Comparison Table: Some Drugs for Postmenopausal Osteoporosis (online only)
Date: July 13, 2020 Issue #:  1602Summary:  View the Comparison Table: Some Drugs for Postmenopausal Osteoporosis (Source: The Medical Letter)
Source: The Medical Letter - July 2, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Source Type: research

Lemborexant (Dayvigo) for Insomnia
Date: June 29, 2020 Issue #:  1601Summary:  The FDA has approved lemborexant (Dayvigo– Eisai), an orexin receptor antagonist, for treatment of sleep-onset and/or sleep-maintenance insomnia in adults. It is the second orexin receptor antagonist to be approved for this indication; suvorexant (Belsomra) was the first. (Source: The Medical Letter)
Source: The Medical Letter - June 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: Ambien Antihistamines Ativan Belsomra bromazepam Dayvigo Doral Doxepin Edluar estazolam Eszopiclone Flurazepam Halcion Imovane insomnia lemborexant Lorazepam Lunesta melatonin Mogadon nitrazepam Oxazepam Quazepa Source Type: research

Drugs for Postmenopausal Osteoporosis
Date: July 13, 2020 Issue #:  1602Summary:  US guidelines recommend pharmacologic therapy for postmenopausal women with a bone density T-score (standard deviation from normal mean values in healthy young women) of -2.5 or below in the lumbar spine, femoral neck, total hip, or distal radius, a T-score between -1.0 and -2.5 and a history of fragility (low-trauma) fracture of the hip or spine, or a T-score between -1.0 and -2.5 and a FRAX 10-year probability of ≥3% for hip fracture or≥20% for major osteoporotic fracture (hip, clinical spine, humerus, distal radius). (Source: The Medical Letter)
Source: The Medical Letter - June 8, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Source Type: research

Melatonin for Insomnia in Children
Date: June 29, 2020 Issue #:  1601Summary:  Over-the-counter products containing melatonin are widely used as sleep aids in children and adults. (Source: The Medical Letter)
Source: The Medical Letter - May 27, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: ADHD ASD Drug Safety insomnia melatonin Pediatrics PedPRM Slenyto Source Type: research

Dapagliflozin (Farxiga) - A New Indication for Heart Failure
Date: June 29, 2020 Issue #:  1601Summary:  The sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor dapagliflozin(Farxiga), which was initially approved by the FDA for treatment of type 2 diabetes and then to reduce the risk of hospitalization for HF in adults who have type 2 diabetes and established cardiovascular disease (CVD) or multiple cardiovascular risk factors, has now been approved for a third indication: to reduce the risk of cardiovascular death and hospitalization for heart failure (HF) in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (with or without type 2 diabetes). It ...
Source: The Medical Letter - May 27, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: dapagliflozin Farxiga Forxiga Heart Failure type 2 diabetes Source Type: research

IV Meloxicam (Anjeso) for Pain
Date: June 29, 2020 Issue #:  1601Summary:  The FDA has approvedAnjeso (Baudax Bio), an IV formulation of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) meloxicam, for once-daily treatment of moderate to severe pain in adults. Oral meloxicam (Mobic, and others), which is only indicated for treatment of chronic pain associated with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis, has been available for 20 years. IV formulations of ketorolac, ibuprofen(Caldolor), and acetaminophen(Ofirmev) are also available for treatment of pain. (Source: The Medical Letter)
Source: The Medical Letter - May 27, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: Acetaminophen Acetaminophen Injection Anjeso Caldolor Ibuprofen Ketorolac Meloxicam Mobic NSAIDs Ofirmev Pain Source Type: research

In Brief: Trijardy XR - A New 3-Drug Combination for Type 2 Diabetes
Date: June 1, 2020 Issue #:  1599Summary:  The FDA has approvedTrijardy XR (Boehringer Ingelheim/Lilly), a fixed-dose combination of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor empagliflozin, the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor linagliptin, and extended-release metformin, for oral treatment of type 2 diabetes in adults. Empagliflozin and linagliptin have been available in a fixed-dose combination asGlyxambi since 2015, and both have been available in 2-drug combinations with extended-release metformin for years (see Table 1). (Source: The Medical Letter)
Source: The Medical Letter - May 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: empagliflozin Glucophage Glumetza Glyxambi insulin Jardiance Jentadueto linagliptin Metformin Synjardy Tradjenta Trajenta Trijardy type 2 diabetes Source Type: research

