Genomic test ends a long diagnostic odyssey in a patient with resistance to thyroid hormones
ConclusionsThyroid hormone resistance continues to be an un(der)- and misdiagnosed thyroid condition whose management is particularly challenging when associated with autoimmune thyroid disease. Whole exome sequencing has the potential to identifyTHRB pathogenic variants as incidental findings. Reporting such secondary findings from genomic testing may be particularly important in the context of the rarity of the condition and the potential clinical consequences of misdiagnosis and mistreatment. (Source: Thyroid Research)
Source: Thyroid Research - July 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Association of antithyroglobulin antibody with iodine nutrition and thyroid dysfunction in Nepalese children
This study was conducted to investigate iodine nutrition, thyroid function and thyroid autoimmunity in the Nepalese children, and explore the association of thyroidal autoimmunity with iodine nutrition and thyroid dysfunction.MethodsFive schools from Udayapur district of eastern Nepal were selected for the study. A total of 213 school children aged 6 –12 years were enrolled, and anthropometric data, urine samples and blood samples were collected. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC), free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and antithyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) was me...
Source: Thyroid Research - July 9, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Levothyroxine before conception in women with thyroid antibodies: a step forward in the management of thyroid disease in pregnancy
AbstractStudies suggesting an association between thyroid autoimmunity and pregnancy-related adverse outcomes, particularly miscarriage and preterm delivery, date to nineties. The postulated causes for these associations were attributed to a direct or indirect effect of autoimmunity and/or to a mild thyroid impairment.Since then, small trials and several meta-analyses confirmed a detrimental effect of thyroid autoimmunity and suggested that patients with thyroid autoimmunity who wish to conceive or are pregnant might benefit from levothyroxine treatment to decrease the rate of miscarriage and preterm delivery.A recently pu...
Source: Thyroid Research - June 20, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Semi-quantitative assessment of diffuse hepatic uptake seen in I-131 scans – an indicator of functioning thyroid tissue and disease burden in differentiated thyroid cancer
ConclusionHTR has good correlation with functional status of tumor cells, while it has weak correlation to therapeutic dose of I-131 administered and serum Tg. Increased HTR predicts significant disease burden in the form of distant bone and lung metastasis and may potentially be used as a second prognostic factor apart from serum Tg. (Source: Thyroid Research)
Source: Thyroid Research - April 25, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Normalization of thyroid function tests among thyrotoxicosis patients attending a University Hospital in North-West Ethiopia
ConclusionThough PTU is not the preferred antithyroid agent in the management of thyrotoxicosis, all patients used PTU for the management of hyperthyroidism. All TFTs were normalized in only less than one-third of the participants. Resolution of symptoms took longer period of time than expected. (Source: Thyroid Research)
Source: Thyroid Research - March 23, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Hypothyroidism in the older population
ConclusionsCurrent evidence suggests that threshold for treating mild subclinical hypothyroidism in older people should be high. It is reasonable to aim for a higher TSH target in treated older hypothyroid patients as their thyroid hormone requirements may be lower. In addition, age-appropriate TSH reference ranges should be considered in the diagnostic pathway of identifying individuals at risk of developing hypothyroidism. Appropriately designed and powered randomised controlled trials are required to confirm risk/benefit of treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism in older people. Until the results of such RCTs are avail...
Source: Thyroid Research - February 8, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Mucin in benign thyroid nodules: treatment related change or not?
(Source: Thyroid Research)
Source: Thyroid Research - January 11, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Thyroid malignancy among patients with thyroid nodules in the United Arab Emirates: a five-year retrospective tertiary Centre analysis
ConclusionWe report a higher prevalence of thyroid malignancy among patients with thyroid nodules relative to that reported in other parts of the world. The rate of thyroid malignancy was higher in patients of Far-East Asian and Caucasian ethnic background. (Source: Thyroid Research)
Source: Thyroid Research - November 30, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Rapid detection of papillary thyroid carcinoma by fluorescence imaging using a γ-glutamyltranspeptidase-specific probe: a pilot study
ConclusionsAll PTC samples were detected by fluorescence imaging with gGlu-HMRG. Thus, fluorescence imaging with gGlu-HMRG is a rapid, simple, and powerful detection tool for PTC. (Source: Thyroid Research)
Source: Thyroid Research - November 21, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Calcitonin measurement in fine-needle aspirate washout fluid by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay for thyroid tumors
AbstractPurposeFor the differential diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) on thyroid nodules, ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology is a useful and safe procedure, but its diagnostic accuracy is not high enough. As an ancillary method to accurately diagnose MTC, the calcitonin in fine-needle aspirate washout fluid (FNA-Ct) is used. However, no data are available about cut-off values of FNA-Ct using the currently available electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA).MethodsWe investigated 180 thyroid nodules in 141 patients. After smearing, the syringe and needle used for the FNA were rinsed with norma...
