The Vessels Shaping Mental Health or Illness.
Authors: Baruah J, Vasudevan A Abstract The mammalian brain receives the lion's share of the body's blood supply and is a highly vascularized organ. The vascular and nervous systems arise at two distinct time points of embryogenesis; however, their functions tend to overlap or complement each other in the growth promoting milieu of the embryonic Central Nervous System (CNS). The pre-existing idea that mental disorders are a direct result from defects solely in neuronal populations and networks is gradually changing. Several studies have implicated blood vessel pathologies and blood flow changes in mental health dis...
Source: The Open Neurology Journal - April 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Open Neurol J Source Type: research

Alzheimer ´s Disease in the Perspective of Neuroimmunology.
Conclusion: Nevertheless, from the pathophysiological perspective AD is significantly more than a loss of memory. In the initial stages of AD pathogenesis, variations in the dopaminergic pathway along with serotonin diminution play an important role. This may explain why depression is associated with the onset of AD. All these pathophysiological events take place together with immunomodulatory changes that trigger tau oligomerization in the course of neurofibrillary tangles formation. Interestingly, mood disorders appear to be followed by neuroinflammatory processes and structural/functional alterations that lead to cognit...
Source: The Open Neurology Journal - August 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Open Neurol J Source Type: research

The Rationale for Monitoring Cognitive Function in Multiple Sclerosis: Practical Issues for Clinicians.
Authors: Bakirtzis C, Ioannidis P, Messinis L, Nasios G, Konstantinopoulou E, Papathanasopoulos P, Grigoriadis N Abstract About half of patients with multiple sclerosis exhibit cognitive impairment which negatively affects their quality of life. The assessment of cognitive function in routine clinical practice is still undervalued, although various tools have been proposed for this reason. In this article, we describe the potential benefits of implementing cognitive assessment tools in routine follow -ups of MS patients. Early detection of changes in cognitive performance may provide evidence of disease activity, c...
Source: The Open Neurology Journal - July 18, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Open Neurol J Source Type: research

Dystonia in Patients with Spinocerebellar Ataxia 3 - Machado-Joseph disease: An Underestimated Diagnosis?
Conclusion: Dystonia in SCA3 is frequent and displays highly variable clinical profiles and severity grades. Dystonia is therefore a present symptom in SCA3, which may precede the SCA3 classic symptoms. Dystonia diagnosis is yet to be properly recognized within SCA3 patient. PMID: 30008965 [PubMed] (Source: The Open Neurology Journal)
Source: The Open Neurology Journal - July 18, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Open Neurol J Source Type: research

Cognitive and Language Deficits in Multiple Sclerosis: Comparison of Relapsing Remitting and Secondary Progressive Subtypes.
Conclusion: We conclude that MS patients, irrespective of clinical subtype, have cognitive deficits compared to healthy participants, which become increasingly worse when they convert from RRMS to SPMS.On the contrary,the pattern of impairment remains relatively stable. PMID: 29576812 [PubMed] (Source: The Open Neurology Journal)
Source: The Open Neurology Journal - March 27, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Open Neurol J Source Type: research

A High-fat and High-Cholesterol Diet Potentiates Oxidative Damage in Hippocampus of Mice Lacking Apolipoprotein E.
Conclusion: This highlights the degree to which ApoE deficiency places hippocampal tissue at risk for oxidative damage. Even a modest dietary deficiency may be sufficient to provoke oxidative damage to hippocampal tissue. These results highlight the combinatorial impact of genetic and dietary deficiencies on oxidative damage to hippocampal tissue. PMID: 29541261 [PubMed] (Source: The Open Neurology Journal)
Source: The Open Neurology Journal - March 18, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Open Neurol J Source Type: research

Hospital Mortality Among Elderly Patients Admitted With Neurological Disorders Was Not Predicted by any Particular Diagnosis in a Tertiary Medical Center.
Authors: Bacellar A, Assis T, Pedreira BB, Costa G, Nascimento OJM Abstract Background: Neurological disorders (NDs) are associated with high hospital mortality. We aimed to identify predictors of hospital mortality among elderly inpatients with NDs. Methods: Patients aged ≥60 years admitted to the hospital between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2010 with acute NDs, chronic NDs as underpinnings of acute clinical disorders, and neurological complications of other diseases were studied. We analyzed demographic data, NDs, and comorbidities as independent predictors of hospital mortality. Logistic regression w...
Source: The Open Neurology Journal - February 21, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Open Neurol J Source Type: research