Drugs for Atopic Dermatitis
Date: June 15, 2020 Issue #:  1600Summary:  Atopic dermatitis (AD; also known as eczema) is frequently associated with other atopic disorders such as allergic rhinitis, asthma, and food allergy. It commonly presents in infancy and early childhood and has a relapsing course, often improving by adolescence, but sometimes persisting into (or first appearing in) adulthood or even old age. (Source: The Medical Letter)
Source: The Medical Letter - May 12, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: abrocitinib Alclometasone Amcinonide ApexiCon apremilast Atopic dermatitis Azasan Azathioprine baricitinib Betamethasone Clobetasol Clobex Clocortolone Cloderm Cordran corticosteroids crisaborole Cutivate Cyclosporine Source Type: research

In Brief: Respiratory Depression with Gabapentinoids
Date: June 1, 2020 Issue #:  1599Summary:  The FDA has required new warnings in the labels of gabapentin (Neurontin, and others) and pregabalin (Lyrica,Lyrica CR, and generics) about the risk of life-threatening or fatal respiratory depression in patients with respiratory risk factors. Respiratory risk factors include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and concurrent use of opioids or other CNS depressants. Elderly patients are also at increased risk. (Source: The Medical Letter)
Source: The Medical Letter - May 12, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: COPD Drug Safety Gabapentin Lyrica Neurontin Opioids Pregabalin Source Type: research

Cetirizine Ophthalmic Solution (Zerviate) for Allergic Conjunctivitis
Date: June 1, 2020 Issue #:  1599Summary:  A 0.24% ophthalmic solution of the second-generation H1-antihistamine cetirizine (Zerviate– Eyevance) is now available by prescription for treatment of ocular itching associated with allergic conjunctivitis in patients ≥2 years old. Oral cetirizine (Zyrtec, and others), which is used for treatment of allergic conjunctivitis and rhinitis, has been available over the counter (OTC) for years. (Source: The Medical Letter)
Source: The Medical Letter - April 29, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: Acular Alaway Alcaftadine Allergic rhinitis Alocril Alomide nedocromil Antihistamines azelastine Bepotastine Bepreve cetirizine Clear Eyes Conjunctivitis corticosteroids Cromolyn Epinastine Ketorolac Ketotifen Lastacaft Source Type: research

Talicia - A 3-Drug Combination for Helicobacter pylori Infection
Date: June 1, 2020 Issue #:  1599Summary:  The FDA has approved a fixed-dose combination of omeprazole, amoxicillin, and rifabutin (Talicia– RedHill) for treatment ofHelicobacter pylori infection in adults.Talicia is the first rifabutin-based product to be approved for this indication. (Source: The Medical Letter)
Source: The Medical Letter - April 29, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: Amoxicillin Antibacterials Bismuth subsalicylate Clarithromycin Helicobacter pylori infection Levofloxacin metronidazole Omeprazole Proton pump inhibitors Rifabutin Talicia Tetracycline Tinidazole Source Type: research

Eptinezumab (Vyepti) for Migraine Prevention
Date: June 1, 2020 Issue #:  1599Summary:  The FDA has approved eptinezumab-jjmr (Vyepti– Lundbeck), a calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) antagonist administered IV once every 3 months, for migraine prevention in adults. It is the fourth monoclonal antibody to be approved for this indication; erenumab (Aimovig), fremanezumab(Ajovy), and galcanezumab (Emgality), which are all given subcutaneously once monthly (fremanezumab can also be given once every 3 months), were approved earlier. (Source: The Medical Letter)
Source: The Medical Letter - April 29, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: Aimovig Ajovy Amitriptyline Atacand Atenolol Beta blockers Bisoprolol Botox Candesartan Corgard Cymbalta Depakote Duloxetine Effexor Emgality Epival eptinezumab erenumab fremanezumab galcanezumab Inderal Lopressor Source Type: research

Drugs for Hypertension
Date: May 18, 2020 Issue #:  1598Summary:  Drugs available for treatment of chronic hypertension and their dosages, adverse effects, and costs are listed in the tables. Treatment of hypertensive urgencies and emergencies is not discussed here. (Source: The Medical Letter)
Source: The Medical Letter - April 29, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: Accupril Accuretic ACE inhibitors Acebutolol Adalat Aldactone aliskiren Altace Amiloride Amlodipine ARBs Atacand Atenolol Avalide Avapro azilsartan benazapril Benicar Beta blockers Betaxolol Bisoprolol Bumetanide Source Type: research

