Scrofula Caused by Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis.
We present the case of a 73-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative female who presented with cervical lymphadenopathy and who was diagnosed with MDR-TB. LEARNING POINTS: Tuberculosis is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and approximately a quarter of the world's population is estimated to be latently infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis lymphadenitis is a rare manifestation of the disease in Portugal.With the advent of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, disease surveillance by the government should be intensified, with the aim of natio...
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - February 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pedro B, Alves L, Magano R, Nunes T, Marques N Tags: Eur J Case Rep Intern Med Source Type: research

Evaluating the Concordance of Clinician Antiretroviral Prescribing Practices and HIV-ASSIST, an Online Clinical Decision Support Tool.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Individualized selection of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy is complex, considering drug resistance, comorbidities, drug-drug interactions, and other factors. HIV-ASSIST (www.hivassist.com) is a free, online tool that provides ARV decision support. HIV-ASSIST synthesizes patient and virus-specific attributes to rank ARV combinations based upon a composite objective of achieving viral suppression and maximizing tolerability. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate concordance of HIV-ASSIST recommendations with ARV selections of experienced HIV clinicians. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PATIENTS...
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - December 2, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ramirez JA, Maddali MV, Budak JZ, Li JZ, Lampiris H, Shah M Tags: J Gen Intern Med Source Type: research

The Discovery and Development of Oxalamide and Pyrrole Small Molecule Inhibitors of gp120 and HIV Entry - A Review.
Abstract Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is the causative agent responsible for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic. More than 60 million infections and 25 million deaths have occurred since AIDS was first identified in the early 1980s. Advances in available therapeutics, in particular combination antiretroviral therapy, have significantly improved the treatment of HIV infection and have facilitated the shift from high mortality and morbidity to that of a manageable chronic disease. Unfortunately, none of the currently available drugs are curative of HIV. To deal with the rapid emerg...
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - November 5, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Motati DR, Uredi D, Watkins EB Tags: Curr Top Med Chem Source Type: research

Recent Progress in the Development of HIV-1 Entry Inhibitors: From Small Molecules to Potent Anti-HIV Agents.
Abstract Viral entry, the first process in the reproduction of viruses, primarily involves attachment of the viral envelope proteins to membranes of the host cell. The crucial components that play an important role in viral entry include viral surface glycoprotein gp120, viral transmembrane glycoprotein gp41, host cell glycoprotein (CD4), and host cell chemokine receptors (CCR5 and CXCR4). Inhibition of the multiple molecular interactions of these components can restrain viruses, such as HIV-1, from fusion with the host cell, blocking them from reproducing. This review article specifically focuses on the recent pr...
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - November 5, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Suttisintong K, Kaewchangwat N, Thanayupong E, Nerungsi C, Srikun O, Pungpo P Tags: Curr Top Med Chem Source Type: research

Discovery and Development of Anti-HIV Therapeutic Agents: Progress Towards Improved HIV Medication.
Abstract The history of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS therapy, which spans over 30 years, is one of the most dramatic stories of science and medicine leading to the treatment of a disease. Since the advent of the first AIDS drug, AZT or zidovudine, a number of agents acting on different drug targets, such as HIV enzymes (e.g. reverse transcriptase, protease, and integrase) and host cell factors critical for HIV infection (e.g. CD4 and CCR5), have been added to our armamentarium to combat HIV/AIDS. In this review article, we first discuss the history of the development of anti-HIV drugs, during which ...
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - November 5, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Maeda K, Das D, Kobayakawa T, Tamamura H, Takeuchi H Tags: Curr Top Med Chem Source Type: research

New and Promising Chemotherapeutics for Emerging Infections Involving Drug-Resistant Non-albicans Candida Species.
Abstract Fungal infections are a veritable public health problem worldwide. The increasing number of patient populations at risk (e.g. transplanted individuals, cancer patients and HIV-infected people) as well as the use of antifungal agents for prophylaxis in medicine have favored the emergence of previously rare or newly identified fungal species. Indeed, novel antifungal resistance patterns have been observed, including environmental sources and the emergence of simultaneous resistance to different antifungal classes, especially in Candida spp., which are known for the multidrug-resistance (MDR) profile. In ord...
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - October 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Silva LN, de Mello TP, de Souza Ramos L, Branquinha MH, Dos Santos ALS Tags: Curr Top Med Chem Source Type: research