Successful Nonoperative Treatment of a Lumbar Spine Extension Injury with Disruption of all Three Bony Columns in a Patient with Ankylosing Spondylitis - A Case Report.
Conclusion: This case supports our hypothesis that the fracture pattern is an important factor in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and adds to the body of knowledge in the scientific literature concerning non-operative treatment of fractures in patients with ankylosed spines. Further study is required to determine whether ours is an isolated case or whether this applies to a wider population of ankylosing spondylitis patients. PMID: 29399213 [PubMed] (Source: The Open Neurology Journal)
Source: The Open Neurology Journal - February 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Open Neurol J Source Type: research

Omega-3 Hastens and Omega-6 Delays the Progression of Neuropathology in a Murine Model of Familial ALS.
Conclusion: In the absence of a cure or treatment, affected individuals may resort to popular nutritional supplements such as Ω-3 as a form of "self-medication". However, our findings and those of other laboratories indicate that such an approach could be harmful. Our findings suggest that a critical balance of Ω-6 and Ω-3 may temporarily preserve motor neuron function during the terminal stages of ALS, which could provide a substantial improvement in quality of life for affected individuals and their caregivers. PMID: 29387280 [PubMed] (Source: The Open Neurology Journal)
Source: The Open Neurology Journal - February 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Open Neurol J Source Type: research

Enhanced Phosphorylation of Bax and Its Translocation into Mitochondria in the Brains of Individuals Affiliated with Alzheimer's Disease.
Conclusion: The amount of phospho-p38 kinase is increased in AD brains and the activated p38 kinase appears to phosphorylate Thr residue(s) of Bax, which leads to its mitochondrial translocation, contributing to apoptosis and ultimately, neurodegeneration. PMID: 29290835 [PubMed] (Source: The Open Neurology Journal)
Source: The Open Neurology Journal - January 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Open Neurol J Source Type: research

Do Cannabinoids Confer Neuroprotection Against Epilepsy? An Overview.
Conclusion: The notion is supported by a variety of anatomical, electrophysiological, biochemical and pharmacological findings. These data suggest the need for developing novel treatments using compounds that selectively target individual elements of the endocannabinoid signalling system. PMID: 29290836 [PubMed] (Source: The Open Neurology Journal)
Source: The Open Neurology Journal - January 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Open Neurol J Source Type: research

Clinical Outcomes of Repeated Intraventricular Transplantation of Autologous Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Chronic Haemorrhagic Stroke. A One-Year Follow Up.
Conclusion: Intraventricular transplantation of BM-MSCs has shown benefits in improving the functional status of post-haemorrhagic stroke patients with no adverse effect. PMID: 29290837 [PubMed] (Source: The Open Neurology Journal)
Source: The Open Neurology Journal - January 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Open Neurol J Source Type: research

Lumbar Spinal Angiolipoma with Expanding Left Neural Foramen Mimicking Lumbar Schwannoma; Case Report and Review of The Literature.
Conclusion: The research shows that a probable diagnosis in such tumor cases could be made by sufficient pre-op scanning before surgical operations and although angiolipoma has been rarely seen in lumbar posterolateral space, it can be seen in lumbar region and mimic schwannoma as producing symptoms and signs of spinal cord and nerve root compression. PMID: 29151988 [PubMed] (Source: The Open Neurology Journal)
Source: The Open Neurology Journal - November 21, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Open Neurol J Source Type: research

Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and the Modelling of Alzheimer's Disease: The Human Brain Outside the Dish.
Authors: Tong G, Izquierdo P, Raashid RA Abstract Background: Neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's Disease (AD) are a global health issue primarily in the elderly. Although AD has been investigated using primary cultures, animal models and post-mortem human brain tissues, there are currently no effective treatments. Summary: With the advent of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) reprogrammed from fully differentiated adult cells such as skin fibroblasts, newer opportunities have arisen to study the pathophysiology of many diseases in more depth. It is envisioned that iPSCs could be used as a powerful ...
Source: The Open Neurology Journal - November 21, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Open Neurol J Source Type: research

