Pharmacokinetic–Pharmacogenomic Model for Chinese Children Treated With Lamotrigine Also Applies for Mexican Children
No abstract available (Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring)
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - September 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Oral Fluid to Blood Concentration Ratios of Different Psychoactive Drugs in Samples from Suspected Drugged Drivers
Conclusions: High OF/B ratios were found for amphetamines and opioids, reflecting a high degree of drug transfer from blood to oral fluid and a longer detection window in oral fluid than in blood. For benzodiazepines, low OF/B ratios were found. Results of the concentration measurements in oral fluid from both sides of the mouth could indicate that some remnants of THC and buprenorphine were present in the oral cavity. The large variations among individuals and between the 2 sides of the mouth suggest that drug concentrations in oral fluid do not accurately reflect drug concentrations in the blood. (Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring)
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - September 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Screening for Opioid and Stimulant Exposure In Utero Through Targeted and Untargeted Metabolomics Analysis of Umbilical Cords
Conclusions: Our research is a prospective method development study using untargeted and targeted approaches to characterize steady-state drug metabolite levels in the umbilical cord matrix at the time of delivery. By characterizing drug type and concentration, this methodology can be used to develop a reliable complementary testing method for meconium toxicology screens. (Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring)
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - September 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Model-Informed Bayesian Estimation Improves the Prediction of Morphine Exposure in Neonates and Infants
Conclusions: Model-informed Bayesian estimation is a better predictor of morphine exposure than PK models alone in critically ill neonates and infants. A large variability was also identified in morphine clearance. A further study is warranted to elucidate the predictive covariates and precision dosing strategies that use morphine concentration and pain scores as feedbacks. (Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring)
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - September 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Comparison of Novel Immunoassay With Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Clozapine
Background: Clozapine is the most effective antipsychotic for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Although serum clozapine levels can help guide treatment, they are underutilized owing to requirements for frequent venous blood draws and lack of immediate results. Methods: Clozapine levels measured with a novel immunoassay technology (which enables point-of-care development) were compared with those measured by standard liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Frozen serum aliquots of 117 samples (N = 48 patients with schizophrenia on clozapine; N = 24 patients with schizophrenia not on clozapine; N = ...
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - September 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Association Between the Serum Carnitine Level and Ammonia and Valproic Acid Levels in Patients with Bipolar Disorder
Conclusions: These findings suggest that carnitine deficiency is associated with the VPA dose and the serum VPA level in patients with bipolar disorder. However, it is unlikely that carnitine deficiency is associated with hyperammonemia in patients with bipolar disorder. (Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring)
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - September 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Impact of Age and Genotype on Serum Concentrations of Valproic Acid and Its Hepatotoxic Metabolites in Chinese Pediatric Patients With Epilepsy
Conclusions: The present study suggests that UGT2B7 802C>T polymorphism and age are factors affecting the concentrations of dose-adjusted VPA and its metabolites. No genotype-related differences were noted in the metabolite ratios of 4-ene-VPA and 2,4-diene-VPA within age-assigned groups. Therefore, careful administration is particularly necessary for younger patients who are UGT2B7 802C>T poor metabolizers. (Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring)
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - September 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Therapeutic Monitoring of Lacosamide in Japanese Patients With Epilepsy: Clinical Response, Tolerability, and Optimal Therapeutic Range
Background: Lacosamide is a novel anticonvulsant that acts by enhancing sodium channel slow inactivation. The aims of this study were to evaluate the influence of concomitant antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on serum lacosamide concentration and explore the relationship between lacosamide serum concentration and both clinical response and adverse effects. Methods: The authors analyzed 649 serum samples from 426 Japanese patients with epilepsy. The concentration-to-dose (CD) ratio of lacosamide was compared among patients on various AED regimens. Clinical information about seizure frequency and adverse events was obtained fr...
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - September 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetic Variability During Long-Term Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Valproate, Clobazam, and Levetiracetam in Patients With Dravet Syndrome
This study included patients with Dravet syndrome as they often require close monitoring because of polypharmacy with various ASMs. The aim was to use long-term TDM to investigate pharmacokinetic variability of ASMs in these patients. Methods: Retrospective data from patients with Dravet syndrome were collected from the TDM database at the Section for Clinical Pharmacology, National Center for Epilepsy in Norway (2008–2018). Concentration/(dose/kg)ratios (C/D ratios) were calculated for the ASMs and the concentration (C/C ratio) for N-desmethylclobazam. In patients with at least 3 measurements, the CV for C/D rati...
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - September 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Perils of Antithrombotic Transitions: Effect of Oral Factor Xa Inhibitors on the Heparin Antifactor Xa Assay
Conclusions: This study assessed the prevalence of supratherapeutic antiXa levels and clinical outcomes during the transition from OFXais to UFH. Health care systems should develop guidelines to assist clinicians in monitoring antiXa activity in patients undergoing a transition from an OFXai to UFH. It is also important to assess the patient's underlying thromboembolic and bleeding risks. (Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring)
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - September 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Cefotiam Treatment in Children: Evidence of Subtherapeutic Levels
Background: Cefotiam, a second-generation cephalosporin, is a broad-spectrum antibiotic with good antibacterial action against both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. It is used widely in clinical practice, although bacterial drug resistance makes its clinical use problematic. The authors hypothesized that subtherapeutic concentrations of cefotiam leads to bacterial resistance. The present study was conducted to evaluate whether the standard cefotiam dosing regimen resulted in a subtherapeutic concentrations in children. Method: Data were prospectively collected from pediatric patients with suspected or confirm...
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - September 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Quantification of Serum Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim by Ultra-fast Solid-Phase Extraction–Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Background: The combination of trimethoprim (TMP) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is used to treat a number of bacterial infections. TMP/SMX concentrations in serum are conventionally monitored using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. These methods require laborious manual extraction techniques and relatively long sample analysis times, necessitating the development of a simple, high-throughput method. A simple, high-throughput method to measure TMP/SMX using ultra-fast solid-phase extraction (SPE)–tandem mass spectrometry has been developed. Methods: Cali...
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - September 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