Recent Developments in the Medicinal Chemistry for New Small-Molecule Therapeutics to Treat HIV-AIDS.
Abstract PMID: 31612809 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Topics in HIV Medicine)
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - October 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Saha M, Bhattacharya S Tags: Curr Top Med Chem Source Type: research

Retraction Note: The hidden cost of genetic resistance to HIV-1.
Abstract An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper. PMID: 31595085 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Topics in HIV Medicine)
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - October 8, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Luban J Tags: Nat Med Source Type: research

A vaccine-induced gene expression signature correlates with protection against SIV and HIV in multiple trials.
This study aims to bridge preclinical and clinical data with the identification of a gene signature in B cells that is associated with protection from SIV and HIV infection by providing a new approach for evaluating future vaccine candidates. PMID: 31462510 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Topics in HIV Medicine)
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - August 28, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ehrenberg PK, Shangguan S, Issac B, Alter G, Geretz A, Izumi T, Bryant C, Eller MA, Wegmann F, Apps R, Creegan M, Bolton DL, Sekaly RP, Robb ML, Gramzinski RA, Pau MG, Schuitemaker H, Barouch DH, Michael NL, Thomas R Tags: Sci Transl Med Source Type: research

Late diagnosis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in a child at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital, Ga-Rankuwa, South Africa: A case report.
This report describes the case of a 9-year-old male patient who was suspected of having multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis, based on failure to recover clinically and radiologically after 6 months on first-line anti-tuberculosis treatment. Pus samples were sent to an accredited academic laboratory for histopathology, microscopy, culture, line-probe assay (MTBDRplus assay) and phenotypic MGIT 960 drug susceptibility tests. Second-line MDR tuberculosis treatment was introduced. Clinical, radiological, physical processes and more laboratory tests were conducted to document whether or not there was improvement in the patie...
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - August 10, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Siwele BA, Makhado NA, Mariba MT Tags: Afr J Lab Med Source Type: research

AIDS Vaccine Research Subcommittee (AVRS) Consultation: Early-Life Immunization Strategies against HIV Acquisition.
This report summarizes a consultation meeting convened by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH), on 12 September 2017 to discuss the scientific rationale for selectively testing relevant HIV vaccine candidates in early life that are designed to initiate immune responses for lifelong protective immunity. The urgent need to develop interventions providing durable protective immunity to HIV before sexual debut coupled with the practicality of infant vaccine schedules supports optimizing infant HIV vaccines as a high priority. The panelists discussed the unique o...
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - July 17, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Singh A, Permar S, Kollmann TR, Levy O, Marovich M, De Paris K Tags: mSphere Source Type: research

Syringe disposal among people who inject drugs before and after the implementation of a syringe services program.
CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant decrease in the number of improperly discarded syringes in public in Miami after the implementation of an SSP. Providing PWID with proper disposal venues such as an SSP could decrease public disposal in other communities. PMID: 31280002 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Topics in HIV Medicine)
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - June 29, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Levine H, Bartholomew TS, Rea-Wilson V, Onugha J, Arriola DJ, Cardenas G, Forrest DW, Kral AH, Metsch LR, Spencer E, Tookes H Tags: Drug Alcohol Depend Source Type: research

Protease Inhibitors for the Treatment of HIV/AIDS: Recent Advances and Future Challenges.
Abstract Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a chronic disease characterized by multiple life-threatening illnesses caused by a retro-virus, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). HIV infection slowly destroys the immune system and increasing the risk of various other infections and diseases. Although there is no immediate cure for HIV infection/AIDS, several drugs targeting various cruxes of HIV infection are used to slow down the progress of the disease and to boost the immune system. One of the key therapeutic strategies is Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) or'AIDS cocktail' in a general sense ...
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - June 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Voshavar C Tags: Curr Top Med Chem Source Type: research

Systems Pharmacology Identifies an Arterial Wall Regulatory Gene Network Mediating Coronary Artery Disease Side Effects of Antiretroviral Therapy.
r I Abstract BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV infection increases risk for coronary artery disease (CAD), presumably by causing dyslipidemia and increased atherosclerosis. We applied systems pharmacology to identify and validate specific regulatory gene networks (RGNs) through which ART drugs may promote CAD. METHODS: Transcriptional responses of human cell lines to 15 ART drugs retrieved from the Library of Integrated Cellular Signatures (overall 1,127 experiments) were used to establish consensus ART gene/transcriptional signatures. Next, enrichments of differentially expressed genes and gen...
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - May 6, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Frades I, Readhead B, Amadori L, Koplev S, Talukdar HA, Crane HM, Crane PK, Kovacic JC, Dudley JT, Giannarelli C, Björkegren JLM, Peter I Tags: Circ Genom Precis Med Source Type: research