Robot-Embodied Neuronal Networks as an Interactive Model of Learning.
Conclusion: These analyses may contribute to optimization of neuronal-computer interfaces for perceptive and locomotive prosthetic applications. Ex vivo networks display critical alterations in signal patterns following treatment with subcytotoxic concentrations of amyloid-beta. Future studies including comparison of tracking accuracy of embodied networks prepared from mice harboring key mutations with those from normal mice, accompanied with exposure to Abeta and/or other neurotoxins, may provide a useful model system for monitoring subtle impairment of neuronal function as well as normal and abnormal development. PMI...
Source: The Open Neurology Journal - November 21, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Open Neurol J Source Type: research

Case Series Using Montelukast in Patients with Memory Loss and Dementia.
Authors: Rozin SI Abstract Cognitive decline and dementia are a growing problem as the population ages. Effective therapies to prevent and treat these problems are limited. Neuro-inflammation has been suggested as a cause of dementia [1]. Montelukast is a leukotriene receptor antagonist used to treat seasonal allergies and asthma. It acts as a cysteinyl leukotriene (CysLT1) receptor antagonist blocking the action of leukotrienes and decreasing inflammation [2]. Animal studies have shown that administering Montelukast improves memory function [3]. This case series of patients in a private Internal Medicine practice ...
Source: The Open Neurology Journal - June 3, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Open Neurol J Source Type: research

"Doctor, I Hear Music": A Brief Review About Musical Hallucinations.
"Doctor, I Hear Music": A Brief Review About Musical Hallucinations. Open Neurol J. 2017;11:11-14 Authors: Alvarez Perez P, Garcia-Antelo MJ, Rubio-Nazabal E Abstract Auditory hallucinations are defined as the abnormal perception of sound in the absence of an external auditory stimulus. Musical hallucinations constitute a complex type of auditory hallucination characterized by perception of melodies, music, or songs. Musical hallucinations are infrequent and have been described in 0.16% of a general hospital population. The auditory hallucinations are popularly associated with psychiatric dis...
Source: The Open Neurology Journal - June 3, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Open Neurol J Source Type: research

Specific Effects of Anti-Hypertensive Treatment in an Older Patient with Dementia.
Authors: Zmudka JA, Sérot JM, Dao S, Sorel C, Macaret AS, Balédent O Abstract Dementia is one of the most common health problems in the world. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. The presence of vascular risk factors such as hypertension (HT) may increase the risk of AD [1,2]. The relation between blood pressure (BP) and dementia has been the subject of numerous epidemiological studies, midlife HT is a risk factor for dementia and AD [3-7] but the association between HT and risk of dementia is lower in the older population [8]. A fair modulation of an antihypertensive treatme...
Source: The Open Neurology Journal - June 3, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Open Neurol J Source Type: research

An Emerging Natural History in the Development, Mechanisms and Worldwide Prevalence of Major Mental Disorders.
Authors: Pediaditakis N Abstract Conciliating recent findings from molecular genetics, evolutionary biology, and clinical observations together point to new understandings regarding the mechanism, development and the persistent worldwide prevalence of major mental disorders (MMDs), which should be considered the result of an evolutionary downside trade off. Temperamental/trait variability, by facilitating choices for individual and group responses, confers robustness flexibility and resilience crucial to success of our species. Extreme temperamental variants, originating evolutionarily from the asocial aspect of hu...
Source: The Open Neurology Journal - February 22, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Open Neurol J Source Type: research

Beta Blockade and Clinical Outcomes in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.
CONCLUSION: Post-admission beta blockade in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients was associated with increased incidence of vasospasm. However, despite the increased occurrence of vasospasm, beta blockers were associated with improved discharge characteristics and fewer deaths. PMID: 28217182 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Open Neurology Journal)
Source: The Open Neurology Journal - February 22, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Open Neurol J Source Type: research

Affection of the Respiratory Muscles in Combined Complex I and IV Deficiency.
CONCLUSION: Mitochondrial myopathy due to a combined complex I+IV defect with predominant affection of the extra-ocular muscles may progress to involvement of the limb-girdle, axial and respiratory muscles resulting in muscular respiratory insufficiency. In patients with mitochondrial myopathy, neuropathy and elevated cerebrospinal fluid protein, immunoglobulins may be beneficial even for respiratory functions. PMID: 28217183 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Open Neurology Journal)
Source: The Open Neurology Journal - February 22, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Open Neurol J Source Type: research

Functional and Genomic Features of Human Genes Mutated in Neuropsychiatric Disorders.
CONCLUSION: These results represent one of the first analyses of enrichment of functional categories of genes known to harbor mutations for NPD. These findings could be useful for a future creation of computational tools for prioritization of novel candidate genes for NPD. PMID: 27990183 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Open Neurology Journal)
Source: The Open Neurology Journal - December 20, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Open Neurol J Source Type: research