A Simple and Robust Liquid Chromatography With Tandem Mass Spectrometry Analytical Method for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Plasma and Cerebrospinal Fluid Polymyxin B1 and B2
Conclusions: A simple and robust method to measure polymyxin B1 and B2 in human CSF was first exploited and validated with good sensitivity and specificity, and successfully applied in polymyxin B pharmacokinetic analysis and therapeutic monitoring in Chinese patients. (Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring)
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - September 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Evaluation of Assays to Measure Aminoglycosides in Serum: Comparison of Accuracy and Precision Based on External Quality Assessment
Conclusions: This study demonstrated high variations in results obtained from antibiotic assays conducted at different laboratories worldwide. (Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring)
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - September 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

No Apparent Influence of Nonadherence on Tacrolimus Intrapatient Variability in Stable Kidney Transplant Recipients
Conclusions: There was no apparent relationship between IPV and nonadherence in this motivated kidney transplant recipient population, with one missed tacrolimus dose every 2 weeks. (Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring)
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - September 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Salting Out-Assisted Liquid–Liquid Extraction for Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry Measurement of Tacrolimus, Sirolimus, Everolimus, and Cyclosporine a in Whole Blood
Conclusions: This is the first report of the use of SALLE for the measurement of tacrolimus, sirolimus, everolimus, and cyclosporine A in whole blood. The advantages of SALLE over PPT and conventional LLE would make it an attractive sample preparation method for clinical laboratories. (Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring)
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - September 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Establishment of a Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for the Determination of Immunosuppressant Levels in the Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Chinese Renal Transplant Recipients
Background: Monitoring immunosuppressant levels, such as mycophenolic acid (MPA), cyclosporin A (CsA), and tacrolimus (TAC), in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) could be useful in organ transplant patients administered individualized therapy. The authors developed a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay technique to simultaneously determine immunosuppressant levels in PBMCs and assess their pharmacokinetics in Chinese renal allograft recipients. Methods: PBMCs were isolated from the whole blood of 27 Chinese renal transplant patients using Ficoll-Paque Plus solution, and cell number was determ...
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - September 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Chronopharmacokinetics and Food Effects of Single-Dose LCP-Tacrolimus in Healthy Volunteers
Background: A modified-release version of tacrolimus, LCP-tacrolimus (LCPT; Envarsus XR, Veloxis Pharmaceuticals, Cary, NC), has been licensed in the United States for prophylaxis of organ rejection in de novo kidney transplant patients. As tacrolimus has a narrow therapeutic window, the impact of circadian patterns on LCPT drug exposure, including food and chronopharmacokinetic effects, needs to be elucidated to optimize dosing. Methods: Two randomized, crossover, phase 1 studies were conducted in healthy volunteers. The first assessed the effect of morning versus evening dosing on the pharmacokinetic profile of LCPT...
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - September 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Redefining Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Tacrolimus in Patients Undergoing Liver Transplantation: A Target Trough Concentration of 4–7 ng/mL During the First Month After Liver Transplantation is Safe and Improves Graft and Renal Function
This study evaluated the efficacy of a target TAC Cmin of 4–7 ng/mL after LT. Methods: Of 1677 LTs performed between 2002 and 2017, 904 LT cases were analyzed. The cases were categorized into the following 3 groups and compared: low- (n = 247, 27.3%), intermediate- (n = 344, 37.9%), and high-exposure groups (n = 313, 34.5%) with TAC Cmin of 4–7 ng/mL, 7–10 ng/mL, and>10 ng/mL, respectively. In addition, propensity score matching was performed to reduce heterogeneity and population bias. Results: At months 1 and 3, when compared with the 2 other groups, the low-exposure group had similar grafts (P...
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - September 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Measuring Intracellular Concentrations of Calcineurin Inhibitors: Expert Consensus from the International Association of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring and Clinical Toxicology Expert Panel
Background: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of the 2 calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs), tacrolimus (TAC) and cyclosporin A, has resulted in improvements in the management of patients who have undergone solid organ transplantation. As a result of TDM, acute rejection (AR) rates and treatment-related toxicities have been reduced. Irrespective, AR and toxicity still occur in patients who have undergone transplantation, showing blood CNI concentrations within the therapeutic range. Moreover, the AR rate is no longer decreasing. Hence, smarter TDM approaches are necessary. Because CNIs exert their action inside T lymphocytes, i...
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - September 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