A highly unusual V1 region of Env in an elite controller of HIV infection.
Abstract HIV elite controllers represent a remarkable minority of patients who maintain normal CD4+ T-cell counts and low or undetectable viral loads for decades in the absence of anti-retroviral therapy. To examine the possible contribution of virus attenuation to elite control, we obtained a primary HIV-1 isolate from an elite controller who had been infected for 19 years, the last 10 of which were in the absence of anti-retroviral therapy. Full-length sequencing of this isolate revealed a highly unusual V1 domain in Envelope (Env). The V1 domain in this HIV-1 was 49 amino acids, placing it in the top 1% of leng...
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - March 6, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Silver ZA, Dickinson GM, Seaman MS, Desrosiers RC Tags: J Virol Source Type: research

The Global Burden of Disease of Zoonotic Parasitic Diseases: Top 5 Contenders for Priority Consideration.
Abstract With the rise of global migration, international trade, and global environmental challenges such as climate change, it is not surprising that the interactions between humans and other animals are shifting. Salient infectious diseases, such as malaria and HIV (which have high burdens of disease), attract sophisticated public health frameworks and funding from global/regional organisations, such as the WHO. This unfortunately detracts attention from the many emerging zoonoses that fall under the radar as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). This review considers the available literature and the attribution o...
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - March 2, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pisarski K Tags: Trop Med Infect Dis Source Type: research

Mathematical and Computational Techniques for Drug Discovery: Promises and Developments.
Abstract We review various mathematical and computational techniques for drug discovery exemplifying some recent works pertinent to group theory of nested structures of relevance to phylogeny, topological, computational and combinatorial methods for drug discovery for multiple viral infections. We have reviewed techniques from topology, combinatorics, graph theory and knot theory that facilitate topological and mathematical characterizations of protein-protein interactions, molecular-target interactions, proteomics, genomics and statistical data reduction procedures for a large set of starting chemicals in drug di...
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - February 8, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Balasubramanian K Tags: Curr Top Med Chem Source Type: research

Quinoline-based protein-protein interaction inhibitors of LEDGF/p75 and HIV integrase: An in silico study.
Abstract The failure of the Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors (INSTIs) due to the mutations occurring at catalytic site of HIV integrase (IN) has led to the design of allosteric integrase inhibitors (ALLINIs). Lens epithelium derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75) is the host cellular cofactor helps chaining IN to the chromatin. The protein-protein interactions (PPIs) were observed at allosteric site (LEDGF/p75 binding domain) between LEDGF/p75 of host cell and IN of virus. In the recent years, many small molecules such as CX04328, CHIBA-3053 and CHI-104 are reported as LEDGF/p75-IN interaction inhibitors (LEDGINs)....
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - February 8, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Chhokar N, Kalra S, Chauhan M, Munshi A, Kumar R Tags: Curr Top Med Chem Source Type: research

Leading by Example: Web-Based Sexual Health Influencers Among Men Who Have Sex With Men Have Higher HIV and Syphilis Testing Rates in China.
This study aimed to examine sociodemographic characteristics, HIV and syphilis testing, and sexual behaviors of Web-based MSM sexual health influencers (SHIs) in China, defined as individuals with relatively stronger influence on spreading HIV and STI information online. METHODS: A Web-based survey of MSM was conducted in August 2017 as a final follow-up of a randomized controlled trial promoting HIV testing in 8 Chinese cities. Men were recruited through a gay social networking mobile phone app and were included if they were born biologically male, aged 16 years and above, ever had sex with another man, and HIV negat...
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - January 21, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Wu D, Tang W, Lu H, Zhang TP, Cao B, Ong JJ, Lee A, Liu C, Huang W, Fu R, Li K, Pan SW, Zhang Y, Fu H, Wei C, Tucker JD Tags: J Med Internet Res Source Type: research

