Effects of acrolein in comparison to its prodrug cyclophosphamide on human primary endothelial cells in vitro.
Jung F Abstract Cyclophosphamide (CPA) is one of the most successful anticancer prodrugs that becomes effective after biotransformation in the liver resulting in the toxic metabolite acrolein. Cancer is often accompanied by thromboembolic events, which might be a result of dysfunctional endothelial cells due to CPA treatment. Here, the effect of 1 mM CPA or acrolein (10/50/100/500 μM) on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) was analyzed after two days of treatment. The addition of CPA or 10 μM acrolein did not affect HUVEC. However, concentrations of 100 μM and 500 μM acrolein sign...
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - October 18, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Lau S, Rangarajan R, Philidet C, Krüger-Genge A, Braune S, Kammerer S, Küpper JH, Lendlein A, Jung F Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

Toxicological evaluation of 3-(4-Chlorophenylselanyl)-1-methyl-1H-indole through the bovine oocyte in vitro maturation model.
;o EJ, Collares T Abstract The development of new bioactive molecules based on the molecular hybridization has been widely explored. In line with this, reliable tests should be employed to give information about the toxicology of these new molecules. In this sense, the use of in vitro tests is a valuable tool, especially the in vitro maturation of oocytes (IVM), which is an efficient resource to discover the potential toxicity of synthetic molecules. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the toxicological effects of the selenium-containing indolyl compound 3-(4-Chlorophenylselanyl)-1-methyl-1H-indole ...
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - October 17, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Paschoal JDF, Lopes IA, Borges MA, Feijó AL, Simões LD, Segatto NV, Campos VF, Seixas F, Casaril AM, Savegnago L, Lenardão EJ, Collares T Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

Vitamin E protects against cisplatin-induced genotoxicity in human lymphocytes.
Abstract Cisplatin is an anticancer drug that is widely used in treatments of human malignancies such as ovaries,' testes,' and solid tumors of the head and neck. However, the use of cisplatin in the treatments can be associated with DNA damage and high risk to the development of secondary malignancies. Vitamin E is a strong lipophilic antioxidant that has the ability to protect normal cells from chromosomal damage and promote the repair of the damaged DNA. In the current study, the possible protective effect of vitamin E on DNA damage induced by cisplatin was investigated. For that, chromosomal aberrations (CAs) ...
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - October 17, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Al-Eitan LN, Alzoubi KH, Al-Smadi LI, Khabour OF Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

High bisphenol A concentrations augment the invasiveness of tumor cells through Snail-1/Cx43/ERR γ-dependent epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
High bisphenol A concentrations augment the invasiveness of tumor cells through Snail-1/Cx43/ERRγ-dependent epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Toxicol In Vitro. 2019 Oct 17;:104676 Authors: Ryszawy D, Pudełek M, Kochanowski P, Janik-Olchawa N, Bogusz J, Rąpała M, Koczurkiewicz P, Mikołajczyk J, Borek I, Kędracka-Krok S, Karnas E, Zuba-Surma E, Madeja Z, Czyż J Abstract Bisphenol A (BPA) is commonly present in plastics used for food storage and preservation. The release of BPA from these products results in a permanent human exposition to BPA; however, the quality and quantity of BPA advers...
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - October 17, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Ryszawy D, Pudełek M, Kochanowski P, Janik-Olchawa N, Bogusz J, Rąpała M, Koczurkiewicz P, Mikołajczyk J, Borek I, Kędracka-Krok S, Karnas E, Zuba-Surma E, Madeja Z, Czyż J Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

Benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) triggers the malignancy of acute myeloid leukemia cells via upregulation of PDK4.
Abstract Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is a cancer of hematopoietic stem cells with a rapid progression. Recent studies indicated that endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs) are potential risk factors for AML progression. Our present data showed that an industrial endocrine disrupting chemical, Benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), can promote the proliferation of AML cells and decrease their sensitivity to daunorubicin (DNR) and cytarabine (Ara-C) treatments. Further, BBP can increase the glucose consumption, lactate generation, and ATP levels of AML cells. Among the measured glycolysis-related genes, BBP can increase the e...
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - October 17, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Duan XL, Cong-Cong M, Hua J, Xiao TW, Luan J Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

Methylisothiazolinone induces apoptotic cell death via matrix metalloproteinase activation in human bronchial epithelial cells.
In this study we demonstrated that MIT (2, 4 and 8 μg/mL) induced dose-dependent cytotoxicity 24 h after exposure to BEAS-2B cells. Additionally, MIT impaired structure and function of intracellular organelles via oxidative stress, ultimately leading to apoptotic cell death. We also found notable activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and clear aggregation of nucleolus proteins in MIT-treated cells. Furthermore, MIT increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and interferon-γ) and a chemokine (IL-8), and microarray and the KEGG pathway analysis proposed possible ca...
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - October 17, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Park EJ, Seong E Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