Rimegepant (Nurtec ODT) for Acute Treatment of Migraine
Date: May 4, 2020 Issue #:  1597Summary:  The FDA has approved an orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) formulation of rimegepant (Nurtec ODT– Biohaven), a small-molecule calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist ( " gepant " ), for acute treatment of migraine with or without aura in adults. Rimegepant is the second oral gepant to become available in the US; ubrogepant(Ubrelvy), which is approved for the same indication, was the first. Four parenteral CGRP antagonists, erenumab(Aimovig), fremanezumab(Ajovy), galcanezumab(Emgality), and eptinezumab(Vyepti), are appr...
Source: The Medical Letter - April 14, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: Aimovig Ajovy Emgality eptinezumab erenumab fremanezumab galcanezumab Imitrex Migraine NSAIDs Nurtec ODT rimegepant Sumatriptan Ubrelvy ubrogepant Vyepti Source Type: research

In Brief: Neuropsychiatric Events with Montelukast
Date: May 4, 2020 Issue #:  1597Summary:  The FDA is requiring stronger warnings in the labeling of the leukotriene receptor antagonist montelukast (Singulair, and generics) about the risk of suicidal behavior and other serious neuropsychiatric events associated with its use. (Source: The Medical Letter)
Source: The Medical Letter - April 14, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: Accolate Allergic rhinitis Allergies Antihistamines Asthma corticosteroids Drug Safety Montelukast Singulair Zafirlukast Zileuton Zyflo Source Type: research

Intranasal Diazepam (Valtoco) and Midazolam (Nayzilam) for Seizure Clusters
Date: April 20, 2020 Issue #:  1596Summary:  The FDA has approved nasal spray formulations of the benzodiazepines diazepam (Valtoco— Neurelis) and midazolam (Nayzilam— UCB) for acute treatment of intermittent episodes of frequent seizure activity (seizure clusters). Diazepam rectal gel (Diastat, Diastat AcuDial, and generics) has been used for this indication for many years. (Source: The Medical Letter)
Source: The Medical Letter - April 1, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: Antiepileptics Diastat Diazepam Midazolam Nayzilam Valtoco Source Type: research

Drugs for Osteoarthritis
Date: April 20, 2020 Issue #:  1596Summary:  Many different drugs are used for treatment of osteoarthritis pain, but none of them prevent progression of the disease. Nonpharmacologic approaches including weight management, exercise, tai chi, physical therapy, assistive devices, and total joint arthroplasty can also be used. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) has published new guidelines for the management of osteoarthritis of the hip, hand, and knee. (Source: The Medical Letter)
Source: The Medical Letter - April 1, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: Acetaminophen Advil Aleve Anaprox Aspercreme Aspirin capsaicin Celebrex Celecoxib chondroitin ConZip corticosteroids Cymbalta Cytotec depo-medrol Diclofenac Duloxetine Durela etodolac Fenoprofen Flector Flurbiprof Source Type: research

Some Drugs for COVID-19
Date: April 6, 2020 Issue #:  1595Summary:  The rapid spread and severity of COVID-19 (caused by SARS-CoV-2) have raised some questions about use of various drugs in patients with the disease and whether currently available drugs could be effective in treating it. Definitive answers are lacking, but some recommendations can be made. Updated information on COVID-19 is available from the CDC atwww.cdc. gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/index.html. (Source: The Medical Letter)
Source: The Medical Letter - April 1, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: ACE inhibitors Acetaminophen Actemra Advil Angiotensin receptor blockers antiretrovirals ARBs Azithromycin Chloroquine Coronavirus corticosteroids HIV Hydroxychloroquine Ibuprofen Kaletra Kevzara Lopinavir Motrin NSAIDs Source Type: research

Intravenous Cetirizine (Quzyttir) for Acute Urticaria
Date: April 6, 2020 Issue #:  1595Summary: Quzyttir (TerSera), an IV formulation of the second-generation H1-antihistamine cetirizine, has been approved by the FDA for treatment of acute urticaria in patients≥6 months old. Oral formulations of cetirizine (Zyrtec, and others) have been for sale over the counter for years.Quzyttir is the first parenteral formulation of a second-generation H1-antihistamine to become available in the US; parenteral formulations of two first-generation H1-antihistamines, diphenhydramine (Benadryl, and others) and hydroxyzine (Vistaril, and others), have been available...
Source: The Medical Letter - March 27, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: Aerius Allegra Antihistamines Atarax Benadryl cetirizine Clarinex Claritin Desloratadine diphenhydramine Fexofenadine Hydroxyzine levocetirizine Quzyttir Reactine Urticaria Vistaril Xyzal Zyrtec Source Type: research