Infectious and Other Complications of Immunobiologic Agents.
This article summarizes a presentation by Peter Chin-Hong, MD, at the IAS-USA continuing education program held in Chicago in May 2018. PMID: 30641482 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Topics in HIV Medicine)
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - January 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Chin-Hong P Tags: Top Antivir Med Source Type: research

Hepatitis B Virus Infection: What Is Current and New.
This article summarizes an IAS-USA webinar given by Marion G. Peters, MD, on June 14, 2018. PMID: 30641484 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Topics in HIV Medicine)
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - January 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Peters MG Tags: Top Antivir Med Source Type: research

New efavirenz derivatives and 1,2,3-triazolyl-phosphonates as inhibitors of reverse transcriptase of HIV-1.
Abstract According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the fight against acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is still one of the most significant challenges facing humanity. Worldwide, it is estimated that 36.7 million people are infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Despite the variety of available drugs, the search for new enzymatic inhibitors of HIV is still important due to the presence of adverse effects and the development of resistant strains. Therefore, the present study aimed to design, synthesize, and biologically evaluate novel inhibitors of HIV reverse transcriptase (RT). These ...
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - October 29, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Costa CCP, Boechat N, Bastos MM, da Silva FC, Marttorelli A, Souza TML, Baptista MS, Hoelz LVB, Cafffarenad ER Tags: Curr Top Med Chem Source Type: research

Global Epidemiology of Tuberculosis.
This article reviews epidemiological facts about TB, trends in the magnitude of the burden of TB and factors contributing to it, and the effectiveness of the public health response. PMID: 30071543 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Topics in HIV Medicine)
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - June 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Glaziou P, Floyd K, Raviglione MC Tags: Semin Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

ENABLE 2017, the First EUROPEAN PhD and Post-Doc Symposium. Session 4: From Discovery to Cure: The Future of Therapeutics.
Abstract The EUROPEAN ACADEMY FOR BIOMEDICAL SCIENCE (ENABLE) is an initiative funded by the European Union Horizon 2020 program involving four renowned European Research Institutes (Institute for Research in Biomedicine-IRB Barcelona, Spain; Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences-RIMLS, the Netherlands; Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Protein Research-NNF CPR, Denmark; European School of Molecular Medicine-SEMM, Italy) and an innovative science communication agency (Scienseed). With the aim of promoting biomedical science of excellence in Europe, ENABLE organizes an annual three-day international event....
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - May 28, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Di Mauro G, Dondi A, Giangreco G, Hogrebe A, Louer E, Magistrati E, Mullari M, Turon G, Verdurmen W, Xicoy Cortada H, Zivanovic S Tags: Med Sci (Basel) Source Type: research

HIV Infection: Advances Toward a Cure.
This article summarizes a presentation by Daniel C. Douek, MD, PhD, at the IAS-USA continuing education program held in Berkeley, California, in May 2017. PMID: 29689537 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Topics in HIV Medicine)
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - April 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Douek DC Tags: Top Antivir Med Source Type: research

Opioids and HIV Infection: From Pain Management to Addiction Treatment.
This article summarizes a presentation by Chinazo O. Cunningham, MD, MS at the IAS-USA continuing education program, Improving the Management of HIV Disease, held in Atlanta, Georgia, in March 2017. PMID: 29689538 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Topics in HIV Medicine)
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - April 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Cunningham CO Tags: Top Antivir Med Source Type: research

Maximizing the Benefits of HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis.
This article summarizes a presentation by Susan P. Buchbinder, MD, at the IAS-USA continuing education program, Improving the Management of HIV Disease, held in Chicago, Illinois, in May 2017. PMID: 29689539 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Topics in HIV Medicine)
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - April 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Buchbinder SP Tags: Top Antivir Med Source Type: research

Investigational Antiretroviral Drugs: What is Coming Down the Pipeline.
This article summarizes presentations by Roy M. Gulick, MD, MPH, at the IAS-USA continuing education program, Improving the Management of HIV Disease, held in Los Angeles, California, in April 2017, and at the 2017 Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Clinical Conference, held in San Antonio, Texas, in August 2017. PMID: 29689540 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Topics in HIV Medicine)
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - April 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gulick RM Tags: Top Antivir Med Source Type: research

Management of Long-Term Complications of HIV Disease: Focus on Cardiovascular Disease.
This article summarizes a presentation by Judith S. Currier, MD, at the IAS-USA continuing education program, Improving the Management of HIV Disease, held in New York, New York, in February 2017. PMID: 29689541 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Topics in HIV Medicine)
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - April 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Currier JS Tags: Top Antivir Med Source Type: research