An acute lytic cell death induced by xanthohumol obstructed ROS detecting in HL-60 cells.
Abstract Serum is an important component in cell culture medium. It also possesses potent antioxidant properties. Therefore, the conventional protocols for detecting reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cultured cells with fluorescent probes include washing and suspending cells with serum-free buffers, such as PBS. This transient serum deprivation is essential for the ROS detecting. Unfortunately, it may also cause unexpected results, which push us to choose more optimal experiment conditions. In the present study, we found an acute lytic cell death induced by xanthohumol (XN), which obstructed ROS detecting in human ...
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - October 17, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Wang CM, Huo X, Chen J, Liu JW, Yang TY, Mi XQ, Meng Y, Zhou L, Lin CJ, Liu J Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

Titanate nanotubes at non-cytotoxic concentrations affect NO signaling pathway in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
In conclusion, our results indicated that TiNTs, albeit not cytotoxic, might impair NO signaling pathway in human endothelial cells leading to the activation of endothelial cells. PMID: 31629902 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Toxicology in Vitro)
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - October 17, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Li S, Liu H, Zhou Z, Cao Y Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

Apoptosis contributes to the cytotoxicity induced by amodiaquine and its major metabolite N-desethylamodiaquine in hepatic cells.
In this study, we examined the cytotoxicity of ADQ and its major metabolite N-desethylamodiaquine (NADQ) and the effect of cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated metabolism on ADQ-induced cytotoxicity. After a 48-h treatment, ADQ and NADQ caused cytotoxicity and induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells; NADQ was slightly more toxic than ADQ. ADQ treatment decreased the levels of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins, which was accompanied by an increase in the levels of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins, indicating that ADQ-induced apoptosis was mediated by the Bcl-2 family. NADQ treatment markedly increased the phosphorylation of JNK, e...
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - October 16, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Tang Y, Wu Q, Beland FA, Chen S, Fang JL Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

In vitro screening and toxic mechanism exploring of leading components with potential hepatotoxicity of Herba Epimedii extracts.
In this study, the components of four types of the Herba Epimedii extracts were identified by HPLC-MS/MS. Among these components, 11 components that were present in all four extracts and could be obtained as reference substances were evaluated for their ability of cytotoxicity in HL-7702 and HepG2 cells, resulting in the identification of icarisid I and sagittatoside A as the most relevant with respect to the toxicity of the extracts. The targeted toxicological effects were further investigated using a series of correlated biological indicators to elucidate potentially hepatotoxic mechanisms. The results showed that the ex...
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - October 16, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Zhang L, Xu AL, Yang S, Zhao BS, Wang T Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

Doxorubicin-induced toxicity to 3D-cultured rat ovarian follicles on a microfluidic chip.
This study specifically demonstrates the synergistic effects of some signaling molecules on DOX-mediated cellular functions of OFs and demands some meditative measures to decipher this toxicity for supporting the female endocrine and reproductive functions. PMID: 31629067 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Toxicology in Vitro)
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - October 16, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Aziz AUR, Yu X, Jiang Q, Zhao Y, Deng S, Qin K, Wang H, Liu B Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

Impairment of mitochondrial bioenergetics and permeability transition induction caused by major long-chain fatty acids accumulating in VLCAD deficiency in skeletal muscle as potential pathomechanisms of myopathy.
Abstract cis-5-Tetradecenoic (cis-5) and myristic (Myr) acids predominantly accumulate in patients affected by very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency. They commonly manifest myopathy with muscular pain and rhabdomyolysis, whose underlying mechanisms are poorly known. Thus, in the present study we investigated the effects of cis-5 and Myr on mitochondrial bioenergetics and Ca2+ homeostasis in rat skeletal muscle. cis-5 and Myr decreased ADP-stimulated (state 3) and CCCP-stimulated (uncoupled) respiration, especially when mitochondria were supported by NADH-linked as compared to FADH2-linked subst...
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - October 16, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Cecatto C, Amaral AU, Roginski AC, Castilho RF, Wajner M Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

Silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite composite membranes: Production, characterization and toxicity evaluation.
In conclusion, SF and SF-HA membranes presented adequate mechanical resistance to act respectively as wound healing or bone filling materials, and they were hydrophilic. SF-HA membrane did not present any toxic potential and allowed cell adhesion and proliferation. The unexpected cyto/genotoxicity and mutagenic effect of SF evidenced the importance of investigating the toxic potential of biomaterials, mainly those in contact with human body for prolonged time. PMID: 31629069 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Toxicology in Vitro)
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - October 16, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Coelho F, Cavicchioli M, Specian SS, Cilli EM, de Lima Ribeiro SJ, Scarel-Caminaga RM, de Oliveira Capote TS Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

A new corneal epithelial biomimetic 3D model for in vitro eye toxicity assessment: Development, characterization and applicability.
Abstract In vitro eye toxicity assessment using reconstructed corneal epithelial models has emerged highlighting its applicability domain for Classification and Labeling of products and chemicals. However, due to bureaucratic issues, such models are not commercially available in Brazil and Latin America. In this work, we developed, characterized and evaluated the applicability of a new corneal epithelial biomimetic model using a cell lineage for in vitro eye toxicity assessment. The reconstructed tissue was obtained through the cultivation of HaCaT cells in an air-liquid interface, which presented morphology and b...
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - October 16, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: da Silva ACG, Chialchia AR, de Castro EG, E Silva MRL, Arantes DAC, Batista AC, Kitten GT, Valadares MC Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

Development of an estrogen-dependent breast cancer co-culture model as a tool for studying endocrine disruptors.
Abstract We developed an innovative co-culture system composed of Hs578t human mammary stromal-like cells and T47D hormone-dependent breast epithelial tumor cells as a representative in vitro model of the human hormone-dependent mammary tumor microenvironment. Hs578t cells expressed aromatase (CYP19) mainly via the healthy stromal CYP19 promoter I.4, but also to a lesser extent via the breast cancer-relevant promoters PII, I.3 and I.7, and produced estrogens from androgen precursors. These estrogens stimulated T47D cell proliferation and estrogen receptor-dependent expression of trefoil factor-1 (TFF1), which is k...
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - October 16, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Yancu D, Viau R, Sanderson T Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

A rapid assay of human thyroid peroxidase activity.
Abstract Impaired synthesis or action of thyroid hormones (THs) during critically sensitive periods of development can have long term adverse effects on health. Development of rapid assays to identify chemicals that impair THs physiology is an important goal for reducing risks from chemical use. Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is a key enzyme regulating THs synthesis in thyroid gland and a vulnerable target for chemicals that disrupt THs synthesis. To develop a human-relevant, rapid assay for TPO inhibition, we have engineered two cell lines (CHO and LentiX- 293) to express active human TPO (hTPO) enzyme and applied them...
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - October 16, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Dong H, Godlewska M, Wade MG Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

Chronic toxicity of methamphetamine: Oxidative remodeling of pulmonary arteries.
Abstract Methamphetamine (MA) has a high uptake in lung, but the precise mechanism of MA-induced lung toxicity remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of MA abuse in remodeling of pulmonary arteries and to explore the possible correlation of the association of the remodeling with the redox imbalance in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group and MA group for the experimental study. We employed H&E staining, western blot, immunofluorescence, knockdown, flow in our experimental approach. Our studies shows that chronic exposur...
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - October 16, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Liang LY, Wang MM, Liu M, Zhao W, Wang X, Shi L, Zhu MJ, Zhao YL, Liu L, Maurya P, Wang Y Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

Qualification of a non-animal vaginal irritation method admitted as nonclinical assessment model (NAM) in the Incubator Phase of the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) Medical Devices Development Tool (MDDT).
Abstract The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) classifies personal lubricants as Class II medical devices. Because of this status and the nature of body contact common to personal lubricants, CDRH reviewers routinely recommend a standard biocompatibility testing battery that includes: an in vivo rabbit vaginal irritation (RVI) test; an in vivo skin sensitization test, such as the guinea pig maximization test (GPMT); and an in vivo acute systemic toxicity test using mice or rabbits. These tests are conducted using live animals, despite the availability of in v...
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - October 15, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Costin GE, Hill E, Brown J, Clippinger AJ Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

In vitro effects of glyphosate and Roundup on Sertoli cell physiology.
Abstract Roundup (R), a formulation that contains glyphosate (G) as the active ingredient, is a commonly used nonselective herbicide that has been proposed to affect male fertility. It is well known that an adequate Sertoli cell function is essential to maintain germ cell development. The aim of the present study was to analyze whether G and R are able to affect Sertoli cell functions, such as energy metabolism and blood-testis barrier (BTB) integrity. Sertoli cell cultures from 20-day-old rats were exposed to 10 and 100 ppm of G or R, doses which do not decrease cell viability. Neither G nor R caused impairment...
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - October 15, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Gorga A, Rindone GM, Centola CL, Sobarzo C, Pellizzari EH, Del Carmen Camberos M, Cigorraga SB, Riera MF, Galardo MN, Meroni SB Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