The Role of the Iron Stain in Assessing Intracranial Hemorrhage.
Authors: Castellani RJ, Mojica G, Perry G Abstract The timing of the breakdown of red blood cells and organization of hemorrhage has significance in the catabolism of heme and the processing of iron, but also has a practical application in terms of assigning, or attempting to assign, a time course with respect to traumatic events (e.g. contusions and hemorrhages). Attempts to date contusions, however, have generally been unsuccessful by macroscopic observation, whereas the microscopic observations provide broad data but are also anatomically imprecise as a function of time. Intracranial lesions are of particular si...
Source: The Open Neurology Journal - November 21, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Open Neurol J Source Type: research

Molecular Mapping Alzheimer's Disease: MALDI Imaging of Formalin-fixed, Paraffin-embedded Human Hippocampal Tissue.
Authors: Kelley AR, Perry G, Bethea C, Castellani RJ, Bach SB Abstract A method for the molecular mapping of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human hippocampal tissue affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD) is presented. This approach utilizes imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI). The usefulness of this technique in comparing diseased versus nor mal tissue at the molecular level while continuing to maintain topological and morphological integrity is evident in the preliminary findings. The critical correlation of the deparaffination, washing, matrix deposition, and ...
Source: The Open Neurology Journal - November 17, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Open Neurol J Source Type: research

Review: Cav2.3 R-type Voltage-Gated Ca(2+) Channels - Functional Implications in Convulsive and Non-convulsive Seizure Activity.
CONCLUSION: Development of novel Cav2.3 specific modulators can be effective in the pharmacological treatment of epilepsies and other neurological disorders. PMID: 27843503 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Open Neurology Journal)
Source: The Open Neurology Journal - November 17, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Open Neurol J Source Type: research

Relationship Between Patients with Clinical Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder and Mutations in Gjb2 Gene.
CONCLUSION: Mutations in GJB2 gene mutations were found in 7.5% of the patients with ANSD. We found no relationship between patients with clinical auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder and mutations in GJB2 gene (p>0.05). PMID: 27843504 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Open Neurology Journal)
Source: The Open Neurology Journal - November 17, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Open Neurol J Source Type: research

Osteopathic Manual Treatment for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Feasibility Pilot Study.
Authors: Maggiani A, Tremolizzo L, Valentina AD, Mapelli L, Sosio S, Milano V, Bianchi M, Badi F, Lavazza C, Grandini M, Corna G, Prometti P, Lunetta C, Riva N, Ferri A, Lanfranconi F, ME&SLA Study # Abstract BACKGROUND: Current interventions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are focused on supporting quality of life (QoL) and easing pain with a multidisciplinary approach. OBJECTIVE: Primary aim of this pilot work assessed feasibility, safety, tolerability and satisfaction of osteopathic manual treatment (OMT) in 14 ALS outpatients. METHODS: Patients were randomized according to an initial single-b...
Source: The Open Neurology Journal - September 23, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Open Neurol J Source Type: research

Are Temporal Differences in GDNF and NOS Isoform Induction Contributors to Neurodegeneration? A Fluorescence Microscopy-Based Study.
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the protective abilities of GDNF to combat neural destruction are not available rapidly enough, and do not remain at sufficiently high levels long enough to assert its protective effects. (250). PMID: 27651844 [PubMed] (Source: The Open Neurology Journal)
Source: The Open Neurology Journal - September 23, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Open Neurol J Source Type: research

Polio Patients in Northern Italy, a 50 Year Follow-up.
CONCLUSION: Female gender, fatigue and wheelchair dependency were significantly more common in PPS while pain was common in both groups. PMID: 27651845 [PubMed] (Source: The Open Neurology Journal)
Source: The Open Neurology Journal - September 23, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Open Neurol J Source Type: research

Oxidative Stress Induces Senescence in Cultured RPE Cells.
Authors: Aryan N, Betts-Obregon BS, Perry G, Tsin AT Abstract The aim of this research is to determine whether oxidative stress induces cellular senescence in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. Cultured ARPE19 cells were subjected to different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide to induce oxidative stress. Cells were seeded into 24-well plates with hydrogen peroxide added to cell medium and incubated at 37°C + 5% CO2 for a 90-minute period [at 0, 300, 400 and 800 micromolar (MCM) hydrogen peroxide]. The number of viable ARPE19 cells were recorded using the Trypan Blue Dye Exclusion Method and cell senescen...
Source: The Open Neurology Journal - September 23, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Open Neurol J Source Type: research

