to adverse effects such as neurodegenerative diseases as observed by a significant alteration on AChE gene expression and some neurobehavioral parameters associated with brain damage. Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - October 3, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Effect of arsenic acid withdrawal on hepatotoxicity and disruption of erythrocyte antioxidant defense system
Publication date: Available online 28 September 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): A.A. Oyagbemi, T.O. Omobowale, E.R. Asenuga, J.M. Afolabi, O.A. Adejumobi, A.A. Adedapo, M.A. Yakubu We investigated the effects of withdrawal from Sodium arsenite (NaAsO2) on the hepatic and antioxidant defense system in male Wistar rats using a before and after toxicant design. Rats were orally gavaged daily with varying doses of NaAsO2 for a period of 4 weeks. One half of the population was sacrificed and the remaining half had the toxicant withdrawn for another further 4weeks. Biochemical and immunohistochemical techniques were u...
Source: Toxicology Reports - September 29, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

A Review on the toxicology and dietetic role of bacterial cellulose
Publication date: Available online 25 September 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Fernando Dourado, Miguel Gama, Ana Cristina Rodrigues Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a biopolymer synthesized by certain acetic acid bacteria strains. The safety of BC regarding its potential use in food applications is here reviewed. The acute, sub-acute and subchronic oral toxicity assays showed that consumption of BC had no adverse effects in rats. Several studies demonstrated that BC is not genotoxic, did not induce chromosomal aberrations in CHO cells under both non-activating and metabolic activating conditions, is inactive in the...
Source: Toxicology Reports - September 26, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Exposure of the endangered Milky stork population to cadmium and lead via food and water intake in Kuala Gula Bird Sanctuary, Perak, Malaysia
In conclusion, there is an urgent need to improve the current habitat quality to protect the endangered species. The authors also emphasized on the protection of remaining Milky stork’s habitats i.e. mudflats and mangroves and the creation of buffer zone to mitigate the negative impacts that may arise from pollution activity. Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - September 15, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxicological Evaluation of the Flavour Ingredient N-(1-((4-amino-2,2-dioxido-1H-benzo[c][1,2,6]thiadiazin-5-yl)oxy)-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-2,6-dimethylisonicotinamide (S2218)
Publication date: Available online 14 September 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Donald S. Karanewsky, Guy Servant, Hanghui Liu, Bert Chi, Lily Ida, Michael Saganich, Sara Werner, Joseph R. Fotsing, Andrew Patron, Catherine Tachdjian, Amy Arthur A toxicological evaluation of N-(1-((4-amino-2,2-dioxido-1H-benzo[c][1,2,6]thiadiazin-5-yl)oxy)-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-2,6-dimethylisonicotinamide (S2218; CAS 1622458-34-7), a flavour with modifying properties, was completed for the purpose of assessing its safety for use in food and beverage applications. S2218 exhibited minimal oxidative metabolism in vitro, and in rat ph...
Source: Toxicology Reports - September 15, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

A 28-day oral toxicology study of an aqueous extract of Polypodium leucotomos (Fernblock ®)
Publication date: Available online 12 September 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Timothy S. Murbach, Róbert Glávits, Gábor Hirka, John R. Endres, Amy E. Clewell, Ilona Pasics Szakonyiné Fernblock® is a standardized commercial aqueous extraction of the leaves of the tropical fern Polypodium leucotomos promoted as an orally active photoprotective substance. In a previous battery of toxicological tests on Fernblock®, no genotoxicy was observed and no oral toxicity was observed up to 1200mg/kg bw/day. The current study was conducted in Hsd.Han Wistar rats using doses of 0, 2000, 35...
Source: Toxicology Reports - September 13, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