5-Fluorouracil Response Prediction and Blood Level–Guided Therapy in Oncology: Existing Evidence Fundamentally Supports Instigation
This article outlines the UH2/U ratio as a parameter for 5-FU response/toxicity prediction and highlights key studies emphasizing the value of 5-FU TDM. Broad application of 5-FU response/toxicity prediction and blood level–guided therapy remains unmet, despite ever-increasing clinical interest. Considered collectively, existing evidence is compelling and fundamentally supports universal instigation of response/toxicity prediction and TDM. (Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring)
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - September 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

In Memoriam: Roger Jelliffe, MD, FCP, FAAPS
No abstract available (Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring)
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - September 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Obituary Source Type: research

Neurotoxicity Despite a Renal Function-Adjusted Cefepime Regimen: A Case Study
Abstract: An 83-year-old man, presenting decreased renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate 21 mL/min/1.73 m2), was treated for a bone and joint infection (on a trans-metatarsal right foot amputation) caused by Klebsiella Pneumonia sensitive to cefepime. The starting dose (1 g bid) was based on recommendations for patients presenting severe infections. One week after treatment initiation, the patient developed neurotoxicity, exhibiting extremely high plasma cefepime concentrations. Based on TDM, the dose was reduced by 8 times the original dose. This case report highlights the importance of therapeutic drug m...
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - September 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Measurement Uncertainty in Forensic Toxicology
No abstract available (Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring)
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - July 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Important Interactions of Immunosuppressants With Experimental Therapies for Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): How to Act
No abstract available (Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring)
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - July 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Feasibility of Dried Blood Spots in Children with Behavioral Problems
Conclusions: DBS sampling could be performed in most children with ASD and severe behavioral problems. However, 1 in 5 children refused one or more DBS fingerpricks owing to distress. Most expressed minimal pain (NRS (Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring)
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - July 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

A Comparison of Tenofovir Predose Concentrations in Generic Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Formulations: A Short Communication
Conclusions: The marketed generic formulations of TDF delivered tenofovir plasma predose concentrations comparable with those delivered by branded formulations. (Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring)
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - July 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

A Retrospective Analysis of Steady-State Olanzapine Concentrations in Chinese Patients Using Therapeutic Drug Monitoring: Effects of Valproate and Other Factors
The objective of this study was to investigate the serum concentrations of olanzapine in relation to age, sex, and other factors in Chinese patients aged between 10 and 90 years. Methods: Data for 884 olanzapine patients, deposited between 2016 and 2017, were retrieved from the therapeutic drug monitoring database of the Affiliated Brain Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University. The effects of covariates on serum olanzapine concentration, dose-normalized concentration (C/D ratio), and normalized concentration (C/D/weight) were investigated. Results: Generally, male patients had lower olanzapine concentration, C/D rat...
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - July 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

A High Plasma Lamotrigine Concentration at Week 2 as a Risk Factor for Lamotrigine-Related Rash
Background: Reportedly, a high plasma concentration of lamotrigine plays a role in the development of lamotrigine-related rash. The relationship between plasma concentrations of lamotrigine at week 2 and the lamotrigine-related rash was prospectively studied in 84 patients (22 males and 62 females) with treatment-resistant depressive disorder during an 8-week treatment of lamotrigine augmentation. Methods: Eighty-four depressed patients with an insufficient response to at least 3 psychotropics, including antidepressants, mood stabilizers, and atypical antipsychotics, were included. The diagnoses were major depressive ...
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - July 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