Nonanimal toxicology testing approaches for traditional and deemed tobacco products in a complex regulatory environment: Limitations, possibilities, and future directions.
Abstract The evaluation of tobacco products is complex due to a multitude of factors including product diversity, limited testing standards, and variability in user behavior. Alternative approaches in current testing paradigms have limitations that generally truncate their applicability beyond screening for hazard identification; this is also true for toxicological evaluations of tobacco products. In a regulatory context, results from tobacco product toxicity assessments are extrapolated to the in vivo condition to assess human health relevance at the individual and population level. A key limitation of alternativ...
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - October 13, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Lauterstein D, Savidge M, Chen Y, Weil R, Yeager RP Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

Formaldehyde inhibits UV-induced phosphorylation of histone H2AX.
Abstract Formaldehyde (FA) is widely known to cause DNA damage. Recently, our study showed that FA can also inhibit a repair process of DNA damage, nucleotide excision repair (NER). DNA damage response (DDR) involving activation of phosphorylation pathways is important for the accuracy of the repair process, and the inhibition of the accurate repair would raise mutation rate, leading to cancer. We herein investigated whether FA influences phosphorylation of histone H2AX (γ-H2AX), an intermediate player of DDR signaling pathways. Human keratinocytes HaCaT were treated with FA and then exposed to UV known to g...
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - October 12, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Yang G, Komaki Y, Yoshida I, Ibuki Y Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

Transcriptomic insight into cadmium-induced neurotoxicity in embryonic neural stem/progenitor cells.
Abstract Cadmium exposure has raised great public concern. Extensive studies have revealed the neurotoxic effects of cadmium exposure during brain development. However, more evidence is still needed to reach a consistent conclusion and uncover the underlying mechanisms. Here, we used primary mouse embryonic neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) as a cell model and exposed the cells to 0, 1, 2 or 4 μM cadmium. High-throughput mRNA-seq technology was used to explore the global transcriptome changes in NSPCs after exposure to 2 μM cadmium. We found that cadmium exposure remarkably influenced the expression o...
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - October 12, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Deng P, Ma Q, Xi Y, Yang L, Lin M, Yu Z, Chen C, Zhou Z Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) modify lung surfactant function and pro-inflammatory responses in human bronchial epithelial cells.
KB, Lindeman B Abstract The toxicity of some per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has been studied thoroughly, showing that systemic PFASs targets the lungs. However, regulators lack data to assess the impact of other PFASs on the lungs and alternative methods to test substances for lung toxicity are needed. We combined two in vitro models to assess toxicity to the respiratory system; i) a lung surfactant (LS) function assay to assess the acute inhalation toxicity potential, and ii) a cell model with human bronchial epithelial cells...
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - September 16, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Sørli JB, Låg M, Ekeren L, Perez-Gil J, Haug LS, Da Silva E, Matrod MN, Gützkow KB, Lindeman B Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

Chlorpyrifos-induced dysfunction of lipid metabolism is not restored by supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids EPA and ARA in Atlantic salmon liver cells.
This study aimed to examine whether eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) supplementation can protect fish cells against the negative impact of chlorpyrifos (CPF). Atlantic salmon hepatocytes were exposed to either 100 μM CPF, 200 μM EPA, 200 μM ARA, or combinations of these for 48 h, and endpoints included lipid droplet formation, gene expression, and global metabolomic analysis. The results showed that polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation modified the cell lipid composition, reduced uptake of CPF and increased the cellular number and size of lipid droplets. CPF exposure indu...
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - September 16, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Olsvik PA, Hammer SK, Sanden M, Søfteland L Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

In vitro exposure to thiacloprid-based insecticide formulation promotes oxidative stress, apoptosis and genetic instability in bovine lymphocytes.
In this study, bovine peripheral lymphocytes were incubated with different concentrations of this formulation (10; 30; 60; 120 and 240 μg.mL-1) for 4 h to address the potential cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of the insecticide. Insecticide formulation treatment resulted in decreased cell viability and proliferation, p53-mediated cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase, and apoptosis induction accompanied by elevated levels of mitochondrial superoxide and protein carbonylation. Oxidant-based DNA damage and DNA damage response (DDR) were also observed, namely the formation of micronuclei, DNA double-strand breaks and sl...
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - September 15, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Schwarzbacherová V, Wnuk M, Deregowska A, Holečková B, Lewinska A Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