No Association Between rs7077361 in ITGA8 and Parkinson's Disease in Sweden.
CONCLUSION: Our results do not support the hypothesis of ITGA8 as a candidate gene for Parkinson's disease in Sweden. PMID: 27583043 [PubMed] (Source: The Open Neurology Journal)
Source: The Open Neurology Journal - September 3, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Open Neurol J Source Type: research

Nutritional Alterations Associated with Neurological and Neurosurgical Diseases.
Authors: Dionyssiotis Y, Papachristos A, Petropoulou K, Papathanasiou J, Papagelopoulos P Abstract Neurological and neurosurgical diseases lead to complications producing malnutrition increasing pathology and mortality. In order to avoid complications because of malnutrition or overcome deficiencies in nutrients supplements are often used for these subjects. The physiopathological mechanisms of malnutrition, methods of nutritional assessment and the supplemental support are reviewed in this paper based on the assumption that patients need to receive adequate nutrition to promote optimal recovery, placing nutrition ...
Source: The Open Neurology Journal - August 27, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Open Neurol J Source Type: research

Potential Role of Caffeine in the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease.
In conclusion, caffeine may have a wide range of therapeutic effects which are yet to be explored, and therefore warrants further investigation in randomized clinical trials. PMID: 27563362 [PubMed] (Source: The Open Neurology Journal)
Source: The Open Neurology Journal - August 27, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Open Neurol J Source Type: research

Child Abuse Syndrome (CAS): A Newly Recognized Distinct Entity.
Authors: Parano E, Pappalardo XG, Pavone P, Ruggieri M, Cavallaro S PMID: 27499819 [PubMed] (Source: The Open Neurology Journal)
Source: The Open Neurology Journal - August 10, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Open Neurol J Source Type: research

Cutaneous and Mixed Nerve Silent Period Recordings in Symptomatic Paroxysmal Kinesigenic Dyskinesia.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that the third portion of the MnSP and the CuSP do not correspond to the same physiologic process. These findings suggest that PKD patients have abnormal spinal interneuron integration. PMID: 27330574 [PubMed] (Source: The Open Neurology Journal)
Source: The Open Neurology Journal - June 24, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Open Neurol J Source Type: research

Nationwide Incidence of Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Assessed by Insurance Claim Data in Germany.
CONCLUSION: This is the first population-based epidemiologic study on iNPH in Germany covering a ten year period. PMID: 27330575 [PubMed] (Source: The Open Neurology Journal)
Source: The Open Neurology Journal - June 24, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Open Neurol J Source Type: research

Postural Control of Healthy Elderly Individuals Compared to Elderly Individuals with Stroke Sequelae.
Authors: Alfieri FM, Riberto M, Lopes JA, Filippo TR, Imamura M, Battistella LR Abstract A stroke and aging process can modify the postural control. We aimed to compare the postural control of health elderly individuals to that of individuals with stroke sequelae. This cross-sectional transversal study was made with individuals capable of walking without any assistance and that were considered clinically stable. The study had 18 individuals in the group with stroke sequelae (SG) and 34 in the healthy elderly control group (CG). The participants were evaluated for the timed up and go test (TUG) and force platform. T...
Source: The Open Neurology Journal - April 9, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Open Neurol J Source Type: research

Onset Latency of Motor Evoked Potentials in Motor Cortical Mapping with Neuronavigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.
In conclusion, MEP latencies may be useful in distinguishing the cortical representation areas with the most direct pathways from those pathways with prolonged latencies. However, the potential of latency mapping to identify stressed motor tract connections at the subcortical level will need to be verified in future studies with patients. PMID: 26535068 [PubMed] (Source: The Open Neurology Journal)
Source: The Open Neurology Journal - November 18, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Open Neurol J Source Type: research

The Impact of Deep Brain Stimulation on Sleep and Olfactory Function in Parkinson's Disease.
CONCLUSIONS: In addition to having beneficial effects on motor function and quality of life, bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation improves subjective sleep quality in Parkinson's disease. PMID: 26535069 [PubMed] (Source: The Open Neurology Journal)
Source: The Open Neurology Journal - November 18, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Open Neurol J Source Type: research