Source: Thyroid Research - October 30, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Correlation between anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody levels and diffuse thyroid uptake of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose in Hashimoto ’s thyroiditis: a retrospective study
In this study, we evaluated the factors associated with diffuse uptake by comparing Hashimoto’s thyroiditis patients with or without diffuse uptake in the thyroid.MethodsA retrospective study was conducted of 18 patients with Hashimoto ’s thyroiditis who underwent blood tests, thyroid ultrasonography, and FDG-PET during the period from 2014 to 2015. The patients were divided into two groups: one with diffuse thyroid uptake (group 1,n = 13) and one without diffuse thyroid uptake (group 2,n = 5). Clinical and laboratory parameters, including maximum standardized uptake in the thyroid (...
Source: Thyroid Research - October 16, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Synergistic inhibition of MEK/ERK and BRAF V600E with PD98059 and PLX4032 induces sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) expression and radioiodine uptake in BRAF mutated papillary thyroid cancer cells
ConclusionSimultaneously suppressing BRAF V600E and p-ERK restored NIS expression and increase Iodide uptake in PTC cells, which was associated the inhibition of p-ERK expression. The results warrants clinical trials to confirm. (Source: Thyroid Research)
Source: Thyroid Research - October 11, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Hyperthyroidism in a complete molar pregnancy with a mature cystic ovarian teratoma
ConclusionThis case presents the rare occurrence of a complete hydatidiform mole causing hyperthyroidism and an associated finding of a mature cystic teratoma. It also highlights the importance of monitoring b-hCG levels following a complete molar pregnancy due to an increased risk of choriocarcinoma. (Source: Thyroid Research)
Source: Thyroid Research - August 10, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

A rare malignant thyroid carcinosarcoma with aggressive behavior and DICER1 gene mutation: a case report with literature review
ConclusionTo our knowledge, the E1705K point mutation within theDICER1 gene is the first reported mutation in carcinosarcoma of the thyroid. A comprehensive review of the relevant literature is also included for discussion. (Source: Thyroid Research)
Source: Thyroid Research - July 31, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The largest reported papillary thyroid carcinoma arising in struma ovarii and metastasis to opposite ovary: case report and review of literature
ConclusionsAmong the different surgeries for MSO, TAH  + BSO appears to have the best clinical outcome. However, unilateral salpingo-oopherectomy/ unilateral oophorectomy and bilateral salpingo-oopherectomy also seem effective. Ovarian cystectomy alone seems associated with higher recurrence. There remains no consensus on the associations between M SO tumor size and potential extent of metastasis, and about the management of thyroid gland. However, surveillance and thyroid gland work up to detect concurrent thyroid cancer are recommended. (Source: Thyroid Research)
Source: Thyroid Research - July 24, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Effect of perchlorate and thiocyanate exposure on thyroid function of pregnant women from South-West England: a cohort study
AbstractBackgroundIodine is important for thyroid hormone synthesis, and iodine deficiency in pregnancy may impair fetal neurological development. As perchlorate and thiocyanate inhibit sodium-iodide symporter reducing the transport of iodine from circulation into the thyroid follicular cells, environmental exposure to these substances in pregnancy may impair maternal thyroid hormone synthesis. We aimed to explore the impact of perchlorate and thiocyanate exposure on thyroid status in a cohort of pregnant mothers from South West England.MethodsUrine samples were obtained from 308 women participating in a study of breech pr...
Source: Thyroid Research - July 6, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

‘Does levothyroxine improve pregnancy outcomes in euthyroid women with thyroid autoimmunity undergoing assisted reproductive technology?’
AbstractEvidence on the treatment of euthyroid infertile women and thyroid autoimmunity with thyroid hormone is scare, and therefore the recent study by Wang et al. is a welcome addition to it. Based on their results, thyroid hormone seems not to be indicated to decrease the miscarriage rate in that particular group of infertile women. This comment is meant to put the study results into perspective with the available evidence and the current guidelines, and to highlight its strengths and weaknesses. (Source: Thyroid Research)
Source: Thyroid Research - May 30, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Characteristics and natural course of hypoechoic thyroid lesions diagnosed as possible thyroid lymphomas by fine needle aspiration cytology
AbstractBackgroundThere is little information regarding the natural course of hypoechoic thyroid lesions that are probable or possible thyroid lymphoma based on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) results.MethodsSixty-five patients who were diagnosed as probable or possible thyroid lymphoma by ultrasonography (US) and FNAC were investigated. Forty-three patients with strong suspicion underwent thyroid surgery for the diagnosis at our hospital, and 22 patients were followed up with periodic US examination. Thyroid lymphoma was definitely diagnosed in 41 out of 43 patients who underwent thyroid surgery, and such patients ...