A comparative insight into the oxidative damage and cell death potential of photoilluminated aminophylline - Riboflavin system in normal and cancer lung cells of Swiss albino mice.
Abstract Photosensitisation of riboflavin (Rf) activates aminophylline (Am) resulting into the formation of a highly pro-oxidant Am-Rf system. We have previously shown its macromolecular damaging response in human peripheral lymphocytes, however, its potential inside a cancer cell is yet to be explored. Since, altered redox status of a cancer cell is a reliable therapeutic window in designing anticancer strategies, therefore, it's imperative to investigate whether the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by this system readily triggers apoptosis or it is countered by elevated antioxidant machinery of a cancer c...
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - September 14, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Khan S, Naseem I Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

Comparison of cytotoxicity of IQOS aerosols to smoke from marlboro Red and 3R4F reference cigarettes.
This study compared the cytotoxicity of IQOS aerosols to smoke from Marlboro Red (MR) and 3R4F reference cigarettes. Aerosol/smoke solutions were tested as the gas vapor phase (GVP), particulate phase (total particulate matter or TPM), or whole aerosol/smoke (WA), the latter being what smokers actually inhale. Cytotoxicities were evaluated using the LDH, MTT and neutral red uptake (NRU) assays in conjunction with eight different cell types, mainly from the respiratory system. Most test solutions did not compromise the plasma membranes of cells (LDH). However, mitochondrial activity (MTT) and dye uptake/lysosomal activity (...
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - September 14, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Davis B, To V, Talbot P Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

Ziyuglycoside II suppresses the aggressive phenotype of triple negative breast cancer cells through regulating Src/EGFR-dependent ITGB4/FAK signaling.
In this study, investigations were conducted into the effect and mechanism of Ziyuglycoside II (Ziyu II), the main compound extracted from Sanguisorba Officinails L, on EMT, anoikis resistance as well as cell migration and invasion in human triple negative breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells. The results showed that the treatment of Ziyu II could inhibit EMT, reverse anoikis resistance and subsequently suppress cell migration and invasion in MDA-MB-231 cells, which was associated with the inactivation of Src/EGFR-dependent ITGB4/FAK signaling and subsequent Akt and p38MAPK signaling pathways. These findings provide the new e...
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - September 13, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Wang K, Zou P, Zhu X, Zhang T Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

LncRNA-241 inhibits 1,2-Dichloroethane-induced hepatic apoptosis.
This study provides valuable insight into the role of lncRNAs in response to hepatocyte apoptosis induced by 1,2-DCE. PMID: 31520740 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Toxicology in Vitro)
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - September 11, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Zeng N, Zhang Z, Jiang H, Li R, Chang C, Wang F, Xu D, Fan Q, Wang T, Xiao Y, Chen W, Shan Z, Huang Z, Wang Q Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

Comparative effects of parent and heated cinnamaldehyde on the function of human iPSC-derived cardiac myocytes.
Abstract Many e-cigarette products contain cinnamaldehyde as a primary constituent of cinnamon flavorings. When used as a food additive, cinnamaldehyde is generally regarded as safe for ingestion. However, little is known about the effects of cinnamaldehyde or its degradation products, generated after heating and inhalation, which may lead to elevated circulatory exposure to the heart. Hence, in this study, we tested the in vitro cardiac toxicity of cinnamaldehyde and its thermal degradation products generated by heating at low (200 ± 50 °C) and high temperatures (700 ± 50 °C) on ...
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - September 10, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Nystoriak MA, Kilfoil PJ, Lorkiewicz PK, Ramesh B, Kuehl PJ, McDonald J, Bhatnagar A, Conklin DJ Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

In vitro measurement of skin sensitization hazard of mixtures and finished products: Results obtained with the SENS-IS assays.
Abstract Product safety evaluation in the EU is based on data mainly obtained on individual ingredients. However, mixture effects have been demonstrated in numerous skin sensitization studies due to the presence of irritating chemicals or to modification of dermal absorption. To evaluate the ability of the SENS-IS assay to detect such mixture effects, we performed three sets of experiments: First, the importance of the vehicle on absorption of individual ingredients was evaluated by testing the effect of commonly used cosmetic preparations on the sensitizing potential of 3 chemical allergens and 2 fragrance blends...
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - September 10, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Cottrez F, Boitel E, Berrada-Gomez MP, Dalhuchyts H, Bidan C, Rattier S, Ferret PJ, Groux H Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