Caring for Life-Limiting Illness in Ethiopia: A Mixed-Methods Assessment of Outpatient Palliative Care Needs.
CONCLUSION: There are extensive unmet palliative care needs in Ethiopia. Untreated pain and high costs of illness are the major contributors to psychosocial distress and financial crisis in this Ethiopian population. PMID: 29425055 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Topics in HIV Medicine)
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - February 9, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Reid EA, Gudina EK, Ayers N, Tigineh W, Azmera YM Tags: J Palliat Med Source Type: research

Assessing the ownership, usage and knowledge of Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs) in Malaria Prevention in the Hohoe Municipality, Ghana.
Conclusion: Behaviour change communication strategies on ITN use may need to be further targeted to ensure full use of available ITNs. PMID: 29255537 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Topics in HIV Medicine)
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - December 21, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nyavor KD, Kweku M, Agbemafle I, Takramah W, Norman I, Tarkang E, Binka F Tags: Pan Afr Med J Source Type: research

Recent Developments of Coumarin Hybrids as Anti-fungal Agents.
Abstract Fungi place a huge burden on global healthcare systems attributed to the fact that fungal infections are responsible for the high morbidity and mortality rates in patients who received stem cell transplantation, antineoplastic chemotherapy, organ transplants or suffered human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Unfortunately, almost none of the representative anti-fungal agents currently used in clinical therapy are ideal in terms of efficacy, anti-fungal spectrum or safety. Moreover, the rapid development of resistance to existing anti-fungal drugs has further aggravated the mortality and spread of f...
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - December 14, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hu XL, Xu Z, Liu ML, Feng LS, Zhang GD Tags: Curr Top Med Chem Source Type: research

The usefulness of traditional birth attendants to women living with HIV in resource-poor settings: the case of Mfuwe, Zambia.
Conclusion: In Zambia, trained TBAs and professional care are not mutually exclusive but complementary. There is no doubt that HIV-positive women need professionals to handle complications and offer antiretroviral treatment to ensure prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT). However, additional "soft" services offered by trained TBAs are equally important in the promotion of maternal health care among HIV-positive women. Thus, it seems there is more to gain by systematically allowing trained TBAs to work alongside professionals in a well-coordinated and complementary manner. PMID: 29158723 [PubMed]...
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - December 1, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Muzyamba C, Groot W, Tomini SM, Pavlova M Tags: Trop Med Health Source Type: research

HIV Prevention: Opportunities and Challenges.
This article summarizes a presentation by Jeanne M. Marrazzo, MD, MPH, at the IAS-USA continuing education program, Improving the Management of HIV Disease, held in Washington, DC, in April 2016. PMID: 28208119 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Topics in HIV Medicine)
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - February 17, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Marrazzo JM Tags: Top Antivir Med Source Type: research

Cardiovascular Complications of HIV Infection.
This article summarizes a presentation by Marshall J. Glesby, MD, PhD, at the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Clinical Care Conference held in New Orleans, Louisiana, in December 2015. PMID: 28208120 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Topics in HIV Medicine)
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - February 17, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Glesby MJ Tags: Top Antivir Med Source Type: research

2017 Update of the Drug Resistance Mutations in HIV-1.
DD Abstract The 2017 edition of the IAS-USA drug resistance mutations list updates the figures last published in November 2015. The mutations listed are those that have been identified by specific criteria for evidence and drugs described. The figures are designed to assist practitioners in identifying key mutations associated with resistance to antiretroviral drugs and, therefore, in making clinical decisions regarding antiretroviral therapy. PMID: 28208121 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Topics in HIV Medicine)
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - February 17, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Wensing AM, Calvez V, G√ľnthard HF, Johnson VA, Paredes R, Pillay D, Shafer RW, Richman DD Tags: Top Antivir Med Source Type: research