Two Drugs for Sickle Cell Disease: Crizanlizumab (Adakveo) and Voxelotor (Oxbryta)
Date: April 6, 2020 Issue #:  1595Summary:  The FDA has approved two new drugs for sickle cell disease: crizanlizumab-tmca (Adakveo– Novartis), an IV P-selectin blocker, and voxelotor (Oxbryta– GBT), an oral hemoglobin S (HbS) polymerization inhibitor. (Source: The Medical Letter)
Source: The Medical Letter - March 27, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: Adakveo crizanlizumab Droxia Endari Hydrea Hydroxyurea L-glutamine Oxbryta sickle cell disease Siklos voxelotor Source Type: research

Table: Safety of Drugs for IBS in Pregnancy and Lactation (online only)
Date: March 23, 2020 Issue #:  1594Summary:  View the Table: Safety of Drugs for IBS in Pregnancy and Lactation (Source: The Medical Letter)
Source: The Medical Letter - March 13, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: Alosetron amitiza Amitriptyline bentyl Celexa Cholestyramine Citalopram Colesevelam Colestid Colestipol Desipramine dicyclomine eluxadoline fluoxetine Hyoscyamine Ibsrela irritable bowel syndrome Levsin linaclotide Li Source Type: research

Addendum: Drospirenone (Slynd) - A New Progestin-Only Oral Contraceptive
Date: March 23, 2020 Issue #:  1594Summary:  In our article onSlynd (Med Lett Drugs Ther 2020; 62:18), the drospirenone-only oral contraceptive, we mentioned that drospirenone has antiandrogenic activity that could improve acne and antimineralocorticoid activity that could cause hyperkalemia. We should have added that concurrent use of drospirenone with other drugs that increase potassium levels, such as the anti-androgen aldosterone receptor antagonist spironolactone (Aldactone, and generics), which is often used off-label for treatment of acne, can increase the risk of hyperkalemia. (Source: The Medical Letter)
Source: The Medical Letter - March 13, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: Acne Aldactone Contraceptives Drospirenone Oral contraceptives Psyllium Slynd Spironolactone Source Type: research

Minocycline Foam (Amzeeq) for Acne
Date: May 4, 2020 Issue #:  1597Summary:  The FDA has approved a 4% aerosol foam formulation of minocycline (Amzeeq– Foamix) for topical treatment of inflammatory lesions of non-nodular moderate to severe acne in patients≥9 years old. It is the first topical tetracycline formulation to be approved for use in patients with acne. Oral minocycline (Minocin,Solodyn, and generics) is (Source: The Medical Letter)
Source: The Medical Letter - March 4, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: Acanya Acne Amzeeq Antibacterials Apprilon Benzaclin Benzamycin Benzoyl peroxide Clindamycin Clindoxy Doryx Doxycycline Erythromycin Minocin Minocycline Onexton periostat Retinoids sarecycline Seysara solodyn Source Type: research

Bempedoic Acid (Nexletol) for Lowering LDL-Cholesterol
Date: April 6, 2020 Issue #:  1595Summary:  The FDA has approved the oral adenosine triphosphate-citrate lyase (ACL) inhibitor bempedoic acid for use alone (Nexletol– Esperion) and in a fixed-dose combination with the cholesterol absorption inhibitor ezetimibe(Nexlizet) as an adjunct to diet and maximally tolerated statin therapy in adults with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) or established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) who require additional lowering of LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C). Bempedoic acid is the first ACL inhibitor to be approved in the US. (Source: The Medical Letter)
Source: The Medical Letter - March 4, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: alirocumab Altoprev Atorvastatin bempedoic acid Cholesterol Cholestyramine Colesevelam Colestid Colestipol Crestor evolocumab Ezetimibe Ezetrol Fenofibrate Flolipid Fluvastatin Gemfibrozil icosapent ethyl Lescol Lipit Source Type: research

Cefiderocol (Fetroja) - A New IV Cephalosporin for Complicated UTI
Date: May 4, 2020 Issue #:  1597Summary:  The FDA has approved cefiderocol (Fetroja– Shionogi), a new IV cephalosporin antibiotic, for treatment of complicated urinary tract infections (UTI) caused by susceptible gram-negative bacteria in adults who have limited or no alternative treatment options. (Source: The Medical Letter)
Source: The Medical Letter - March 4, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: Antibacterials avibactam/ceftazidime Avycaz Azactam Aztreonam cefepime cefiderocol ceftolozane/tazobactam Ceftriaxone Ciprofloxacin Ertapenem Fetroja Fluoroquinolones Imipenem/cilastatin Invanz Levofloxacin Maxipime merop Source Type: research