Lysosomotropic-related limitations of the BALB/c 3T3 cell-based neutral red uptake assay and an alternative testing approach for assessing e-liquid cytotoxicity.
Abstract Cytotoxicity assays are used to quantify the cytotoxic potential of chemicals. The neutral red uptake (NRU) assay is one of these assays and routinely used in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and tobacco industries. In the context of e-cigarette development, an NRU assay-based screen was implemented to evaluate the cytotoxic potential of e-liquids. E-liquids induced a biphasic response in the BALB/c 3T3-based assay. NRU initially increased in a concentration-dependent manner before decreasing following treatment with higher concentrations until NRU was abolished. Experiments were performed to characterize th...
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - September 10, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Cudazzo G, Smart DJ, McHugh D, Vanscheeuwijck P Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

A novel aspect of functionalized graphene quantum dots in cytotoxicity studies.
Abstract Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) represent a new generation of graphene-based nanomaterials with enormous potential for use and development of a variety of biomedical applications. However, up to now little studies have investigated the impact of GQDs on human health in case of exposure. GQDs were synthesized from citric acid as carbon precursor by hydrothermal treatment at 160 °C for 4 h. The synthesized GQDs showed strong blue emission under UV-Irradiation with fluorescence quantum yield of 9.8%. The obtained GQDs were further carbonized, activated and functionalized by nitric acid vapor method. Nit...
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - September 10, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Vahdati BM, Pourhashem S, Sedghi M, Vaezi Z, Shojaedin-Givi B, Rashidi A, Naderi-Manesh H Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

Comparative study of relationship between structure of phenylethanoid glycopyranosides and their activities using cell-free assays and human cells cultured in vitro.
Abstract The study focused on protective potential of phytochemicals applicable in prevention and health protection is of great importance. Various structures of these compounds and a wide range of their biological activities have inspired organic chemists to sythesize their effective analogues in order to further increase their efficacy. The aims of our study were (i) to synthesize phenylethanoid glycopyranosides: salidroside (SALI - tyrosol β-d-glucopyranoside), tyrosol β-d-galactopyranoside (TYBGAL), tyrosol α-d-galactopyranoside (TYAGAL), tyrosol α-d-mannopyranoside (TYAMAN), hydroxytyros...
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - September 10, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Horvathova E, Mastihubova M, Potocka EK, Kis P, Galova E, Sevcovicova A, Klapakova M, Hunakova L, Mastihuba V Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of Benzo[ghi]perylene on the human bronchial cell line NL-20.
ez A, Arenas-Huertero F Abstract Benzo[ghi]perylene is the most abundant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in the atmosphere of highly polluted cities with high altitudes like Mexico City. We evaluated the in vitro cytotoxic and genotoxic effects that Benzo[ghi]perylene could induce to the bronchial cell line NL-20 after 3 h of exposure. Furthermore, exposed cells were washed and maintained for 24 h without the treatment (recovery time), in order to evaluate a persistent damage to the cells. We found that at 3 h of exposure, 20% and 47% of the cells displayed cytoplasmic vesicles (p 
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - September 10, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Castro-Gálvez Z, Garrido-Armas M, Palacios-Arreola MI, Torres-Flores U, Rivera-Torruco G, Valle-Rios R, Amador-Muñoz O, Hernández-Hernández A, Arenas-Huertero F Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

Mitotic spindle defects and DNA damage induced by dimethoxycurcumin lead to an intrinsic apoptosis pathway in HepG2/C3A cells.
Abstract Dimethoxycurcumin (DiMC), a synthetic analog of curcumin, was shown to have antiproliferative activity in human tumor cell lines. Therefore, we investigated its cytotoxic, antiproliferative, genotoxic, and apoptotic effect and correlated these evaluations with the expression of transcripts and proteins in the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2/C3A). Treatment with DiMC resulted in increased CYP2E1, CYP2C19 and CYP1A2 transcripts levels and was cytotoxic (≥10 μM). DiMC caused mitotic arrest by inducing monopolar spindle formation and was genotoxic increasing expression of the CDKN1A, G...
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - September 9, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Zanetti TA, Biazi BI, Coatti GC, Baranoski A, Marques LA, Corveloni AC, Mantovani MS Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

Evaluation of inhibitory effects of flavonoids on breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP): From library screening to biological evaluation to structure-activity relationship.
Abstract Flavonoids are a group of polyphenols ubiquitously present in vegetables, fruits and herbal products, despite various known pharmacological activities, few researches have been done about the interaction of flavonoids with breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). The present study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effects of 99 flavonoids on BCRP in vitro and in vivo and to clarify structure-activity relationships of flavonoids with BCRP. Eleven flavonoids, including amentoflavone, apigenin, biochanin A, chrysin, diosimin, genkwanin, hypericin, kaempferol, kaempferide, licochalcone A and naringen...
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - September 4, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Fan X, Bai J, Zhao S, Hu M, Sun Y, Wang B, Ji M, Jin J, Wang X, Hu J, Li Y Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