Source: Thyroid Research - May 30, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

‘Does levothyroxine improve pregnancy outcomes in euthyroid women with thyroid autoimmunity undergoing assisted reproductive technology?’
AbstractEvidence on the treatment of euthyroid infertile women and thyroid autoimmunity with thyroid hormone is scare, and therefore the recent study by Wang et al. is a welcome addition to it. Based on their results, thyroid hormone seems not to be indicated to decrease the miscarriage rate in that particular group of infertile women. This comment is meant to put the study results into perspective with the available evidence and the current guidelines, and to highlight its strengths and weaknesses. (Source: Thyroid Research)
Source: Thyroid Research - May 30, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Characteristics and natural course of hypoechoic thyroid lesions diagnosed as possible thyroid lymphomas by fine needle aspiration cytology
AbstractBackgroundThere is little information regarding the natural course of hypoechoic thyroid lesions that are probable or possible thyroid lymphoma based on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) results.MethodsSixty-five patients who were diagnosed as probable or possible thyroid lymphoma by ultrasonography (US) and FNAC were investigated. Forty-three patients with strong suspicion underwent thyroid surgery for the diagnosis at our hospital, and 22 patients were followed up with periodic US examination. Thyroid lymphoma was definitely diagnosed in 41 out of 43 patients who underwent thyroid surgery, and such patients ...
Source: Thyroid Research - May 30, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Thyroid hormones increase stomach goblet cell numbers and mucin expression during indomethacin induced ulcer healing in Wistar rats
AbstractBackgroundGastric ulcers are mucosal discontinuities that may extend into the mucosa, submucosa or even deeper. They result from an imbalance between mucosal aggressors and protective mechanisms that include the mucus bicarbonate layer. Thyroid hormones have been shown to accelerate gastric ulcer healing in part by increasing the adherent mucus levels. However, the effects of thyroid hormones on goblet cell numbers and expression of neutral and acidic mucins during ulcer healing have not been investigated.MethodsThirty six adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups each with six animals. Group 1 (...
Source: Thyroid Research - May 25, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The upper limit for TSH during pregnancy: why we should stop using fixed limits of 2.5 or 3.0  mU/l
AbstractPhysiological changes necessitate the use of pregnancy-specific reference ranges for TSH and FT4 to diagnose thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy. Although many centers use fixed upper limits for TSH of 2.5 or 3.0  mU/L, this comment describeds new data which indicate that such cut-offs are too low and may lead to overdiagnosis or even overtreatment. The new guidelines of the American Thyroid Association have considerably changed recommendations regarding thyroid function reference ranges in pregnancy accord ingly. Also a stepwise approach to interpreting these guidelines is discussed as well as the relevant r...
Source: Thyroid Research - May 21, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Acute suppurative thyroiditis caused by thyroid papillary carcinoma in the right thyroid lobe of a healthy woman
ConclusionsThis report represents a rare case of AST associated with PTC on the right side of thyroid gland, found in a healthy adult woman. The reason why AST coincided with malignant thyroid tumor is unclear. We have to take it into our account that malignant tumor may exist in the background when AST is identified on the right side of thyroid gland with a healthy subject. (Source: Thyroid Research)
Source: Thyroid Research - May 15, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Ultrasound criteria for risk stratification of thyroid nodules in the previously iodine deficient area of Austria - a single centre, retrospective analysis
AbstractBackgroundWe aimed to study the validity of six published ultrasound criteria for risk stratification of thyroid nodules in the former severely iodine deficient population of Austria.MethodsRetrospective, single centre, observer blinded study design. All patients with a history of thyroidectomy due to nodules seen in the centre between 2004 and 2014 with preoperative in-house sonography and documented postoperative histology were analyzed (n = 195). A board of five experienced thyroidologists evaluated the images of 45 papillary carcinomas, 8 follicular carcinomas, and 142 benign nodules regarding the f...
Source: Thyroid Research - May 9, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Role of the T and B lymphocytes in pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid diseases
AbstractAutoimmune thyroid disorders (AITD) broadly include Graves ’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis which are the most common causes of thyroid gland dysfunctions. These disorders develop due to complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors and are characterized by reactivity to self-thyroid antigens due to autoreactive lymphocytes escapin g tolerance. Both cell-mediated and humoral responses lead to tissue injury in autoimmune thyroid disease. The differentiation of CD4+ cells in the specific setting of immune mediators (for example cytokines, chemokines) results in differentiation of var...