Addendum: Drug Interaction between Opioids and Oral P2Y12 Platelet Inhibitors
Date: March 9, 2020 Issue #:  1593Summary:  Opioids delay gastric emptying and the absorption of many oral drugs, including the P2Y12 inhibitors clopidogrel (Plavix, and generics), prasugrel (Effient, and generics), and ticagrelor(Brilinta), which are commonly used for initial treatment of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). An article in our February 25, 2019 issue reviewed studies showing that coadministration of opioids delayed and decreased absorption of oral P2Y12 inhibitors and increased platelet reactivity. Recently published clinical outcomes data may add to these concerns. (Source: The Medical Letter)
Source: The Medical Letter - February 28, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: Brilinta cangrelor Clopidogrel Effient Kengreal Morphine Opioids Plavix Prasugrel ticagrelor Source Type: research

Addendum: Brolucizumab (Beovu) for Age-Related Macular Degeneration
Date: March 9, 2020 Issue #:  1593Summary:  We reviewed brolucizumab (Beovu– Novartis) for treatment of neovascular (wet) age-related macular degeneration in our February 10 issue. On February 23, the American Society of Retina Specialists reported that 14 patients who received the drug have developed retinal vasculitis, a potentially vision-threatening complication. (Source: The Medical Letter)
Source: The Medical Letter - February 28, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: Age-related macular degeneration Beovu brolucizumab Drug Safety Source Type: research

Drugs for Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Date: March 23, 2020 Issue #:  1594Summary:  Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disorder characterized by recurrent abdominal pain and altered bowel habits, often accompanied by bloating.IBS is classified according to the predominant bowel symptom as IBS with constipation (IBS-C), IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D), mixed type (IBS-M), or unclassified (IBS-U). Alterations in the microbiome, stress responses, sensory and motor function of the gut, and host genetic factors may be contributing factors. Since the exact cause of IBS is unknown, the goal of treatment is symptom control. (Source: The Medical Letter)
Source: The Medical Letter - February 21, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: Alosetron amitiza Amitriptyline anaspaz Antibacterials Antidepressants bentyl Celexa Cholestyramine Citalopram Colesevelam Colestid Colestipol Constipation Desipramine Diarrhea dicyclomine eluxadoline fluoxetine Hyosc Source Type: research

Peanut Allergen Powder (Palforzia)
Date: March 9, 2020 Issue #:  1593Summary:  The FDA has approved peanut allergen powder-dnfp (Palforzia– Aimmune) for use as oral immunotherapy to mitigate allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, caused by accidental peanut exposure in patients with a confirmed peanut allergy. It is the first drug to be approved in the US for this indication; Viaskin Peanut, an immunotherapy patch, is under FDA review for the same indication. (Source: The Medical Letter)
Source: The Medical Letter - February 4, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: Allergies Anaphylaxis Epinephrine Immunotherapy Palforzia peanut allergen powder Viaskin Peanut Source Type: research

Lasmiditan (Reyvow) and Ubrogepant (Ubrelvy) for Acute Treatment of Migraine
Date: March 9, 2020 Issue #:  1593Summary:  Lasmiditan (Reyvow– Lilly), an oral serotonin (5-HT1F) receptor agonist, and ubrogepant (Ubrelvy– Allergan), an oral calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist, have been approved by the FDA for acute treatment of migraine with or without aura in adults. (Source: The Medical Letter)
Source: The Medical Letter - February 4, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: Aimovig Ajovy Almotriptan Amerge Cafergot Cambia D.H.E. 45 Diclofenac Dihydroergotamine Eletriptan Emgality erenumab fremanezumab Frova Frovatriptan galcanezumab Imitrex lasmiditan Maxalt Migergot Migraine Migrana Source Type: research

Consensi - A Fixed-Dose Combination of Amlodipine and Celecoxib
Date: March 9, 2020 Issue #:  1593Summary: Consensi (Coeptis/Burke), a fixed-dose combination of the calcium channel blocker amlodipine (Norvasc, and others) and the COX-2 selective NSAID celecoxib (Celebrex, and generics), has been approved by the FDA for treatment of patients who have hypertension and osteoarthritis. (Source: The Medical Letter)
Source: The Medical Letter - February 4, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: Amlodipine ARBs Celebrex Celecoxib Consensi Hypertension Norvasc osteoarthritis NSAIDs ACE inhibitors Source Type: research