Cytotoxic effects of 4'-hydroxychalcone on human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y).
Abstract Neuroblastoma is an aggressive form of cancer with high mortality. Hydroxychalcones have received considerable attention because of their cytotoxic activities on cancer cells. However, the effect of the 4'-hydroxychalcone on neuroblastoma cells is unknown. The aim of the present study was to characterize the cytotoxicity of 4HC to neuroblastoma and the importance of mitochondrial effects in its action mechanism using an in vitro model of SH-SY5Y cells. Incubation of cultured SHSY5Y cells with 10-60 μM 4HC (24 h) decreased cell confluency, cellular metabolic activity and depleted intracellular ATP r...
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - September 4, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: de Moura Escobar SJ, Simone M, de Oliveira Ribeiro CA, Martinez GR, Winnischofer SMB, Witting PK, Rocha MEM Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

Surface modification of silver nanoparticle (AgNP) by liposomal encapsulation mitigates AgNP-induced inflammation.
Abstract Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are widely used in a variety of consumable products as antibacterial to prevent or treat infection. Unfortunately, evidence exits that AgNP induces inflammation which can worsen with repeated human exposure. However, there is little or no research on how to mitigate these adverse effects due to AgNP induced-toxicity. Here, we investigated if surface modification of AgNP by liposomal encapsulation suppresses AgNP-mediated inflammatory responses in THP1 monocytes and THP1 differentiated macrophages (TDM). AgNP was encapsulated in a dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline- (DPPC)/cholest...
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - September 4, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Yusuf AO, Casey A Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

Copper-induced apoptosis and autophagy through oxidative stress-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction in male germ cells.
Abstract Excess copper reduces sperm number and motility but the causes are unclear. We investigated the toxic effects of copper exposure on the immortalized male germ cell line GC-1. Copper addition to cells altered viability and morphology in a dose-dependent manner. Copper addition resulted in increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malonaldehyde (MDA) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) while catalase (CAT) activity and glutathione (GSH) declined. The mitochondrial transmembrane potential and ATP levels decreased in response to copper as did mitochondria fission that led to mitochondrial dysfunction. Th...
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - September 3, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Kang Z, Qiao N, Liu G, Chen H, Tang Z, Li Y Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

Thiamethoxam induces meiotic arrest and reduces the quality of oocytes in cattle.
In this study, we exposed bovine oocytes to TMX during maturation. Microscopic examination showed that 1.6 mM TMX significantly inhibited maturation at the germinal vesicle (GV) and metaphase I (MI) stages. Immunofluorescence staining and enzyme activity analysis revealed that TMX induced a reduction in CDC25 and CDC2 activity. Furthermore, time-lapse tracking and immunofluorescence staining indicated the maintenance of cyclin B in the cytoplasm, persistence of Bub3 at kinetochores, and absence of actin caps after TMX-exposed oocytes reached the MI stage. In addition, metaphase II (MII) oocytes exposed to TMX showed diso...
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - August 31, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Nie ZW, Niu YJ, Zhou W, Kim JY, Ock SA, Cui XS Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

Implementation of a functional endpoint to the zebrafish embryotoxicity test to evaluate craniofacial abnormalities.
In this study we have established an ingestion test in zebrafish larvae younger than 120 hpf. To overcome the challenge of evaluating larvae which still do not present independent feeding behaviour, we have tested the ability of 72, 96 or 102 hpf larvae to ingest food mixed with fluorescent microspheres under several conditions (dark/light, with/without shaking) to find the best experimental set-up for the test. We have included the investigation of two substances as potential positive controls: ketoconazole and tricaine. Ketoconazole 10 μM exposure during development produced significant embryotoxic effects including...
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - August 30, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Barenys M, Molins A, Amorós-Galicia L, Flick B, Gómez-Catalán J Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

Characterization of the cellular effects and mechanism of arsenic trioxide-induced hepatotoxicity in broiler chickens.
Abstract To characterize the cellular effects and mechanism of arsenic trioxide (ATO)-induced hepatotoxicity in broiler chickens, increasing concentrations of ATO (0, 0.6, 1.2, 2.4, and 4.8 μM) were added to chicken hepatocyte cultures in vitro. The changes in hepatocyte morphology, oxidative stress and apoptosis were evaluated using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. The effects of ATO on mRNA or protein expression of antioxidant enzymes, especially methionine sulfoxide reductase (Msr), were analyzed using qRT-PCR and western blotting assays. Increased apoptosis were concomitant with increased react...
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - August 20, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Wang C, Ning Z, Wan F, Huang R, Chao L, Kang Z, Yang F, Zhong G, Li Y, Pan J, Tang Z, Hu L Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