A Conversation Among the IAS-USA Board of Directors: Hot Topics and Emerging Data in HIV Research and Care.
Abstract The IAS-USA volunteer Board of Directors met in October 2016 for its annual meeting. For the second year, the Board conducted a live, hour-long, interactive, roundtable webinar covering current questions and issues in HIV research, prevention, and care. Important highlights from the Board's discussion, which was moderated by Paul A. Volberding, MD, are included below. Members of the IAS-USA volunteer Board of Directors are Constance A. Benson, MD; Judith S. Currier, MD; Carlos del Rio, MD; Joel E. Gallant, MD, MPH; Roy M. Gulick, MD, MPH; Jeanne M. Marrazzo, MD, MPH; Douglas D. Richman, MD; Michael S. Saa...
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - February 17, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Benson CA, Currier JS, Del Rio C, Gallant JE, Gulick RM, Marrazzo JM, Richman DD, Saag MS, Schooley RT, Volberding PA Tags: Top Antivir Med Source Type: research

The Role of Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters in Antiretroviral Therapy.
Abstract Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) receive antiretroviral therapy (ART) through the use of antiretroviral drugs. A combination of at least three drugs that suppress HIV replication is used as standard treatment, and this is often called "highly active antiretroviral therapy" (HAART). Virus resistance is less likely when three or more drugs are used. A complication of anti- HIV drugs has a complex pharmacokinetic profile which is involved with extensive metabolism and transport by drug metabolizing enzymes (e.g., CYPs, SULTs and UGTs) and transporters (e.g., ABC and SLC). Severe dru...
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - February 10, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ye L, Hou C, Liu S Tags: Curr Top Med Chem Source Type: research

Predicting the clinical outcome of ICSI by sperm head vacuole examination.
In conclusion, high magnification SHVE and standard sperm morphology assessment cannot predict clinical or biological ICSI outcomes. ABBREVIATIONS: ART: assisted reproductive technology; HBV: hepatitis B virus; HCV: hepatitis C virus; HIV: human immunodeficiency virus; ICSI: intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection; IVF: in vitro fertilization; LNVs: large nuclear vacuoles; MSOME: motile sperm organelle morphology examination; SHVE: sperm head vacuole examination; WHO: World Health Organization. PMID: 28010131 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Topics in HIV Medicine)
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - December 23, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pocate-Cheriet K, Heilikman I, Porcher R, Barraud-Lange V, Sermondade N, Herbemont C, Wolf JP, Sifer C Tags: Syst Biol Reprod Med Source Type: research

Crossborder travel and multidrugresistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) in Europe.
Abstract The number of international migrants worldwide has continued to grow rapidly over the past fifteen years and the trend is expected to continue, making the health matters associated with migration a crucial public health challenges faced by governments and societies. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is a paradigm of transmissible diseases that do not respect borders and poses a multifaceted and complex challenge on migrant health. The guiding principles for the health response are the respect of equity and human rights as well as the accurate analysis of epidemiological trends and determinants of TB in mig...
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - November 29, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Matteelli A, Centis R, Sulis G, Tadolini M Tags: Travel Med Infect Dis Source Type: research

Targeting Virus-host Interactions of HIV Replication.
Abstract Cellular proteins that are hijacked by HIV in order to complete its replication cycle, form attractive new targets for antiretroviral therapy. In particular, the protein-protein interactions between these cellular proteins (cofactors) and viral proteins are of great interest to develop new therapies. Research efforts have led to the validation of different cofactors and some successes in therapeutic applications. Maraviroc, the first cofactor inhibitor approved for human medicinal use, provided a proof of concept. Furthermore, compounds developed as Integrase-LEDGF/p75 interaction inhibitors (LEDGINs) hav...
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - November 5, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Weydert C, De Rijck J, Christ F, Debyser Z Tags: Curr Top Med Chem Source Type: research

Contemporary HIV Vaccines: Tissue Resident T-Cells and Strategies to Prevent Mucosal Infection.
We present the proposition that similar novel vaccine regimens can be translated into approaches for future HIV vaccines aimed at inducing heightened immunity in vaginal tissues against HIV. PMID: 26324042 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Topics in HIV Medicine)
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - November 5, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tan HX, Kent SJ, De Rose R Tags: Curr Top Med Chem Source Type: research

Molecular Gymnastics: Mechanisms of HIV-1 Resistance to CCR5 Antagonists and Impact on Virus Phenotypes.
Abstract Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) enters host cells through the binding of its envelope glycoproteins (Env) to the host cell receptor CD4 and then subsequent binding to a chemokine coreceptor, either CCR5 or CXCR4. CCR5 antagonists are a relatively recent class addition to the armamentarium of anti-HIV-1 drugs. These compounds act by binding to a hydrophobic pocket formed by the transmembrane helices of CCR5 and altering the conformation of the extracellular domains, such that they are no longer recognized by Env. Maraviroc is the first drug within this class to be licenced for use in HIV-1 ther...
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - November 5, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Roche M, Borm K, Flynn JK, Lewin SR, Churchill MJ, Gorry PR Tags: Curr Top Med Chem Source Type: research