Drugs for Depression
Date: February 24, 2020 Issue #:  1592Summary:  Complete remission of symptoms is the goal of treatment for major depressive disorder; a partial response is associated with an increased risk of relapse. Improvement in symptoms can occur within the first two weeks of treatment with an antidepressant, but it may take 4-8 weeks to achieve a substantial benefit. Following successful treatment of a first major depressive episode, antidepressant treatment should be continued at the same dose for at least 4-9 months to consolidate recovery. In patients with recurrent depressive episodes, long-term mai...
Source: The Medical Letter - January 17, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: Abilify Amitriptyline Amoxapine Antidepressants Antipsychotics aplenzin Aripiprazole Aventyl brexanolone brexpiprazole Bupropion BuSpar Buspirone Celexa Cipralex Citalopram Cymbalta Deep Brain stimulation Deplin Depre Source Type: research

Brolucizumab (Beovu) for Age-Related Macular Degeneration
Date: February 10, 2020 Issue #:  1591Summary:  Brolucizumab-dbll (Beovu— Novartis), a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor, has been approved by the FDA as an intravitreal injection for treatment of neovascular (wet) age-related macular degeneration (AMD). It is the fourth VEGF inhibitor to be approved in the US for this indication; bevacizumab (Avastin, and others), a VEGF inhibitor FDA-approved for treatment of breast cancer and other malignancies, has been used off-label for this indication for years. (Source: The Medical Letter)
Source: The Medical Letter - January 17, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Source Type: research

Expanded Table: Antiviral Drugs for Influenza (online only)
Date: January 13, 2020 Issue #:  1589Summary:  View the Expanded Table: Antiviral Drugs for Influenza (Source: The Medical Letter)
Source: The Medical Letter - January 13, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: baloxavir marboxil influenza Oseltamivir Peramivir Rapivab Relenza Tamiflu Xofluza Zanamivir Source Type: research

Drospirenone (Slynd) - A New Progestin-Only Oral Contraceptive
Date: February 10, 2020 Issue #:  1591Summary:  The FDA has approved a progestin-only oral contraceptive ( " minipill " ) containing drospirenone (Slynd– Exeltis). All other progestin-only oral contraceptives available in the US contain norethindrone (Camila, and others). Progestin-only oral contraceptives are similar in efficacy to combination oral contraceptives. They are used predominantly by breastfeeding women and by those in whom estrogen is poorly tolerated or contraindicated. Combination oral contraceptives containing drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol have been availabl...
Source: The Medical Letter - January 2, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Source Type: research

Reduction of Cardiovascular Risk with Icosapent Ethyl (Vascepa)
Date: February 10, 2020 Issue #:  1591Summary:  Icosapent ethyl (Vascepa– Amarin), the ethyl ester of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), has been approved by the FDA for use as an adjunct to maximally tolerated statin therapy to reduce the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events in adults with hypertriglyceridemia (≥150 mg/dL) who have either established cardiovascula r disease (CVD) or diabetes and ≥2 additional risk factors for CVD. It is the only omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) product to be approved in the US for this indication. Icosapent ethyl and two other omega-3 PUF...
Source: The Medical Letter - January 2, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Source Type: research

Istradefylline (Nourianz) for Parkinson's Disease
Date: February 10, 2020 Issue #:  1591Summary:  The FDA has approved istradefylline (Nourianz— Kyowa Kirin), an oral adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, for use as an adjunct to carbidopa/levodopa in adults with Parkinson's disease (PD) who experience " off " episodes. Istradefylline is the first adenosine A2A receptor antagonist to be approved in the US; it has been available in Japan since 2013. (Source: The Medical Letter)
Source: The Medical Letter - January 2, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Source Type: research

Drugs for ADHD
Date: January 27, 2020 Issue #:  1590Summary:  Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder that has been diagnosed in up to 10% of school-age children in the US and frequently persists into adulthood. A study in a large Danish cohort found that ADHD was associated with higher mortality rates in children, adolescents, and adults, mainly due to accidents. Pharmacologic treatment of ADHD in children has been reported to decrease the risk of substance abuse in adolescents, and use of ADHD medications in adults has been associated with a reduced risk of s...
Source: The Medical Letter - January 2, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: Adderall Adhansia ADHD Adzenys Amphetamine Aptensio Atomoxetine Biphentin Clonidine Concerta Cotempla daytrana Dexedrine Dexmethylphenidate Dextroamphetamine Dyanavel Evekeo Focalin Foquest Guanfacine Intuniv Jorn Source Type: research