Source: Thyroid Research - February 13, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Management of hypothyroidism with combination thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) hormone replacement in clinical practice: a review of suggested guidance
ConclusionWhilst evidence is lacking on whether a small group of patients may benefit from combination therapy a trial may be indicated in those who remain symptomatic despite adequate levothyroxine monotherapy. This should be undertaken by clinicians experienced in the field with appropriate monitoring for adverse outcomes in both short and long term. (Source: Thyroid Research)
Source: Thyroid Research - January 17, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Papillary thyroid cancer recurrence 43  Years following Total Thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine ablation: a case report
ConclusionThis case exemplifies the need for the head and neck surgeon, radiation oncologist, general practitioner and radiologist to consider new lateral neck mass as late-presenting recurrence of PTC until proven otherwise regardless of low recurrence rates beyond two decades from treatment and low prognostic risk scores. (Source: Thyroid Research)
Source: Thyroid Research - October 10, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Hyalinizing trabecular tumor of the thyroid gland and its significant diagnostic issue
ConclusionsHistologically, HTT is a follicular cell-derived tumor composed of neoplastic cells arranged in a trabecular pattern with hyalinization and calcification of extracellular material. Distinguishing features of HTT include minimal cytologic atypia with a low nuclear: cytoplasmic ratio, cellular aggregates around hyalinized material, and nuclei with clumped chromatin and occasional grooves and/or pseudoinclusions. Though debated in the literature, the general consensus is that this tumor is a benign entity. It is our hope that additional clinical research will elicit awareness of these rare tumors. (Source: Thyroid Research)
Source: Thyroid Research - October 10, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Papillary thyroid cancer recurrence 43  Years following Total Thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine ablation: a case report
ConclusionThis case exemplifies the need for the head and neck surgeon, radiation oncologist, general practitioner and radiologist to consider new lateral neck mass as late-presenting recurrence of PTC until proven otherwise regardless of low recurrence rates beyond two decades from treatment and low prognostic risk scores. (Source: Thyroid Research)
Source: Thyroid Research - October 10, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Hyalinizing trabecular tumor of the thyroid gland and its significant diagnostic issue
ConclusionsHistologically, HTT is a follicular cell-derived tumor composed of neoplastic cells arranged in a trabecular pattern with hyalinization and calcification of extracellular material. Distinguishing features of HTT include minimal cytologic atypia with a low nuclear: cytoplasmic ratio, cellular aggregates around hyalinized material, and nuclei with clumped chromatin and occasional grooves and/or pseudoinclusions. Though debated in the literature, the general consensus is that this tumor is a benign entity. It is our hope that additional clinical research will elicit awareness of these rare tumors. (Source: Thyroid Research)
Source: Thyroid Research - October 10, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Meeting abstracts from the 65th British Thyroid Association Annual Meeting
(Source: Thyroid Research)
Source: Thyroid Research - September 19, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

A retrospective review of the multidisciplinary management of medullary thyroid cancer: eligibility for systemic therapy
AbstractBackgroundMedullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) accounts for 1-2% of all thyroid cancers. The clinical course of metastatic disease can be indolent. Our aim was to characterize the natural history of disease to evaluate the true proportion of patients who would be eligible for the currently available systemic therapies.MethodsThe British Columbia Cancer Agency (BCCA) provides cancer care to a population of 4.6 million. A retrospective chart review was conducted of all patients with MTC referred to the BCCA from 1991 to 2013. Clinical characteristics, pathology, treatment and outcome data were collected. Relapse free su...
Source: Thyroid Research - September 19, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Meeting abstracts from the 65th British Thyroid Association Annual Meeting
(Source: Thyroid Research)
Source: Thyroid Research - September 19, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Comparative frequency of four different types of pregnancy-associated thyrotoxicosis in a single thyroid centre
ConclusionsWe named gestational thyrotoxicosis, new onset of Graves ’ disease during pregnancy, postpartum destructive thyrotoxicosis, and postpartum Graves’ thyrotoxicosis as pregnancy-associated thyrotoxicosis. A clinically significant number of women developed Graves’ disease in the postpartum period in a single thyroid centre. (Source: Thyroid Research)
Source: Thyroid Research - August 8, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Malignant Struma ovarii in a 30-year old nulliparous patient
ConclusionsWe believe that aggressive surgical management followed by radioiodine therapy is best to reduce recurrence risk and optimize survival. The broad scope of interventions needed to treat malignant struma ovarii require a strong interdisciplinary team. (Source: Thyroid Research)
Source: Thyroid Research - May 30, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Meeting abstracts from the 64th British Thyroid Association Annual Meeting
(Source: Thyroid Research)
Source: Thyroid Research - February 13, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research