In vivo Immunoprotective role of Indigofera tinctoria and Scoparia dulcis aqueous extracts against chronic noise stress induced immune abnormalities in Wistar albino rats
Publication date: Available online 6 September 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Boothapandi Madakkannu, Ramanibai Ravichandran Indigofera tinctoria and Scoparia dulcis are being widely used in Indian folk medicine for the treatment of various disorders. Environmental noise pollution is thought to be an important factor for many health problems and it causes immune abnormalities. In the present study immune-regulating potential of I. tinctoria and S. dulcis aqueous extracts on innate and adaptive immune system of wistar albino rats was evaluated during normal and chronic noise induced stress conditions. The result...
Source: Toxicology Reports - September 7, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Hepatoprotective Effect of Methanolic Tanacetum Parthenium Extract on CCl4-Induced Liver Damage in Rats
Publication date: Available online 30 August 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Yavar Mahmoodzadeh, Mohammad Mazani, Lotfollah Rezagholizadeh The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Tanacetum Parthenium Extract (TPE) on Lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes, biochemical factors, and liver enzymes in the rats damaged by Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4). 54 male Wistar rats were divided into 9 groups each consisting of 6 rats. Two of the groups were control groups (normal and damage control groups), 4 of them were exposure groups which were respectively administered with 40, 80, and 120mg/kg of TPE a...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 30, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Taurine abated subacute dichlorvos toxicity
Publication date: Available online 30 August 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): M.G. Akande, U.S. Ahmed The aim of the study was to determine the effects of taurine in rats exposed to subacute dichlorvos toxicity. Fifty rats were weighed and assigned into five groups of ten rats each. The groups received: distilled water, soya oil (1ml/kg), taurine (50mg/kg), dichlorvos (10mg/kg) and the combination treatment group received taurine first and then dichlorvos 30minutes later. The treatments were administered once daily by oral gavage for 4 weeks. The rats were euthanized and blood samples were collected after the ter...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 30, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Emerging various environmental threats to brain and Overview of surveillance system with Zebrafish model
Publication date: Available online 30 August 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Rafael Vargas, Johny Ponce-Canchihuamán Pathologies related to neurotoxicity represent an important percentage of the diseases that determine the global burden of diseases. Neurotoxicity may be related to the increasing levels of potentially neurotoxic agents that pollute the environment, which generates concern, since agents that affect children may increase the incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders, affecting the quality of life of future citizens. Many environmental contaminants have been detected, and many of them derive ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 30, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

UVB damage onset and progression 24h post exposure in human-derived skin cells
This study investigated the acute cellular damages triggered by UVB exposure of cultured human fibroblasts and keratinocyte cells immediately and 24h post exposure in order to understand damage onset and progression. The study evaluated a number of cellular parameters including mitochondria, lysosomes, cell membrane, DNA damages as well as pro and anti-apoptotic protein expression levels. Cellular organelle damages were assessed by a battery of in vitro toxicological assays using MTS and Neutral red cytotoxicity assays. Cell membrane damages were also assessed by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme leakage from UV...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 2, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

A severe myopathy case in aged patient treated with high statin dosage
Publication date: Available online 1 August 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Canzonieri Elena, De Candia Cristina, Tarascio Salvatore, Giamporcaro Silvia, Lumera Giovanni, Rigano Giuseppe, Incognito Carmela, Privitera Filippo, Guarnaccia Agata, Foti Pietro Valerio, Palmucci Stefano, Gangemi Pietro, Fuccio-Sanzà Giulia, Signorelli Salvatore Santo Statins (S) are widely used drugs for cardiovascular prevention however their utilization may cause a various grade of muscle toxicity. Sometime S discontinuation alone is not sufficient to revert muscle injury and this can evolve in serious inflammatory muscle dis...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 2, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Farnesiferol C induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis mediated by oxidative stress in MCF-7 cell line
In this study, we sought the hypothesis that oxidative stress induced by Farnesiferol C contribute to anticancer property and induce apoptosis in MCF-7, human breast cancer cell line. We investigated the effect of Farnesiferol C on oxidative stress by measurement of some enzymes activity including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as some parameters such as total thiol and ROS levels. Also we evaluated Farnesiferol C effects on the cell cycle and apoptosis induction by using flow cytometry analysis. Our findings demonstrated that Farnesiferol C significantly induced apoptosis mediat...
Source: Toxicology Reports - August 2, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Is Andrographis paniculata extract and andrographolide anaphylactic?
Publication date: Available online 29 July 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Chandrasekaran Chinampudur Velusami, Edwin Jothie Richard, Sasikumar Murugan, Bharathi Bethapudi, Ramanaiah Illuri, Deepak Mundkinajeddu Andrographis paniculata, “King of bitters” is a popularly known medicinal plant extensively used in many parts of the world for treatment of various diseases. Since recent past, anaphylactic/allergic type adverse events were reported upon A. paniculata usage, the study aimed to evaluate the anaphylactic and anaphylactoid potential of A. paniculata extract and andrographolide (a major phytoact...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 30, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Acute aflatoxin B1 − induced hepatotoxicity alters gene expression and disrupts lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in rats
In this study, alterations in lipid metabolism associated with acute aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) induced hepatotoxicity and gene expression changes underlying these effects were investigated. Rats were orally administered three doses (0.25mg/kg, 0.5mg/kg and 1.0mg/kg) of AFB1 for seven days; after which blood was collected and liver excised. Lipid profiles of plasma and liver were determined spectrophotometrically while the expression of genes associated with lipid and lipoprotein metabolism was assayed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Acute exposure to AFB1 increased the levels of plasma and liver cholesterol, ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 25, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