In Brief: Tafamidis (Vyndaqel; Vyndamax) for Transthyretin Amyloid Cardiomyopathy
CONCLUSION —Tafamidis(Vyndaqel; Vyndamax) can decrease the number of hospitalizations and deaths in patients with transthyretin-mediated amyloid cardiomyopathy (ATTR-CM). Taking 20 mg ofVyndaqel daily appears to be as effective as 80 mg and costs much less. Long-term data on the comparative efficacy of the two doses are not available.MA Gertz et al. Diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of transthyretin amyloidosis. J Am Coll Cardiol 2015; 66:2451.FL Ruberg and JL Berk. Transthyretin (TTR) cardiac amyloidosis. Circulation 2012; 126:1286.MS Maurer et al. Tafamidis treatment for patients with transthyretin amyloid cardiomy...
Source: The Medical Letter - December 16, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: inotersen Onpattro patisiran tafamidis Tegsedi Vyndaqel Vyndmax Source Type: research

Darolutamide (Nubeqa) for Prostate Cancer
Date: December 16, 2019 Issue #:  1587Summary:  The FDA has approved darolutamide (Nubeqa– Bayer), an androgen receptor inhibitor, for oral treatment of nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (nmCRPC). Darolutamide is the third androgen receptor inhibitor to be approved for this indication; apalutamide(Erleada) and enzalutamide(Xtandi), which are also approved for use in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), were approved earlier. (Source: The Medical Letter)
Source: The Medical Letter - December 9, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: apalutamide darolutamide enzalutamide Erleada Nubeqa Prostate cancer Xtandi Source Type: research

Annovera - A New Contraceptive Vaginal Ring
Date: December 16, 2019 Issue #:  1587Summary: Annovera (TherapeuticsMD), a contraceptive vaginal ring that releases segesterone acetate, a synthetic progestin, and ethinyl estradiol, was approved by the FDA in 2018 and is now available. It is the first product to contain segesterone and the second vaginal ring to become available in the US;NuvaRing, which delivers etonogestrel and ethinyl estradiol, was the first. UnlikeNuvaRing, which requires use of a new ring each month, theAnnovera ring can be used for an entire year, but it must be removed for one week each month. (Source: The Medical Letter)
Source: The Medical Letter - December 9, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: Annovera Contraceptives Estrogens etonogestrel IUD Nexplanon NuvaRing ombitasvir paritaprevir Progestins Ritonavir segesterone Technivie Viekira Pak Source Type: research

Corticosteroids in Community-Acquired Pneumonia
Date: January 13, 2020 Issue #:  1589Summary:  Recently updated guidelines from the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) address the use of corticosteroids as an adjunct to antimicrobials for treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). (Source: The Medical Letter)
Source: The Medical Letter - December 9, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: corticosteroids Hydrocortisone Methylprednisolone Prednisone Source Type: research

Antiviral Drugs for Influenza
Date: January 13, 2020 Issue #:  1589Summary:  Influenza is generally a self-limited illness, but pneumonia, respiratory failure, and death can occur. FDA-approved antiviral drugs for influenza are listed in Table 2. The neuraminidase inhibitors oseltamivir (Tamiflu, and generics), which is taken orally, and zanamivir(Relenza), which is inhaled, are approved for prophylaxis and treatment of acute uncomplicated influenza. The IV neuraminidase inhibitor peramivir(Rapivab) and the oral polymerase acidic (PA) endonuclease inhibitor baloxavir marboxil(Xofluza) are approved only for treatment. All of...
Source: The Medical Letter - December 9, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: Antiviral drugs baloxavir marboxil FluMist influenza Influenza vaccine Oseltamivir Peramivir Rapivab Relenza Tamiflu Xofluza Zanamivir Source Type: research

Letermovir (Prevymis) for CMV Prophylaxis
Date: December 16, 2019 Issue #:  1587Summary:  The FDA has approved letermovir (Prevymis– Merck), a cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA terminase complex inhibitor, for prophylaxis of CMV infection and disease in CMV-seropositive adult recipients of an allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT). Letermovir is the first CMV DNA terminase complex inhibitor to be approved in the US and the on ly drug specifically indicated for CMV prophylaxis in HCT patients. It is not approved for treatment of CMV infection. (Source: The Medical Letter)
Source: The Medical Letter - November 12, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: Cidofovir Cytovene Foscarnet Foscavir Ganciclovir letermovir Prevymis Valcyte Valganciclovir Source Type: research