What Are the Predictors for Achieving Therapeutic Levetiracetam Serum Concentrations in Adult Neurological Patients?
Background: Emerging studies suggest that levetiracetam pharmacokinetics can be difficult to predict in certain special patient populations, including the elderly, critically ill patients, and pregnant women. Objective: To determine clinical characteristics that predict the attainment of target serum concentrations in a heterogeneous group of patients prescribed levetiracetam. Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted in adult neurological patients prescribed levetiracetam for the treatment or prophylaxis of seizures. Serum samples were collected after steady-state was reached, with a trough/steady...
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - July 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

A Novel Correction Equation Avoids High-Magnitude Errors in Interpreting Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Phenytoin Among Critically Ill Patients
Conclusions: Free phenytoin levels in hospitalized patients cannot be accurately determined using available estimation equations, particularly in critically ill patients. Combining ICU status and other available clinical data can improve therapeutic drug monitoring and prevent high-magnitude errors, particularly when free phenytoin assays are not readily available. (Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring)
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - July 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Prediction of Serum-Free and Cerebrospinal Fluid Valproic Acid Levels in Patients With Hypoalbuminemia After Craniotomy
Conclusions: Based on total VPA and serum albumin concentrations, we developed a model to predict serum-free and CSF levels of VPA. This model is useful for correcting dose adjustment in patients with hypoalbuminemia after craniotomy. (Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring)
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - July 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Therapeutic Drug Monitoring Coupled With Bayesian Forecasting Could Prevent Vancomycin-Associated Nephrotoxicity in Renal Insufficiency Patients: A Prospective Study and Pharmacoeconomic Analysis
Conclusions: TDM coupled with Bayesian forecasting led to an increase in trough concentration target attainment and a decrease in the incidence of vancomycin-associated nephrotoxicity in renal insufficiency patients. In this high-risk population, TDM was demonstrated to be a cost-effective procedure. (Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring)
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - July 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Does Circadian Rhythm Affect the Pharmacokinetics of Once-Daily Tobramycin in Adults With Cystic Fibrosis?
Conclusions: The time of administration (8:00 versus 22:00) did not affect tobramycin pharmacokinetics in the adult CF population studied. The increase in serum blood urea nitrogen in the 22:00 group requires further investigation. (Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring)
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - July 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Meropenem in Critically Ill Patients With Acute Kidney Injury Treated With Continuous Hemodiafiltration
Conclusions: A population PK model was developed for meropenem in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury receiving CHDF. Our results indicated that a meropenem dosage of 0.5 g every 8 hours or 1 g every 12 hours was suitable in this population and for susceptible bacteria. (Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring)
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - July 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Determination of Total and Unbound Meropenem, Imipenem/Cilastatin, and Cefoperazone/Sulbactam in Human Plasma: Application for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Critically Ill Patients
Conclusions: The method was simple, rapid, and reliable and is currently being used to provide a TDM service to enhance the efficacious use of the 3 antibiotics. (Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring)
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - July 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Development of a Mass Spectrometry-Based Method for Quantification of Ustekinumab in Serum Specimens
Conclusions: The newly developed LC/MS-based method was shown to be feasible for UST quantification. This analytical approach may lead to individualized dosing and improved patient care. (Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring)
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - July 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Is Salivary Busulfan the Cause of Oral Mucositis and the Changes in Salivary Antioxidant Enzymes After Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation?
Background: To determine whether the busulfan (Bu) present in saliva during hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) conditioning correlates with oral mucositis and the changes in salivary antioxidant enzymes. Methods: Bu levels in the plasma and saliva of 19 patients who received HCTs were quantified. Salivary flow and salivary superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were measured during HCT. For the toxicity analysis of salivary Bu, an in vitro assay was conducted by exposing human keratinocytes to artificial saliva containing Bu. Results: Plasma and salivary Bu concentrations were very similar (rho = 0.92, ...
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - July 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Focus Series: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Oncology Source Type: research

Evaluation of Imatinib Concentrations in Samples Submitted for BCR-ABL1 or Imatinib Testing—Evidence to Support Therapeutic Drug Monitoring for Dose Optimization?
Conclusions: Therapeutic drug monitoring for imatinib may assist clinicians in the identification of patients who may not be adherent to therapy, display variable pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics, or may be experiencing toxicity or treatment failure. (Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring)
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - July 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Focus Series: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Oncology Source Type: research