Development of Small-molecule HIV Entry Inhibitors Specifically Targeting gp120 or gp41.
Abstract Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope (Env) glycoprotein surface subunit gp120 and transmembrane subunit gp41 play important roles in HIV-1 entry, thus serving as key targets for the development of HIV-1 entry inhibitors. T20 peptide (enfuvirtide) is the first U.S. FDA-approved HIV entry inhibitor; however, its clinical application is limited by the lack of oral availability. Here, we have described the structure and function of the HIV-1 gp120 and gp41 subunits and reviewed advancements in the development of small-molecule HIV entry inhibitors specifically targeting these two Env glycoprot...
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - November 5, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lu L, Yu F, Cai L, Debnath AK, Jiang S Tags: Curr Top Med Chem Source Type: research

Fragment Based Strategies for Discovery of Novel HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase and Integrase Inhibitors.
Abstract Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a global health problem. While combined antiretroviral therapy has been successful in controlling the virus in patients, HIV can develop resistance to drugs used for treatment, rendering available drugs less effective and limiting treatment options. Initiatives to find novel drugs for HIV treatment are ongoing, although traditional drug design approaches often focus on known binding sites for inhibition of established drug targets like reverse transcriptase and integrase. These approaches tend towards generating more inhibitors in the same drug classes already us...
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - November 5, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Latham CF, La J, Tinetti RN, Chalmers DK, Tachedjian G Tags: Curr Top Med Chem Source Type: research

Therapeutic Approaches to Eradicate Latent HIV-1 in Resting CD4+ T Cells.
Abstract While combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) can drive HIV-1 RNA levels to
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - November 5, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sluis-Cremer N Tags: Curr Top Med Chem Source Type: research

Current Concepts for the IND-Directed Development of Microbicide Products to Prevent the Sexual Transmission of HIV.
Abstract In the absence of an approved and effective vaccine, topical microbicides have become the strategy of choice to provide women with the ability to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV. Topical microbicides are chemical and physical agents specifically developed and formulated for use in either the vaginal or rectal environment to prevent the sexual transmission of infectious organisms. Although a microbicide product will have many of the same properties as other anti-infective therapeutic agents, the microbicide development pathway has significant differences which reflect the complex biological environm...
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - November 5, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Buckheit KW, Furlan-Freguia C, Ham AS, Buckheit RW Tags: Curr Top Med Chem Source Type: research

HIV-1 Gag as an Antiviral Target: Development of Assembly and Maturation Inhibitors.
Abstract HIV-1 Gag is the master orchestrator of particle assembly. The central role of Gag at multiple stages of the HIV lifecycle has led to efforts to develop drugs that directly target Gag and prevent the formation and release of infectious particles. Until recently, however, only the catalytic site protease inhibitors have been available to inhibit late stages of HIV replication. This review summarizes the current state of development of antivirals that target Gag or disrupt late events in the retrovirus lifecycle such as maturation of the viral capsid. Maturation inhibitors represent an exciting new series o...
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - November 5, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Spearman P Tags: Curr Top Med Chem Source Type: research

Current and Emerging Drug Targets for Human Immunodeficiency Virus.
PMID: 26381413 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Topics in HIV Medicine)
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - November 5, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Waheed AA, Tachedjian G Tags: Curr Top Med Chem Source Type: research

Why Do We Need New Drug Classes for HIV Treatment and Prevention?
Abstract The biomedical intervention that has had a major impact on the natural history of HIV and on the global HIV epidemic is antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, the emergence of drug-resistant HIV, an inevitable consequence of increasing use of antiretroviral drugs, poses a major threat to ART success. At the turn of this century, access to life-saving ART was accelerated in low and middle-income countries with the Millennium Development Goal of 15 million individuals receiving ART by 2015 expected to be achieved. However, ART access needs to continue to expand to help bring HIV under control by 2030. The s...
Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - November 5, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Waheed AA, Tachedjian G Tags: Curr Top Med Chem Source Type: research