Elexacaftor/Tezacaftor/Ivacaftor (Trikafta) for Cystic Fibrosis
Date: January 13, 2020 Issue #:  1589Summary:  The FDA has approvedTrikafta (Vertex), a fixed-dose combination of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulators elexacaftor, tezacaftor, and ivacaftor, for oral treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) in patients≥12 years old who have at least one Phe508del mutation in the CFTR gene. About 90% of patients with CF have at least one copy of the Phe508del (also called F508del) mutation. This is the first approval for elexacaftor. Ivacaftor is available alone(Kalydeco) and in 2-drug combinations with tezacaftor(Symdeco) and lu...
Source: The Medical Letter - November 12, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: Cystic fibrosis elexacaftor ivacaftor Kalydeco lumacaftor Orkambi Symdeco Symdeko tezacaftor Trikafta Source Type: research

Trifarotene (Aklief) - A New Topical Retinoid for Acne
Date: December 16, 2019 Issue #:  1587Summary:  The FDA has approved trifarotene 0.005% cream (Aklief– Galderma) for topical treatment of acne vulgaris in patients ≥9 years old. Trifarotene is the fourth topical retinoid to be approved in the US for treatment of acne; tretinoin (Retin-A, and others), adapalene (Differin, and generics), and tazarotene (Tazorac, and others) have been available by prescription for decades. Adapalene 0.1% gel has been available over the counter since 2016 for treatment of acne in patients ≥12 years old. (Source: The Medical Letter)
Source: The Medical Letter - November 12, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: Acne Adapalene Aklief Atralin Avita Benzoyl peroxide Biacna Clindamycin Differin Epiduo Retin-A Retinoids Stieva Tactupump Tazarotene Tazorac Tretinoin trifarotene Veltin Ziana Source Type: research

Drugs for Psoriatic Arthritis
Date: December 30, 2019 Issue #:  1588Summary:  Psoriatic arthritis is a chronic inflammatory arthropathy associated with psoriasis. A recent review found that about 20% of patients with psoriasis have psoriatic arthritis. Updated guidelines for treatment of psoriatic arthritis have recently been published. (Source: The Medical Letter)
Source: The Medical Letter - November 12, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: Abatacept Adalimumab apremilast Arava Avsola Azulfidine biosimilars Brenzys Celebrex Celecoxib Certolizumab Cholestyramine corticosteroids Cosentyx Cyclosporine Enbrel Erelzi Etanercept Eticovo Gengraf Golimumab H Source Type: research

Drugs for Common Eye Disorders
Date: December 2, 2019 Issue #:  1586Summary:  This issue includes reviews of drugs for glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), bacterial conjunctivitis, and dry eye disease. Allergic conjunctivitis is reviewed in a separate issue. (Source: The Medical Letter)
Source: The Medical Letter - October 25, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: aflibercept Age-related macular degeneration Alphagan Apraclonidine Avastin Azasite Azithromycin Azopt Bacitracin Beovu Besifloxacin Besivance Beta blockers Beta carotene Betagan Betaxolol Betimol Betoptic Bevacizumab Source Type: research

Drugs for Some Common Eye Disorders
Date: December 2, 2019 Issue #:  1586Summary:  This issue includes reviews of drugs for glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), bacterial conjunctivitis, and dry eye disease. Allergic conjunctivitis is reviewed in a separate issue. (Source: The Medical Letter)
Source: The Medical Letter - October 25, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: aflibercept Age-related macular degeneration Alphagan Apraclonidine Avastin Azasite Azithromycin Azopt Bacitracin Beovu Besifloxacin Besivance Beta blockers Beta carotene Betagan Betaxolol Betimol Betoptic Bevacizumab Source Type: research

In Brief: A New Glucagon Injection (Gvoke) for Severe Hypoglycemia
Date: November 18, 2019 Issue #:  1585Summary:  The FDA has approved a new formulation of glucagon (Gvoke– Xeris) for subcutaneous treatment of severe hypoglycemia in patients ≥2 years old with diabetes. Conscious patients with symptoms of hypoglycemia can take oral glucose. Glucagon is usually administered by a caregiver to an unresponsive patient. The new formulation is available in a single-use prefilled syringe(Gvoke PFS) and is expected to become available in a single-use auto-injector(Gvoke HypoPen) in 2020. Unlike previously available injectable glucagon products (Glucagon Emerg...
Source: The Medical Letter - October 15, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: Bagsimi GlucaGen Hypokit glucagon Gvoke type 1 diabetes type 2 diabetes Source Type: research