High-Performance Liquid Chromatography for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Serum Lenvatinib
Conclusions: This sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography method can be used for lenvatinib therapeutic drug monitoring when liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry facilities are unavailable. (Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring)
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - July 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Focus Series: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Oncology Source Type: research

Quantification of 3-Hydroxypropyl Mercapturic Acid in the Urine of Patients with Breast Cancer to Monitor Cyclophosphamide Toxicity
Conclusions: The method was applicable for the quantification of 3-HPMA in human urine. Large variations in 3-HPMA concentrations were found in 40 patients with breast cancer treated with cyclophosphamide, with a significant difference (P (Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring)
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - July 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Focus Series: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Oncology Source Type: research

Phenotyping of Uracil and 5-Fluorouracil Metabolism Using LC-MS/MS for Prevention of Toxicity and Dose Adjustment of Fluoropyrimidines
This study aimed to develop a quick and easy bioanalytical method for the simultaneous determination of endogenous uracil (U), exogenous 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and their respective 5,6-dihydro-metabolite in human plasma using Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Methods: After protein precipitation, the compounds were purified using liquid–liquid extraction. Chromatographic separation was conducted using a Cortecs T3 column and binary gradient elution. Detection and quantification were performed in the positive electrospray ionization and selected the reaction monitoring mode after...
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - July 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Focus Series: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Oncology Source Type: research

Evaluation of Extrapolation Methods to Predict Trough Concentrations to Guide Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Oral Anticancer Drugs
Conclusions: Both method 1 and 2 provided accurate and precise individual Cmin,pred values. However, method 2 was easier to implement than method 1 to guide individual dose adjustments in TDM programs. (Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring)
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - July 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Focus Series: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Oncology Source Type: research

Usage of Tacrolimus and Mycophenolic Acid During Conception, Pregnancy, and Lactation, and Its Implications for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring: A Systematic Critical Review
Conclusions: Tac treatment during conception, pregnancy and lactation seems to be relatively safe. Due to pharmacokinetic changes during pregnancy, a higher Tac dose might be indicated to maintain target concentrations. However, more evidence is needed to make recommendations on both Tac dose adjustments and alternative matrices than whole-blood for TDM of Tac during pregnancy. MPA treatment in men during conception seems to have no adverse effect on pregnancy outcomes, whereas MPA use in women during conception and pregnancy is strongly discouraged. (Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring)
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - July 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Subtherapeutic Linezolid Concentration in a Patient With Bullous Pemphigoid Complicated by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection: A Case Study
We presented a case of subtherapeutic linezolid concentration in a patient with bullous pemphigoid characterized by large area skin anabrosis complicated by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections. (Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring)
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - July 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Finger-Prick Blood Sampling for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring: Be Aware of Skin Contamination by Nebulized Drugs
No abstract available (Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring)
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - May 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

A Reversed-Phase Mode LC-MS/MS Method Using a Polysaccharide Chiral Selector for Simultaneous Quantitation of Each Enantiomer of Tramadol and its Metabolites in Human Plasma and Evaluation of CYP-Mediated Stereoselective Demethylation
Conclusions: The present method can be useful in the enantiomeric evaluation of tramadol and its metabolites in human plasma. Although CYP2D6 contributed to the stereoselective demethylation of tramadol, remarkable differences between (+)- and (−)-ODT were not observed in the plasma of the cancer patients. (Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring)
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - May 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Population Pharmacokinetics of Levobupivacaine During Transversus Abdominis Plane Block in Children
Conclusions: For improved efficiency in the pediatric population, the dose of levobupivacaine should be greater than 0.4 mg/kg. Children's weight should be considered to anticipate any risk of toxicity. (Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring)
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - May 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Clozapine and Norclozapine Plasma Levels in Patients Switched Between Different Liquid Formulations
Conclusions: No significant difference in clozapine plasma levels was observed after switching from Denzapine suspension to a recently introduced clozapine solution. This study also highlights the significance of medicinal characteristics such as taste for patient acceptability and compliance. (Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring)
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - May 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Dried Blood Microsampling-Based Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Antiepileptic Drugs in Children With Nodding Syndrome and Epilepsy in Uganda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Abstract: Nodding syndrome is a highly debilitating, generalized seizure disorder, affecting children in subregions of sub-Saharan Africa. Despite numerous efforts to uncover the etiology, the exact cause of this syndrome still remains obscure. Therefore, to date, patients only receive symptomatic care, including the administration of first-generation antiepileptic drugs for seizure control. As data on the efficacy of drugs within this population are completely lacking, the aim of this study was to explore how therapeutic drug monitoring could help to understand the differential response to therapy. Considering the chall...
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - May 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research