A hospital based epidemiological study of snakebite in Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal, India
Conclusion Snakebite is a neglected health issue in Paschim Medinipur district. Lack of snakebite data is due to under reporting. In the present study we have attempted to investigate the official data available on snakebite from 10 blocks of Paschim Medinipur district which has been identified for high snakebite incidence. Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 25, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

In vitro cytotoxicity of zinc oxide, iron oxide and copper nanopowders prepared by green synthesis
Publication date: Available online 24 July 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): S. Saranya, K. Vijayaranai, S. Pavithra, N. Raihana, K. Kumanan In vitro cytotoxic effects of ZnO, FeO and Cu metallic nanopowders (NPs) on Vero (African green monkey kidney cell line), PK 15 (Pig kidney cell line) and Madin Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cell lines were investigated at different time intervals (24 and 48hrs). MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay was used to determine the cytotoxic effects of green synthesized (plant based) nanopowders. The comparative effects of exposure period and concent...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 25, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Haematological evaluation of sodium fluoride toxicity in oryctolagus cunniculus
This study aimed to determine the toxicity of Sodium Fluoride on hematological parameters in Oryctolagus cunniculus. Twenty rabbits were acclimatized and divided in to control group and three experimental groups.Experimental group-I, II and III were treated with 10, 30 and 50 mg/kg body weight doses of Sodium Fluoride orally. Various blood parameters such as TEC, Hb, HCT, MCV, MCH, MCHC, TLC and PLT count were investigated. Result findings showed that values of blood indices in experimental groups were significantly lower than the control group. Oneway ANOVA was applied for statistical analysis. The outcomes of the ...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 20, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant role of resveratrol on nicotine-induced lung changes in male rats
Publication date: Available online 17 July 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Reham Z. Hamza, Nahla S. El-Shenawy Male albino rats of Wistar strain were injected intraperitoneally with nicotine or/and resveratrol for 4 weeks. Serum Interleukin-2, Interleukin-6, alpha-fetoprotein and tumor necrosis-alpha, as well as plasma 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine of nicotine-treated rats were increased significantly. Myeloperoxidase, xanthine oxidase, nitric oxide, lipid peroxidation and total oxidative status of the lung in nicotine-treated rats were increased significantly, which were brought down to normal in resveratrol co-treat...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 18, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Neuropharmacological profile and chemical analysis of fresh rhizome essential oil of Curcuma longa (turmeric) cultivated in Southwest Nigeria
Conclusion The major component of the essential oil of this C. longa species was turmerone; the oil was slightly toxic orally but moderately toxic intraperitoneally in mice; exhibited significant anxiolytic, sedative and anticonvulsant activities in mice. Graphical abstract (Source: Toxicology Reports)
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 17, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Elements of kitchen toxicology to exploit the value of traditional (african) recipes: the case of egusi okra meal in the diet of hiv+/aids subjects
Publication date: Available online 1 July 2017 Source:Toxicology Reports Author(s): Chiara Frazzoli, Francesca Mazzanti, Mercy Bih Achu, Guy Bertrand Pouokam, Elie Fokou The Egusi Okra soup is a traditional African meal that is considered of high nutritional value and protective against weight loss. We introduce the concept of “kitchen toxicology” to analyse the recipe of the Egusi Okra soup and highlight possible mitigation measures for toxic and/or antinutritional effects in the wide spectrum of health and nutritional needs of HIV+/AIDS subjects. In particular, we focus on toxicants (environmental contaminan...
Source: Toxicology Reports - July 1, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research