The roles of TG-interacting factor in cadmium exposure-promoted invasion and migration of lung cancer cells.
In conclusion, our data demonstrated that TGIF might play a crucial role in invasion and migration of lung cancer cells exposed to Cd. PMID: 31437537 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Toxicology in Vitro)
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - August 19, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Wang Y, Shi L, Li J, Wang H, Yang H Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

PTP1B phosphatase as a novel target of oleuropein activity in MCF-7 breast cancer model.
Abstract Phosphatase PTP1B has become a therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2-diabetes, whereas recent studies have revealed that PTP1B plays a pivotal role in pathophysiology and development of breast cancer. Oleuropein is a natural, phenolic compound with anticancer activity. The aim of this study was to address the question whether PTP1B constitutes a target for oleuropein in breast cancer MCF-7 cells. The cellular MCF-7 breast cancer model was used in the study. The experiments were performed using cellular viability tests, Elisa assays, immunoprecipitation, flow cytometry analyses and computer modell...
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - August 13, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Przychodzen P, Kuban-Jankowska A, Wyszkowska R, Barone G, Bosco GL, Celso FL, Kamm A, Daca A, Kostrzewa T, Gorska-Ponikowska M Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

TGF- β1 alleviates HgCl2 induced apoptosis via P38 MAPK signaling pathway in human trophoblast cells.
TGF-β1 alleviates HgCl2 induced apoptosis via P38 MAPK signaling pathway in human trophoblast cells. Toxicol In Vitro. 2019 Aug 13;:104626 Authors: Zhou G, Li Z, Sun S, Fang Y, Wei Z Abstract It is well known that embryonic development can be perturbed by environmental factors such as heavy metals. Mercury is one of the most significant threats to the environment and human health. Mercury can damage many parts of the human body, including lungs, kidneys, nerves and fetus. However, the effect of mercury on human embryo remains unknown. Here, we showed that HgCl2 treatment resulted in a significant...
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - August 13, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Zhou G, Li Z, Sun S, Fang Y, Wei Z Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

Cadmium induces cytotoxicity through oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis pathway in duck renal tubular epithelial cells.
Abstract Cadmium (Cd) is a well studied nephrotoxic metal element. To investigate the effects of Cd-induced cytotoxicity on oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis in primary renal tubular epithelial cells of duck. Shaoxing duck (Anas platyrhyncha) renal tubular epithelial cells were cultured in medium in absence and presence of 3CdSO4·8H2O (1.25, 2.5, 5.0 μM Cd), in N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) (100 μM), and the combination of Cd and NAC for 12 h. After 12 h exposure, morphologic observation and function, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, antioxidant indices, the activity of ATPase, intracellular...
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - August 13, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Zhuang J, Nie G, Yang F, Dai X, Cao H, Xing C, Hu G, Zhang C Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

Cell physiological effects of glass ionomer cements on fibroblast cells.
Abstract The cytotoxicity of glass ionomer cements (GICs) was investigated using a novel, cost-effective, easy-to-perform and standardized test. GIC rings were made using in-house designed, custom-made moulds under sterile conditions; 10 with Fuji Equia and 10 with Fuji Triage capsules, placed in direct contact with primary human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) and immortalized human fibroblasts (HFF1). On day 1, 4, 14 and 21, an AlamarBlue® (resazurin) assay was completed towards determining the effects of the GICs on metabolic activities of the cells, whilst cell morphology was examined by light microscopy. The i...
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - August 13, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Lang O, Kohidai L, Kohidai Z, Dobo-Nagy C, Csomo KB, Lajko M, Mozes M, Keki S, Deak G, Tian KV, Gresz V Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

An in vitro depth of injury prediction model for a histopathologic classification of EPA and GHS eye irritants.
Abstract The purpose of this study was to develop Globally Harmonized System (GHS) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) prediction models for classifying irritant materials based on histopathologic in vitro depth of injury (DoI) measurements. Sixteen different materials were selected, representing all classes of toxicity, according to the GHS and EPA classification systems. Food-source rabbit eyes, similar to eyes used for the widely accepted Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability and Isolated Chicken Eye ocular irritation tests, were used. Tissues were exposed to test material for 1 min, and corneas ...
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - August 13, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Lebrun S, Xie Y, Chavez S, Chan R, Jester JV Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

Molecular mechanism of Bisphenol A on androgen receptor antagonism.
This study provided new evidence for further understanding the precise mechanisms of antagonism of BPA on AR. PMID: 31415812 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Toxicology in Vitro)
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - August 12, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Huang X, Cang X, Liu J Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research